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Full text of "Seamen's Journal (1933-1935)"

CALIFORNIA M 

STATE LIBRARY 



Call No 




I 



(>*-< 




A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, FOR SEAMEN 



Our Aim : The Brotherhood of the Sea 



Our Motto : Justice by Organization 



VOL. XLVII, No. 1 



SAN FRANCISCO, JANUARY 1, 1933 



WHOLE NO. 2028 



FROM STONE TO MACHINE AGE 




ANKIND has laboriously and hesitatingly 
groped its way from the stone age to the 
machine age. That life in the machine age 
has its advantages over the struggle for 
existence in the stone age, no one will 
deny. The events of the last few years, however, 
have produced doubts and some of the doubters 
have provided us with thought provoking ques- 
tions regarding the alleged superiority of our pres- 
ent civilization. 

That our machine civilization has proved any- 
thing but a boon to vast masses of people, and 
that the dark past could boast much that the en- 
lightened present might well copy with advantage, 
were points stressed by Dr. Edward Devine, of 
the Federal Council of Churches, in the course of 
a recent address. 

Decrying what he described as present-day 
"cynicism and brutality," Dr. Devine said that 
our economic system "has even failed to give its 
workers the security which feudalism once gave 
its serfs, so that a new terror has come into the 
world." 

"Every generation has its own overshadowing 
dread — pestilence, famine, invasion," he declared. 
"Into the twentieth century has come the dread 
terror of unemployment, which hangs like a pall 
over the homes of the toiling masses." 

Morrison Davidson, in his "Old Order and the 
New" divided the course of social progress into 



five eras of "doms" — savagedom, slavedom, serf- 
dom, wagedom, and — yet to be realized — freedom. 

A feature of the first three of these was a 
full and sufficient supply, in accordance with the 
economic conditions and possibilities of the times, 
of the human essentials — food, shelter, and cloth- 
ing. 

For the production of these in the dark ages 
of savagedom, slavedom, and serfdom only lim- 
ited means were available. With machinery, en- 
tirely unknown and tools and implements of the 
most primitive description mankind generally, 
nevertheless, was able to procure the necessities 
of life for all, save in times of famine. 

The coming of modern Capitalism, however, 
has brought with it an extraordinary paradox, the 
paradox of millions of civilized men, with their 
powers of wealth production multiplied to a de- 
gree that staggers the imagination to try to con- 
ceive, living a life of material want worse in 
many respects than that of their forefathers of 
the dark days of feudalism. 

"I would rather be a savage on a South Sea 
Island than a dweller in the East End of Lon- 
don," declared Professor Huxley, expressing his 
amazement at the lot of vast numbers of work- 
ers living in the greatest city on earth, surrounded 
by wealth beyond the dreams of Midas. 

That the lot of the untutored savage should be 
happier than that of countless men born unto the 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL January, 1933 



blessings of civilization, as Huxley declares, makes 
the wonder grow that an established order on such 
a basis should manage to continue. There are 
signs of an awakening in many directions, how- 
ever, not the least hopeful of which is that in- 
dicated by Dr. Devine's remark, quoted above. 

No one denies that the giant strides made by 
the utilization of machinery are strides which 
have brought to the community the undoubted 
productive richness of the twentieth century. We 
could not enjoy one small fraction of the things 
which feed, clothe and house our people, or 
which beautify our lives, were not millions of 
machines — tributes to the genius which floods the 
world — engaged in the ceaseless grind which satis- 
fies the wants of mankind. 

Any student of industrial history will know that 
when man's inventive genius was given impetus in 
the early days of the industrial revolution by the 
demand for machinery for use in the factories 
which were then supplanting home handicrafts, 
the working population saw, or thought it saw, its 
existence menaced by the machine. It hunted the 
inventors out of the towns and broke up the 
machinery. 

Yet it is strange that the very fear which struck 
terror into the hearts of those who broke ma- 
chines in earlier centuries is finding justification 
these days, not when the machine is on the thresh- 
old of a new era, but when its common use and 
admitted excellence have made it indispensable. 

There may be international problems of great 
magnitude facing the nations in armaments, gold 
and exchange, territorial boundaries, and huge 
debts, but one problem which touches intimately 
the opportunity of work people to find work by 
which to live, is wrapped up in the machine. 

Shall we put a check on invention ? Never ! 
Shall we treat it as an enemy ? Never ! Shall we 
restrict its productiveness? Once again, never! 
It must be the servant and friend of mankind. 

Whose job is it to make the machine a useful 
servant and benefactor of all mankind instead of 
a thoughtless and unmerciful job destroyer? 

Without doubt, it is the task of the Unions! 
The Unions must intensify their efforts to educate 
the public mind on the machine problem. The 
Unions, and no one else, must force a shorter 
workday and a five day working week. In render- 
ing this great public service, the Unions will write 
free insurance policies to all — guaranteeing that 
constantly increasing production shall, like elec- 



tricity and wireless inventions, be a boon and a 
blessing to the age. 



AMERICA'S POPULATION 



In the population of the United States accord- 
ing to the Census of April 1, 1930, there were 
108,864,207 white persons, 11,891,143 negroes, 
1,422,533 Mexicans, 332,397 Indians, 74,954 Chi- 
nese, 138,834 Japanese, and 45,208 Filipinos. Of 
the white population, 13,366,407, or 12.3 per cent, 
were foreign born ; of the negroes 98,620, or 
eight-tenths of 1 per cent; of the Mexicans 616,- 
998, or 43.4 per cent ; of the Indians 3,S?2, or 
1.1 per cent; of the Chinese 44,086, or 58.8 per 
cent; of the Japanese 70,477, or 50.8 per cent; 
of the Filipinos 182, or four-tenths of 1 per cent, 
practically all of the Filipinos having been born 
in the Philippine Islands. The Census Bureau, in 
this compilation, classifies the Philippine Islands 
as part of the United States. 

While the number of foreign-born negroes in 
the United States increased from 73,803 in 1920, 
to 98,620 in 1930, the percentage foreign born in 
the negro population, as well as in the Indian 
population, remained very low. The percentage 
foreign born for the Japanese decreased from 73.3 
to 50.8 and for the Chinese, from 69.9 to 58.8, 
between 1920 and 1930. 

Of the 95,497,800 native white persons in the 
United States on April 1, 1930, 73.4 per cent were 
of native parentage; of the 11,792,523 native 
negroes, 99.3 per cent ; of the 805,535 native Mex- 
icans, 32.8 per cent ; of the 30,868 native Chi- 
nese, 14.0 per cent; and of the 68,357 native Jap- 
anese, 1.2 per cent were of native parentage. The 
1930 returns for these elements of the population 
classified by parentage are summarized in Table 2 
with comparative figures for 1920. 

Of the 98,620 foreign-born negroes in the 
United States on April 1, 1930, 74,500 were born 
in the West Indies; 5,826 in Canada and New- 
foundland; 4,632 in Europe; forty-four in Asia; 
and 6,751 in Africa, Australia, the Azores, and 
other Atlantic and Pacific islands. Practically all 
of the foreign-born Mexicans returned in 1930 
were born in Mexico. Of the 3,552 foreign-born 
Indians, 1,969 were born in Canada and 1,420 in 
Mexico. Practically all of the foreign-born Chi- 
nese were born in China and practically all of 
the foreign-born Japanese in Japan. 



January, 1933 



183287T HE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



THE SALVAGE INDUSTRY 



GROUP INSURANCE 

(By Andrew Furuseth) 



One of the most singular pleas ever put forth 
was advanced recently by T. A. Scott, president 
of the Merritt Chapman & Scott Corporation, of 
New York, who complained of "interference" by 
the Coast Guard with the activities of his com- 
pany. His objection to the salvage work of the 
Coast Guard is that it does not make a charge 
for its services, whereas the Merritt Chapman 
& Scott concern is organized for profit. Of 
course most men resent any meddling with their 
pursuit of profit, but in this case the objection is 
tactless and utterly devoid of merit. One of the 
most important functions of the Coast Guard is 
the safeguarding of life and property, and there 
is as much sense in objecting to the salving of 
property because it saves money to marine under- 
writers, as there would be to the saving of life 
because it forbears the payment of death claims 
by life insurance companies. However, the milk 
in the cocoanut is to be found in that part of 
Mr. Scott's testimony in which he said that "as 
50 per cent of the ultimate risk of loss in Ameri- 
can vessels and cargoes is borne by insurance 
companies outside .the United States, free sal- 
vage services react to the benefit of these foreign 
firms." In other words, let seamen and floating 
property be exposed to peril until the paid sal- 
vors arrive on the scene, lest foreign reinsurers 
be spared salvage charges. To appreciate fully 
the true sense of the above, one must bear in 
mind that local underwriters are understood to 
be financially interested in the enterprise whose 
president complains of "interference" by a 
Federal agency, not to mention the fact that the 
navigation laws give it a monopoly of salvage 
work in American waters, which it has contrived 
to extend to Canada. — Nauticus. 



NITRATE FROM SEA WATER 



After years of experimentation, a young engi- 
neer of the Norwegian Hydroelectric Nitrogen 
Corporation has devised a method of obtaining 
nitrate of soda from sea water, says the Oslo 
correspondent of the London Times. 

The method has been patented in all countries, 
and the production on an experimental scale will 
shortly be commenced. It is expected that, by 
the new process, the company will be able to sell 
nitrate at one-half the present price. 



Since my arrival in Washington I have re- 
ceived information that several of the New York 
shipping companies had sometime ago intro- 
duced a system of group insurance. By this 
group insurance system the shipowners obtain 
tremendous advantage through transferring their 
obligations under the Jones Act from themselves 
to the seamen through these insurance policies, 
the cost of which is about equal to the yearly 
dues payable to the union. These payments to 
the insurance companies are made by the owners 
and subtracted from the seamen's wages. Of 
course, the men went into it with the idea that 
if they did not, they would be discharged with 
no chance of being employed in the company. 
They joined the insurance and then they found 
that anyone who had an insurance policy that 
was not too old had the preference in shipping, 
and it thus works out that they do not only lose 
the right to sue but they pay for their jobs. 

I have forwarded these facts to the Commis- 
sioner of Navigation and to the Steamboat In- 
spection Service, with request that they be studied 
and that action be taken to stop what is to me, 
and now appears to the men to be, plainly an 
effort to get from under the Jones Act and to 
hold the men in the kind of bondage similar to- 
that we escaped by the passage of the Seamen's 
Act. I have some hopes of being able to con- 
vince the Commissioner of Navigation and the 
Supervising Inspector General of the Inspection 
Service, that the whole thing is an effort to get 
from under the law, which gives the seamen a 
right to sue for damages, and the other law for- 
bidding either direct or indirect payment to any- 
body for the obtaining of employment. 

Of course, if the men had remained with the 
union, they would long ago have understood what 
this group insurance business means. It would 
then have been reported upon long ago and 
might have been stopped. It has now been going 
on for sometime, apparently without much pro- 
test, and the question now is, whether it can be 
stopped. I hope and trust that it can be. Being 
.the equivalent to the dues and payment results in 
losing their rights, no wonder that some of them; 
think the dues are too high and are urging that 
the dues be reduced. 



When one door shuts another opens. 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January. 1933 



NEWS AND COMMENT 

Concerning Seamen the World Over 



It is reported that the Swedish shipowners have 
given notice terminating on January 31, all their 
collective agreements with the seamen's union. 

* * * 

The executive committee of the British Na- 
tional Union of Seamen has unanimously decided 
to reaffiliate its membership to the International 
Transport Workers' Federation, the Seamen's 
Section of which will henceforth comprise virtu- 
ally all the big seamen's organizations in the 

world. 

* * * 

Members of the Transatlantic Passenger Con- 
ference now make a charge of ten cents to all 
visitors to their ships while in New York, for 
the benefit of unemployed seamen. The money 
thus obtained will be divided equally between sea- 
men of the United States and those of the nations 
whose flag the ship flies. 

% ^ * 

Complete revision of the French regulations in 
regard to the protection of merchant ships against 
fire hazards has been undertaken by the Ministry 
of Mercantile Marine. The new regulations will 
include all the provisions of the International 
Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea. A spe- 
cial committee is now making a study of the 
manufacture of non-inflammable paints and var- 
nishes for use in ships. 

* * * 

The International Shipping Federation some 
time ago appointed a committee to inquire into 
the accommodations and living conditions on board 
cargo ships. This committee has now published its 
report. It emphasizes in particular the necessity 
of better ventilation and better lighting arrange- 
ments in the sleeping quarters. In addition an 
increase in the cubic space allowed per man is 
recommended. The report also deals with the 
food provided on board, but particulars are not 

yet available. 

* * * 

In spite of the unsettled conditions prevailing 
in Finland, as a result more particularly of the 
activities of the "Lappo" movement directed 
largely against the industrial labor movement, the 
latter is nevertheless steadily advancing. During 
the first three quarters of this year the Finnish 
Seamen's Union (affiliated to the I. T. F.) reg- 



istered 536 new members. In the long sea trade 
the majority of the crews, deck and engine room, 
are 100 per cent organized. This is encouraging 
for a country where the working cla.ss is engaged 
in a grim struggle against reaction. 

;•: * ;jc 

In connection with the destruction by fire of 
the French steamship Georges Philip par, the sea- 
men's union at Marseilles requested the author- 
ities to grant the crew concerned unemployment 
benefit on the basi> of their wages plus sub- 
sistence allowance. In a circular sent out by the 
Ministry concerned, this demand has been rec- 
ognized as legitimate, but it is added that this 
view has only the value of an administrative in- 
terpretation and consequently is not binding upon 
courts before which the cases in question may 

come for trial. 

* * * 

It will be remembered that owing to the de- 
termined resistance the last attack upon the wages 
of its crews of the German deep-sea fishing fleet 
was staved off. Now the owners are returning 
to the attack. They propose to reduce the pay 
of able seamen to 90 marks a month, and threaten 
to lay up 40 per cent of the fishing fleet if their 
terms are not accepted. The workers regarded 
this as mere bluff and took no account of it in 
negotiations which recently took place. As a dead- 
lock was reached, the negotiations had to be 
broken off, and the possibility of a strike must 
now be reckoned with. 

* * * 

Lord Kylsant, British shipping magnate, has 
completed his year in jail for making a false state- 
ment in a publicly circulated document respecting 
the securities of the company of which he was 
the head. His offense was one of omission rather 
than of commission. In the offending circular it 
was not made clear that certain dividends were 
paid from surplus rather than current earnings. 
But the British law is very strict with respect to 
stocks and bonds offered to the public. Any varia- 
tion from the truth is a criminal offense. It is 
a pity American law does not equally well safe- 
guard the interests of the investing public. 

A scheme to re-commission Norwegian ships 
laid up and create employment for Norwegian 
seamen is proposed by Captain Norbom of the 
Sjokyndiges Forbund, Oslo. He suggests that 
every man reemployed in ships returning to serv- 
ice receive 70 per cent of his wages the first 



January, 19~3 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



voyage. If the voyage proves profitable, another 
20 per cent is to be paid to the crew, and the re- 
maining 10 per cent is to go to a seamen's fund, 
which will also receive 10 per cent from every 
seaman employed on full pay. Thus no seaman 
would receive more than 90 per cent of his pay 
and if the voyage resulted in a loss, the 70 per 
cent base wage paid to the crew would be in- 
creased by the 10 per cent taken from the sea- 
men's fund. Also, by contributing 10 per cent 
of vessels' net profits to an owner's fund, vessels 
operated at a loss could be subsidized from such 
a fund. 

* * * 

Capt. William Nicholson, head of the Nichol- 
son-Erie-Dover Transportation Company, was 
placed under arrest with six others at Detroit 
December 6, following the public prosecutor's 
investigation into an alleged arson plot connected 
with the destruction of two lake boats on which 
$285,000 of insurance was collected. All the pris- 
oners, except Captain Nicholson, are reported to 
have confessed. Two of them admitted setting 
fire to the steamboats Dover and Keystone last 
June. Both ships were destroyed. A third, the 
Enterprise, was damaged at Ecorse. Besides 
Captain Nicholson, those under arrest include his 
nephew, Charles Nicholson, Port Huron ; Peter 
Mendis, River Rouge; Reuben Merrithews, De- 
troit ; Sam Palazzolo, Wyandotte ; Silvereno 
Darin, River Rouge; and Harold Hartway, Lin- 
coln Park. Mendis and Merrithews confessed 
to setting the two ships on fire. 

* * * 

A recent incident has again demonstrated the 
wisdom of having adequate medical supplies on 
board. The American steamship Exarch, east- 
bound to Malta, picked up a message from a 
British steamer bound from New Orleans to the 
United Kingdom. An oiler of the British vessel 
had been seriously injured, his arm caught in 
the machinery and badly mangled. Courses were 
altered and the vessels drew together. The sea 
was rough and a gale blowing when a boat put 
off* from the Exarch and the doctor boarded the 
British vessel. Temporary relief administered, 
the injured man was lowered in a boatswain's 
chair and taken aboard the Exarch, where it was 
found necessary to amputate the arm in order to 
save his life. The operation over, the man im- 
proved rapidly and on arrival at Gibraltar was 
able to go ashore. The other vessel had prac- 



tically no medical supplies, not even bandages. 
The belt of a raincoat had been used as a tourni- 
quet on the man's arm. 

* *• * 
The Canadian Wreck Commissioner has sug- 
gested the calling of a conference of Dominion 
authorities and shipowners operating on the Great 
Lakes, with a view to devising means for the 
abolition of the "pernicious" methods which ob- 
tain in regard to the stowing and trimming of 
cargoes and the carriage of deck loads in those 
waters. The recommendation arose out of the 
inquiry into the loss of the John J. Boland, Junr., 
1,939 tons gross. She loaded 3,115 tons of coal 
under deck and before it was trimmed and the 
hatches secured, 400 tons were dumped on the 
deck. No shifting boards were provided and the 
excuse alleged for the faulty loading was that 
another vessel was waiting for the berth. On the 
voyage from Eric to Hamilton a heavy sea was 
shipped; the cargo shifted, and the ship took a 
heavy list. When another sea came on board she 
rolled bottom up and foundered. The court held 
that the master should have tied up or anchored 
until the ship was properly prepared for her voy- 
age, and his certificate was suspended for two 
and one-half months. It is hoped that the con- 
ference will result in the revision of existing 
methods of dealing with such cargoes and the 
adoption of adequate precautions. They are cer- 
tainly needed. 



STATE MOTORBOAT INSPECTION 



The Industrial Accident Commission of Cali- 
fornia has made effective the Motor Boat Safety, 
Orders, in compliance with the law passed by 
the California Legislature in "[931. Prior to the 
adoption of these orders, committees in San 
Francisco and in Los Angeles prepared tentative 
standards, which were presented to public hear- 
ings and again referred to the committees. The 
enforcement has been under way but a short time, 
and the inspections already made indicate the 
necessity of the orders. Many of the operators 
have cooperated to the maximum in having their 
boats put into safe condition, although, unfortu- 
nately, there are some who are not inclined to do 
so. The Commission will inspect boats of less 
than fifteen tons. The United States government 
supervises the craft of fifteen tons and over. Pas- 
sengers will thus have the assurance of reasonable 
protection. 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January, 1933 



Seamen's Journal 

Established in 1887 
Published on the first day of each month at 525 
Market Street, San Francisco, by and under the di- 
rection of the International Seamen's Union of 
America. 

PAUL SCHARRENBERG, Editor 



D® 



Entered at the San Francisoo Postofhce as second- 
class matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate 
of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of Oc- 
tober 3, 1917, authorized September 7, 1918. 

Subscription price $1.00 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 



NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will be 
published, provided they are of general interest, 
brief, legible, written on one side only of the paper, 
and accompanied by the writer's own name and ad- 
dress. The JOURNAL is not responsible for the ex- 
pressions of correspondents, nor for the return of 
manuscripts. 



January 1, 1933 



STILL MORE WAGE CUTTING! 



In 1921 the organized shipowners of Amer- 
ica with the aid of the United States Govern- 
ment, which was then the leading shipowner, 
started wage cutting. The seamen resisted but 
were vanquished because they could not win in 
a struggle where the private shipowners and the 
government were allies. At the termination of 
that memorable struggle, which involved a wage 
reduction of approximately 20 per cent, the ship- 
owners promised the seamen a "square deal'' for 
the future. 

By this time, union as well as non-union sea- 
men have learned to know something about the 
real meaning of the promised square deal. ( hie 
wage cut has followed another and at this time 
notice is being served in San Francisco that the 
new year will begin with still another wage re- 
duction. Including the latest slash, seamen's 
wages have been reduced 50 per cent from the 
high point in 1921. No other group of workers 
has been treated so shabbily and unfairly as the 
seamen. The organized longshoremen, for in- 
stance, have only had a 16 per cent reduction 
altogether. Comparative figures for the unorgan- 
ized white collar office staff and the high power 
executives are not available, but it is known that 
none have had to submit to a 50 per cent 
reduction. 

Of course, it is easy to understand why the 



seamen have been ground under the cruel iron 
heel. The seamen permitted a few self-proclaimed 
radicals to spread dissension and disruption 
among the rank and file. These so-called radical 
"leaders" have long since departed, but the rank 
and file are still paying the price. 

The longshoremen squelched the manipula- 
tions of the disrupters. They maintained their 
union and the power to resist wage reductions. 
That explains the reason for the moderate 16 
per cent cut. The seamen, at least too many of 
them, first listened with rapture to the red world 
saviors who were going to put the shipowners into 
overalls. When that promise did not materialize, 
the disappointed dupes shifted their hope and 
faith to the shipowners who promised the "square 
deal." 

Is it not high time to return to fundamentals 
and to sane thinking? Have not the seamen paid 
enough to learn the bitter lesson that there is no 
hope for maintenance and improvement in wages 
and working conditions except through collective 
self help — through old-fashioned unionism? 



THE FORGOTTEN' MAN 



Nobody better typifies the forgotten man than does 
the American seafarer; and it is to be hoped that the 
new deal will give to the master and seamen some of 
the advantages and privileges which have been 
enjoyed by their more fortunate brethren ashore for 
years. 

The foregoing is a gem from the Neptune /-".-/ 
of New York. The JOURNAL is tempted to join 
in the fervent hope that the "new deal" will give 
to seamen advantages and privileges long enjoyed 
by the workers ashore. 

However, somewhat sad and bitter experience 
has taught us that nothing worth while will ever 
be obtained by seamen through hoping <>r wishing ! 

Every important advance in the seamen's lite, 
every increase in wages and every improvement 
in working conditions has come through sustained 
collective effort — through organization ! 

Until the seamen have built up and perfected 
their Union so as to command union recognition 
and thus assure a respectful hearing for the 
redress of grievances, they (the seamen | will 
remain more or less "forgotten men." 

Admittedly, it is a slow and painful procejti to 
build up a union during times like the present, 
when unemployment and privation is every where 
in evidence. But there is no other way. 



January, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



John Philpot Curran, the Irish orator, said that 
eternal vigilance is the price of liberty. The "for- 
gotten man" forgot about the necessity of eternal 
vigilance. He forgot his obligation to his union. 
If he had been alert, if he had been mindful of 
his duty to himself and to his fellow men, he 
would not have been forgotten. 

If it be true that the American seafarer typifies 
the "forgotten man," then he has himself to blame. 
Workers on shore and sea are never forgotten 
when they are thoroughly organized for mutual 
self help ! 



the American taxpayer assume the cost of the 
war. 



ANOTHER SCRAP OF PAPER 



When, during the late lamentable war, a foolish 
German diplomat referred to a certain important 
document duly signed by his Government as a 
mere scrap of paper there was hell to pay all over 
the "Allied" world. But the nation that then pro- 
tested most vociferously about such talk has now 
officially decided to copy the German diplomat. 

The French Republic has blandly refused to 
honor her I. O. U. notes and declined to pay the 
December installment of the money borrowed 
from the United States Government. 

A bankrupt nation or a nation unable to pay 
may be entitled to sympathy and consideration. 
But a nation, like France, seated arrogantly on 
the second largest pile of gold in the world, and 
refusing to meet an obligation solemnly incurred 
at a time when its national existence was at stake, 
is entitled to nothing but excoriation. 

It is well and proper to inquire just what is this 
terrific burden which the French taxpayers are no 
longer able to shoulder? 

The installment due amounts to $19,261,432, 
which is two and one-half per cent of the total 
expenditures of the French Government. At the 
same time, while France cries to Heaven that she 
cannot pay this debt, she spends on her military 
establishment 22.5 per cent of her total expendi- 
ture and has, in addition, millions to loan to her 
satellites in Central Europe. Those facts speak 
for themselves. 

It is not that France cannot pay ; it is not even 
that it would seriously inconvenience her to pay. 
It is simply that she does not want to pay ; that 
having been unable to extract the cash from our 
late joint enemy, France is determined to make 



RECOGNITION OF RUSSIA 



The convention of the American Federation of 
Labor has again declared its opposition to recogni- 
tion of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics by 
the United States of America. 

Time alone will tell if there if merit in this 
stubborn policy of opposition to the bitter end. In 
the meantime, well founded reports from Wash- 
ington indicate that one of the first major actions 
of the new Roosevelt administration will be rec- 
ognition of the Russian government and the 
establishment of diplomatic relationships with 
that country. 

Senator Borah, chairman of the foreign rela- 
tions committee, long has championed that action. 
Now he is joined by Senator Swanson of Vir- 
ginia, who will become chairman after March 4, 
and Senator Thomas J. Walsh of Montana, rank- 
ing Democratic member. 

A recent poll of the committee membership 
showed a clear majority in favor of recognition. 

In a published statement, Senator Walsh, speak- 
ing for the recognition, said: 

Commercial advantages of incalculable value will 
ensue to the United States by recognition of Rus- 
sia. I have no doubt, but, quite aside from that, 
recognition should in my judgment be accorded. I can 
recall no instance in our history in which recognition 
has been denied to a government that has been in 
existence for even a small fraction of the period of 
the existence of the Russian government. 

That is no overstatement of the fact. Every 
European government long ago recognized Russia 
and has since been carrying on diplomatic rela- 
tions with her. Why America should continue to 
stand aloof long has been somewhat of a mystery. 



Capital is not starving — reports to the contrary 
notwithstanding ! Weighted average of dividends 
of 600 common stocks now is $1.22, which indi- 
cates that some corporations continue to earn 
dividends and others continued to draw on re- 
serves. But for labor there are no reserves. 



Rear Admiral Tawresey, who contributed the 
article in the last issue of the Journal under the 
caption "Safety of Life at Sea," informs us that 
his manuscript contained an error as follows : 
On page 291, second column, line 25, the word 
"our" should be changed to read "her." 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



Januan , 1933 



SHIP SUBSIDIES ATTACKED 



Our London contemporary, Syren and Ship- 
pine/, is convinced that an important step forward 
in the direction of bringing order out of chaos in 
international trade has been made by the commit- 
tee of shipowners representing ten maritime na- 
tions which met in Paris recently under the presi- 
dency of Dr. Cuno, of the Hamburg-American 
Line. The group had been called together by the 
International Chamber of Commerce, and the 
resolution they adopted has been approved by 
that body and will in due course be placed before 
the World Economic Conference. The resolution 
in point of fact merely reiterates what has been 
said at repeated intervals by leading British ship- 
owners, namely, that the removal of barriers to 
the international exchange of goods and services 
is an essential factor in the rehabilitation of the 
shipping industry ; that something must be done 
to reduce the enormous excess of tonnage in rela- 
tion to the demand, whether by a comprehensive 
process of demolition or by laying-up : but that 
all such efforts will be stultified if the principle of 
state subsidies to shipping continues to be fol- 
lowed. "The shipping industry," says the reso- 
lution, "therefore looks to the nations by mutual 
agreement to put a stop to such artificial meas- 
ures of assistance.'' 

It remains to be seen what the International 
Chamber of Commerce and the World Economic 
Conference can do for the unsubsidized ship oper- 
ators. The payment of a ship subsidy, like the 
regulation of immigration, has always been re- 
garded as the purely domestic affair of each 
nation. 

However, there are pending other more for- 
midable attacks upon those who collect ship sub- 
sidies in any form from the United States treas- 
ury. 

The House of Representatives, by resolution in 
the previous session of Congress, instructed the 
Committee on Post Offices and Post Roads to 
investigate ocean mail contracts, together with 
other phases of postal administration. The Com- 
mittee held hearings in Washington and then in 
Chicago. 

Chairman Kelly of the Committee has intimated 
that "it seems likely that proposals will be made 
by the Committee to scale down payments now 
permitted under the law." To this cryptic state- 
ment Mr. Kelly added that "in some cases, tre- 



mendous sums are paid for the carriage of a small 
quantity of mail for the purpose of providing a 
merchant marine subsidy rather than for an ad- 
vance of the postal service." 

To put the case in a nutshell, there is plenty of 
grief ahead for the recipients of ship subsidies 
And yet, the shipping companies that have been 
the principal beneficiaries of existing susbidy 
schemes have gone out of their way to antagonize 
the only group that could be of service to them 
when the real fight is on. Seamen's wages on sub- 
sidized ships have been cut and slashed so often 
that one begins to wonder what is to become of 
the favorite old subsidy argument, to wit, that 
subsidies are necessary for American ships be- 
cause of the "higher" wages paid to American 
seamen ! 

Another interesting feature of the ship subsidy 
controversy is the statistical fact, published in 
Merchant Marine Statistics for 1932, that 96,- 
084 alien seamen were shipped during the last 
fiscal year on American steamers having ocean 
mail contracts. This at a time when many thou- 
sands of native and naturalized American seamen 
are direly in need of unemployment relief ! 



MERCHANT MARINE STATISTICS 



The annual publication of the booklet under the 
above caption has been continued — regardless of 
depression. The booklet, among other things, con- 
tains statistics on the growth and decline in the 
types of vessels and the changes in trade routes 
from 1787 to 1932. Perhaps no one fact is more 
graphically illustrated than the rapid rise and fall 
of the number of sailing craft and the increase 
in the number of steam vessels, the latter class 
now slowly diminishing and motor vessels gradu- 
ally taking its place. 

At the beginning of Washington's administra- 
tion there were less than a half million tons of 
merchant sailing shipping under the American 
flag. In 1807, when Robert Eulton's Clermont 
made its memorable appearance on the Hudson, 
these figures had increased to one and a quarter 
million tons and at the breaking out of the war 
with Mexico in 1846-47 they were six times 
larger than the steam tonnage, or almost two 
and a half million tons. 

In the middle year of the '50s the clipper ship 
was at its best and the American flag was in 
every important port in the world. In this year 



January, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



9 



there were almost four and a half million tons 
sailing and more than three quarters of a million 
tons steam afloat. By the close of the Civil War 
the sailing tonnage started to decline and the 
steam tonnage was slowly increasing. 

In 1893 the first commercial motor vessels made 
their appearance, the Aztec and the Richard K. 
Fox. Motor vessels rapidly increased in number, 
there being over 12,000 at present, but as they are 
small craft they do not materially increase the 
total tonnage. 

At the beginning of the World War the sailing- 
tonnage was less than one and a quarter million 
tons, about what it was in 1807, but the steam 
tonnage had increased to more than seven million 
tons. 

Other facts in the 1932 edition of " Merchant 
Marine Statistics," give data on American sea- 
men shipped and reshipped, foreign water-borne 
commerce, tonnage tax statistics, shipbuilding con- 
struction in the United States, undocumented 
American tonnage and world tonnage statistics. 

The data on seamen shipped and reshipped 
shows that the percentage of American seamen 
in the total number of seamen shipped for serv- 
ice on American ships has increased in one year 
from 61.8 per cent to 65 per cent. Among the 
foreigners, the British born form the largest 
single group. Among Asiatics the Chinese had 
10,605, Filipinos 6,266 and Japanese only 193. 



UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE 



Our very good friend, Chester M. Wright of 
the International Labor News Service, has at- 
tempted to explain the shift by the American 
Federation of Labor on unemployment insurance. 
For several years, while several State Federations 
of Labor battled for unemployment insurance, the 
American Federation of Labor was against it. 

Now the American Federation of Labor has 
turned a somersault and favors unemployment 
insurance, although, in the opinion of Mr. Wright, 
"there probably are no more believers in unem- 
ployment insurance as such than there were last 
year." 

And yet, in the face of Mr. Wright's rather 
curious opinion, he asserts in the same article that 
the American Federation of Labor "has clearly 
stepped into the pro-unemployment insurance field 
and has wrested the leadership from all groups." 



First, we are told by implication that the 
American Federation of Labor leaders do not 
believe in the principle of unemployment insur- 
ance any more than they did a year ago and then 
we are informed that these very men have 
assumed the leadership in the legislative struggle 
for unemployment insurance. 

To clarify this mysterious situation, Mr. Wright 
ought to write another story and explain to his 
perplexed disciples how men who are still against 
unemployment insurance "in principle" can con- 
scientiously and consistently take practical leader- 
ship for unemployment insurance. 



COOPERATION IN EUROPE 



A joint meeting of the Committees of the Sea- 
men's and Longshoremen's Sections of the Inter- 
national Transportworkers' Federation was held 
recently in Amsterdam, under the chairmanship 
of E. Bevin, a member of the General Council 
of the I. T. F., for the purpose of considering the 
action to be taken, nationally and internationally, 
against attacks upon the wages and working con- 
ditions of seamen and longshoremen which are 
initiated from time to time by employers in dif- 
ferent countries. All the affiliated unions con- 
cerned were represented at this meeting, at which, 
for the first time, a delegation of the British Na- 
tional Union of Seamen headed by its General 
Secretary, W. R. Spence, was also present. 

According to the current press report of the 
International Transportworkers' Federation the 
discussions resulted in complete unanimity and 
adoption of the following resolution : 

The Conference of the Seamen and Longshoremen 
affiliated to the I. T. F., held at Amsterdam Novem- 
ber 28 and 29, takes cognizance of, the full reports from 
the different countries about wages, conditions and 
the threatened attacks by, employers. 

The economic struggles going on between the capi- 
talist countries are causing untold suffering and wide- 
spread unemployment and are leading to attack after 
attack on the standard of living. Reductions of wages 
already imposed have proved futile and made condi- 
tions of trade worse. Attacks on conditions such as 
the manning of ships in certain countries are en- 
dangering safety at sea. 

This conference, therefore, declares that it is impera- 
tive that further reductions be resisted by all possible 
means. It calls upon the countries where organiza- 
tion needs strengthening to undertake this duty at 
once. It instructs all countries that in the event of 
notice being given with a demand for a reduction they 
shall immediately notify the Secretariat of the I. T. F. 
It also appoints a sub-committee to watch develop- 
ments, which shall be summoned whenever informa- 
tion is received of an attack to consider the matter 
on its merits and international importance and notify 
the countries of the measures to be taken nationally 
and internationally to render support. 



10 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January. 1933 



CURRENT LEGAL NOTES 



Pre-existing Disease No Defense. — Cornelius 
Guyt, who served as a boatswain on the steamship 
City of Havre, owned by the Baltimore Mail 
Steamship Company, recently brought suit against 
that company for personal injury and was 
awarded $15,000 in a jury trial. 

Guyt, who holds a Master Mariner's license. 
had a latent disease of the spine, which was 
aggravated and lit up when a kinky line came out 
of an open roller chock, striking him on his leg, 
causing him to fall and twist his back, which in 
turn set the pre-existing disease in motion, caus- 
ing disability in both legs. He was in charge of 
the work of tying up the vessel, acting, however, 
under specific orders of the chief mate, although 
he knew that the line was a dangerous one to use 
in the manner in which it was being used. Nev- 
ertheless, the court instructed the jury that if 
they find that the line was dangerous and that he 
was ordered to use the said line by a superior 
officer, he was entitled to recover even though he 
knew it to be dangerous. The court also instructed 
the jury that even though he had a pre-existing 
disease, which did not disable him, but which, 
because of the accident, became active and dis- 
abling, then such disability was a result of the 
accident and he was entitled to be compensated 
therefor. 

Substantial Award for Alaska Fisherman. — 
Sebastiana De Luca shipped on the steamship 
Ilyades, operated by the Red Salmon Canning 
Company, May 14, 1930, as a seaman and fisher- 
man for Alaska. While unloading the vessel 
at Naknek, he was struck by a slingload of lumber 
and was knocked against some angle irons, injur- 
ing the radial artery of his left wrist. 

This injury caused a clot in the artery, affect- 
ing the blood circulation of his hand. The injury 
appeared slight at the time and De Luca shipped 
again on the same vessel in 1931. On that voyage 
he ran a splinter into one of his fingers, causing 
an infection due to lack of blood in his finger. 

Upon the return of the vessel the company 
paid De Luca the average run money and secured 
a complete release for all claims. De Luca 
claimed he thought he was signing a receipt and 
not a release. 

A jury in Judge Shortall's department of the 
Superior Court of San Francisco set aside the 



release and awarded J )e Luca $18,000 for the loss 
of two fingers and for the probable loss ultimately 
of his left hand. The case was tried for De Luca 
by Henry Heidelberg, a member of the San Fran- 
cisco city attorney's staff. — Sebastiana De Luca, 
Plaintiff, vs. Red Salmon Canning Company, a 
corporation, Defendant. 

Maintenance and Cure. — Manuel Santiago, 
a sailor, shipped on a vessel of the Baltimore In- 
sular Line from New York to Florida and re- 
turn. On the home voyage he fell ill of pneu- 
monia, and died after reaching the Staten Island 
hospital. The administrator sued, claiming that 
death was caused by the negligence of the 
company. 

The jury brought in a verdict against the com- 
pany, which appealed, and the Circuit Court of 
Appeals reversed the trial court. The Circuit 
Court held that the Jones Act does not cover this 
case; that Congress made the Federal Employ- 
ers' Liability Act applicable to seamen, and since 
that Act does not require a railroad company 
to care for a sick engineer, a shipping concern 
does not have to provide medical care for a 
fo'csle hand dying of pneumonia. 

The case then went to the Supreme Court. De- 
livering the opinion of the latter court, Justice 
Cardozo indicated that the Court of Appeals had 
made certain errors. The ship owed the sailor 
"maintenance and cure." Justice Cardozo pointed 
out. 

As for the comparison with the railroads. Jus- 
tice Cardozo remarked : 

"It would be hazardous to assert that such a 
duty (to provide maintenance and cure) may not 
rest upon the representative of a railroad as well 
as upon the master of a ship, when the servant, 
exposed by conditions of the work to extraordi- 
nary risks, is helpless unless relief is given on the 
spot." 

The case goes back to the lower court, and 
Santiago's heirs have at least a chance. 



In view of the statement by an astronomer that 
there are 300 trillion suns within view of present- 
day telescopes, the Boston Globe finds there is 
hope for this old Earth, even when the sun grows 
cold; that the only thing needful in that case 
would be to find a way to tow this planet over to 
the next sun, which might prove to be even better 
than the one we have now. 



10 



January, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



11 



SHIPPING NEWS 



The Grace liner Santa Elena, last of a pro- 
gram of four ships built under the Jones-White 
Act for the service to South America, has been 
launched at Kearny, New Jersey. The other ships 
are the Santa Rosa, Santa Paula and Santa Lucia. 

Australian and Tasmanian apple exports to 
Great Britain during the season just closing have 
exceeded 3,000,000 cases. This represents a total 
of some 600,000,000 apples. Not only has the 
season proved a record one in regard to quan- 
tity, but prices have been well maintained. 

The trustee of the Pacific Steamship Company 
(in liquidation) has ordered the sale of the fleet 
of fourteen ships at Seattle, January 20. The 
fleet consists of the "Admiral" steamers Chase, 
Evans, Farragut, Sebree, Watson and Wiley, the 
steamship Curacao, Dorothy Alexander, Emma 
Alexander, H . F. Alexander and motorships Ad- 
miral Moser and Admiral Peary. 

Two competing Japanese groups of salvagers 
will begin operations next spring to raise £11,- 
000,000 in British sovereigns aboard the Russian 
cruiser Admiral Nachimov, sunk in the battle of 
Tsushima during the Russo-Japanese war. One 
group reports the hull of the cruiser to be lying 
in 360 feet of water five miles off Kotosaki, 
Tsushima Island, between Shimonoseki and Fu- 
san. The other group report they found the hull 
2.8 miles off Kotosaki. 

Subsidies promised by the Japanese Govern- 
ment has encouraged shipowners in that country 
to contract for new tonnage. Toyo Kisen Kaisha 
has ordered a 7,300-tonner from the Mitsubishi 
shipyard, Nagasaki, the Kokusai Kisen Kaisha 
a 6,300-tonner from the Harima Dockyard and 
another from the Uraga Dockyard, and the Mit- 
sui Bussan shipping department a 7,300 tonner 
from its Tama shipyard. As a result of the con- 
tracts placed and negotiated the price of steel has 
increased ten yen per ton. 

The Soviet London agency, Anglo-Soviet 
Shipping Co., Ltd., in the nine months ending 
September 30 last, fixed on the London market 
377 steamers, of which 240 were British and 137 
of other registries. For the twelve months end- 
ing December 31, 1931, the company chartered 



743 steamers, of which 410 were British, repre- 
senting 55.18 per cent, as against 63.66 per cent 
in the first nine months of this year. Up to the 
end of September, 1932, British ships transported 
from the U. S. S. R. on a single voyage basis 
14.362 per cent of the total timber exports from 
Leningrad, White Sea and Murmansk to the 
U. K., as compared with only about 3 per cent 
for the same period in 1931. 

Some ports are holding their own in spite of 
the acute depression in shipping. The Hartlepools 
provide a case in point, statistics for the first ten 
months of the year showing that the coal exports 
were 2,639,617 tons, or only about 1000 tons less 
than for the corresponding period of last year, 
and it is confidently expected that the 3,000,000- 
ton mark will be passed before the year closes. 
If this hope is realized it will be the second time 
in the history of the port that the exports have 
attained such dimensions. Timber imports show 
an improvement of 1 per cent — 296,229 loads, 
against 292,690. Pit props accounted for 206.705 
loads, or 40,000 more than last year's imports, 
an encouraging sign of greater activity in the coal 
industry. 

Merchant Fleet Corporation, the operating 
branch of the United States Shipping Board, in- 
curred a total operating loss of $8,431,000 in 
the fiscal year 1932, which was $864,000 less than 
the 1931 deficit, and the lowest since 1924, when 
the operating deficit was $41,000,000. It is ex- 
pected that the losses in 1933 will be still lower, 
when the full effect of the economies instituted 
by the Shipping Board, such as consolidation of 
lines, reduction of administrative costs, etc., will 
be reflected in the annual report. Important sav- 
ings have resulted from the adoption of "lump 
sum" compensation to managing operators. Most 
of the "lump sum" agreements have been amended 
to eliminate the repair franchise feature, and 
operators pay the entire cost of voyage repairs 
to vessels. 

The total Lakes iron ore movement of 1932 
amounted to 3,567,985 gross tons as compared to 
23,467,786 in the 1931 season. This season's 
movement was the lowest since 1885. The decline 
in shipping during the past two years was also 
reflected in the number of applicants seeking able 
seamen's certificates. The report of the Super- 
vising Inspector General of the Steamboat In- 
spection Service for the fiscal year ending June 



11 



12 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



Januar 



30, 1932, shows that at the Lake office of the 
Service there were 544 applicants for certificates, 
56 were rejected by the Inspectors and 478 cer- 
tificates were issued. The number of applicants 
rejected amounted to approximately ten per cent 
of those applying for certificates. The number 
of applicants during the previous year were 941 
or almost twice the number that applied during 
1932. 

The fleet entered in the Norwegian Shipowners' 
Association at the end of June, 1 ( >32. consisted 
of 3,240,000 gross tons, which is an increase of 
1,000,000 tons during the last four to five years 
and of 150,000 tons over a year ago. The larg- 
est owner in the association is Westfal-Larsen 
& Co., with a fleet of 28 vessels of 164,450 tons. 
The firm which employs the largest number of 
seamen is, however, Fred ( Msen & Co., with a 
fleet of 63 vessels totalling 138.540 tons. Next 
comes A. F. Klaveness & Co., with 24 vessels of 
114,747 tons. Under the control of Air. Knut 
Knutsen C). A. S. (and his son, Ole Andreas 
Knutsen) is a fleet of 28 vessels and 112,046 
tons. The largest whaling concern is controlled 
by Mr. Johan Rasmussen, of Sandefjord, the 
companies in question comprising 34 vessels with 
a total of 91,163 tons. The largest liner com- 
pany next to Fred I >lsen & Co., is the Norwegian 
America Line, which owns a fleet of 17 vessels 
totalling 87,670 tons. 

Three important lighthouses were completed 
during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1932, at 
Cape- Decision. Alaska; Anacapa Island, Cal., and 
Detour Reef, Lake Huron, Mich., according to 
the annual report of the Commissioner of the 
Lighthouse Service of the U. S. Department of 
Commerce. Aids to navigation now maintained 
by the Service total 21,294. Other projects un- 
der way are the reconstruction of Cape Hinchin- 
brook Lighthouse, Alaska, and construction of 
lights at Cape Kumakahi, Nawiliwili Harbor and 
Kaula Rock, Haw r aii, new aids to navigation in 
the St. Marys River, Mich., aids in the James 
River, Va., and changes in aids in Rochester 
Harbor, X. V. The radio beacon system has been 
augmented to 101 stations and distance finding 
signals have been provided at an increased num- 
ber of stations. The number of lighthouse ten- 
ders at the end of the year was fifty-six, but 
three new tenders were completed during the 
year to replace obsolete vessels. 



LABOR NEWS 



Postal receipts in 100 select industrial cities 
during the three months ended September 30. 
were $866,694.77 under receipts for the same 
period last year. Possibility grows that there 
will be a return to the two-cent rate on first class 
mail. 

The Labor party of Denmark won sixty-two 
seats in the Folketing, the lower house of Parlia- 
ment, in the recent election. The Premier. Mr. 
Theodore Stauning. said it was a great victory, 
increasing the Labor vote by 70,000. This is the 
first time in Luropean history, he said, that a 
Labor cabinet has increased its majority after 
four years in office. 

The members of the International Typograph- 
ical Union employed by newspapers throughout 
the United States and Canada will work on a 
five-day week basis beginning January 1. officials 
of the union announced upon completing the 
tabulation of a recent referendum on the subject. 
The five-day week was carried by a vote of 32,- 
073 to 18,010. Under the terms of the adopted 
plan each union printer in a newspaper plant 
will be required to miss one day each week, em- 
ploying a substitute in his place. 

The number of unemployed workers in Italy 
totaled 1,038,000 on November 30, according to 
official figures made public here. At the same 
time last year the total was 878.000. showing an 
increase of 160,000. Premier Mussolini, who 
prohibits all bona fide organization of the work- 
ers and proclaims the identity of interest of those 
who labor and those who live on rent, interest and 
dividends, is unable to effect an economic organi- 
zation for the production and distribution of 
wealth that will provide jobs and wages for those 
able and willing to work. 

A cut of ten per cent in the pay of New York 
newspaper printers was ordered by the umpire in 
arbitration, John Saulter, Indianapolis. Saulter 
said he could not conscientiously be a party to 
maintaining wages at the old rate. The cut is 
effective for one year. It represents only half 
the reduction demanded by the publishers. The 
two union representatives on the arbritation board 
refused to sign the award. Saulter's decision 
changes the shift hours so that day men are 



12 



January, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



13 



to be available for a seven and one-half hour clay 
between 7 a. m. and 7 p. m., the old shift hours 
having been from 8 a. m. to 6 p. m. All other 
shifts are likewise moved an hour. On the basis 
of the award day-shift men will get $58.50 for 
a six-day week; night shift, $61.50; third or 
"lobster" shift, $64.50, against $65, $68 and $71 
under the old scale. 

Santiago Iglesias, leader of the Puerto Rican 
trade union and Socialist movement, was elected 
Resident Commissioner at Washington by a large 
majority. Mr. Iglesias was born in Spain sixty 
years ago. He emigrated to Cuba in 1889 and 
left there for Puerto Rico when General Wey- 
ler ordered all labor centers closed in 1896. He 
organized the Free Federation of Workingmen 
of Puerto Rico, which was chartered in 1901 by 
the American Federation of Labor. He also 
founded the Socialist Party in Puerto Rico in 
1889, whose major purpose was to secure politi- 
cal power through the ballot rather than a change 
in the system of production and distribution ad- 
vocated by Socialist parties in other countries. 
For many years Mr. Iglesias was the representa- 
tive of the American Federation of Labor in 
Puerto Rico. In 1925 he was chosen secretary 
of the Pan-American Federation of Labor, with 
headquarters in Washington, D. C. He will re- 
ceive the same salary as members of the House 
of Representatives, which is $9,000 a year. 

The value of building construction in provid- 
ing work is shown by the fact that 34.6 cents of 
every dollar spent in building operations is paid 
directly in wages to labor engaged on the projects, 
according to information made available by the 
Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Labor. The figures were obtained in a 
survey conducted in fifteen representative cities 
throughout the country. The remaining 63.6 
cents of the dollar was spent for materials, it 
was learned from records of contractors relating 
for the most part to 1931 and 1932. The per- 
centage received by labor was slightly more on 
residential than on non-residential structures, and 
the percentage of labor and material costs dif- 
fered considerably in different cities. In Boston, 
for example, 41 per cent of the total cost of 
building operations went directly to labor, while 
in Dallas, Texas, only 27.2 per cent of the cost 
went into wages. In the North in general, la- 
bor was found to receive a larger proportion of 



the total cost of building operations than in the 
South. 

Full-time flight hours of commercial air pilots 
are regulated by the United States Department 
of Commerce. A pilot employed in interstate pas- 
senger air transport service must not be on flight 
duty more than 110 hours in any one month, or 
thirty hours in any seven-day period, or eight 
hours in any twenty-four-hour period. He must 
also be granted a rest period of at least twenty- 
four consecutive hours within each seven-day 
period. A certain latitude, however, is allowed 
when necessary in order to maintain reasonable 
schedules. Although the maximum flight hours 
are 110 per month, the hours actually flown dur- 
ing the month under survey averaged only 80.4, 
the average in the various districts ranging from 
76.2 in the Western to 86.7 in the South Central 
District. In a limited number of services pilots 
are paid a monthly salary regardless of the num- 
ber of hours flown during the month; but in the 
majority of the services they receive a monthly 
salary plus a specified rate for each mile flown. 
The mileage rate for night flying is generally 
higher than that for day flying (in some cases 
twice as high) ; rates also vary according to the 
nature of the route. The average actual earnings 
in one month ranged from $482.45 in the South 
Central to $617.84 in the South Atlantic District. 
For all districts combined the average was $596.49 
per month. 



International Seamen's Union of America 

Affiliated with the American Federation of Labor 
and the International Seafarers' Federation 

EXECUTIVE BOARD 
President: ANDREW FURUSETH, 59 Clay St., 
San Francisco, Calif. Vice-Presidents: PATRICK 
FLYNN, 58 Commercial St., San Francisco, Calif.; 
P. B. GILL, 84 Seneca St., Seattle, Wash.; PERCY 
J. PRYOR, iy 2 Lewis St., Boston, Mass.; OSCAR 
CARLSON, 70 South St., New York, N. Y.; PAT- 
RICK O'BRIEN, 71 Main St., Buffalo, N. Y. ; 
PETER E. OLSEN, 49 Clay St., San Francisco, 
Calif.; IVAN HUNTER, 1038 Third St., Detroit, 
Mich. Editor: PAUL SCHARRENBERG, 525 Mar- 
ket St., San Francisco, Calif. Secretary-Treasurer: 
VICTOR A. OLANDER, 666 Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, 111. 



DISTRICT UNIONS AND BRANCHES 

ATLANTIC DISTRICT 

EASTERN AND GULF SAILORS' ASSOCIATION 

Headquarters 

BOSTON, Mass PERCY J. PRYOR, Secretary 

1% Lewis Street. Phone Capitol 5178 

Branches 

NEW YORK. N. Y ADOLF KILE, Agent 

70 South Street. Phone John 4-1637 

BALTIMORE, Md E. C. ANDREWS, Agent 

715 S. Broadway. Phone Wolfe 5910 

NORFOLK, Va FRED SORENSEN, Agent 

54 Commercial Place. Phone 23868 Norfolk 



14 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January, 1933 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS. AND WATERTENDERS* 

UNION OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters 

NEW YORK, N. Y OSCAR CARLSON, Secretary 

70 South Street. Telephone John 0975 

Branches 

BOSTON, Mass JOHN FITZGERALD, Agent 

288 State Street 

BALTIMORE, Md JOHN BLEY, Agent 

723 S. Broadwav. Phone Wolfe 5630 

NORFOLK, Va FRED SORENSEN, Acting Agent 

54 Commercial Place. 23868 Norfolk. 



MARINE COOKS AND STEWARDS' UNION OF THE 

ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters 

NEW YORK, N. Y D. E. GRANGE, Secretary 

61 Whitehall Street. Phone Bowling Green 1297 

Branches 

NEW YORK (West Side Branch). ...JAMES ALLEN, Agent 

61 Whitehall St. Phone Bowling Green 1297 

BOSTON, MASS JOHN MARTIN, Agent 

288 State Street 

BALTIMORE, Md FRANK STOCKL, Agent 

1230 North Decker Avenue 

NORFOLK, Va FRED SORENSEN, Acting Agent 

54 Commercial Place. 23868 Norfolk 

FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE ATLANTIC 

BOSTON, Mass PERCY J. PRYOR, Secretary 

J. M. NICKERSON, Agent 
1% Lewis Street, Phone Richmond 0827 

HARBOR BOATMEN'S UNION OF CAMDEN, 

PHILADELPHIA AND VICINITY 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa., J. T. MORRIS, Sec'y, 120 Walnut 



GREAT LAKES DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 
Headquarters 

CHICAGO, 111 VICTOR A. OLANDER, Secretary 

CLAUDE M. GOSHORN, Treasurer 
810 J /£ North Clark St.; Phone Superior 5175 

Branches 

BUFFALO, N. Y JOHN W. ELLISON, Agent 

71 Main Street 

CLEVELAND, Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

1426 West Third Street, Phone Main 1842 

MILWAUKEE, Wis CHAS. BRADHERING, Agent 

2:54 South Second Street, Phone Daily 0489 

DETROIT, Mich IVAN HUNTER, Agent 

1038 Third Street 

MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, WATERTEN DERS AND 

COAL PASSERS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters 

DETROIT, Mich IVAN HUNTER, Secretary 

JAS. HAYMAN, Treasur. r 

1038 Third Street. Phone Cadillac 8170 

Branches 

BUFFALO, N. Y JOHN W. ELLISON, Agent 

71 Main Street. Phone Cleveland 7391 

CLEVELAND, Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

Rm. 211, Blackstone Bldg., 1426 W. 3rd St., Ph. Main 1842. 

MILWAUKEE, Wis ERNEST ELLIS, Agent 

234 South Second Street, Phone Daily 0489 

CHICAGO, 111 JOHN McGINN, Agent 

156 W. Grand Ave. Phone Superior 2152 



MARINE COOKS AND STEWARDS' UNION 
Headquarters 

BUFFALO, N. Y J. M. SECORD, Secretary 

71 Main Street 
Branches 

CHICAGO, 111 O. EDWARDS, Agent 

64 West Illinois Street. Phone Delaware 1031 

CLEVELAND, Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

Room 211, Blackstone Bldg., 1426 W. 3rd St.; Ph. Main 1842 

MILWAUKEE, Wis OTTO EDWARDS, Agent 

234 South Second Street, Phone Broadway 489 

DETROIT, Mich 410 Shelby Street 

Phone Randolph 0044 



PACIFIC DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal GEORGE LARSEN, Act. Sec'y 

59 Clay Street. Telephone Kearny 2228 



Branches 

SEATTLE. Wash P. B GILL. Agent 

86 Seneca St., P. O. Box 65; Phone Elliot 6752 

PORTLAND, Ore JOHN A. FEIDJE, Agent 

242 Flanders Street. Telephone Beacon 4336 

SAN PEDRO, Cal I. A. HAARKLAN, Agent 

512 South Palos Verdes Street. P. O. Box 68. Phone 626M 

MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, AND WATERTEN DERS' 

UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal PATRICK FLYNN, Secretary 

58 Commercial Street. Telephone Kearny 3699 

MARINE COOKS AND STEWARDS' ASSOCIATION 

OF THE PACIFIC COAST 

Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal EUGENE BURKE, Secretary 

86 Commercial Street. Phone Kearny 5955 
Branch 

SEATTLE, Wash J. L. NORKGAUER, Agent 

Room 203, Grand Trunk Dock. Phone Main 2233 

ALASKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 
Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 49 Clay Street 

PETER E. OLSEN, Secretary. Phone Sutter 6452 
Branch 

SEATTLE, Wash CHARLES F. HA.M.MAIilX, Agent 

86 Seneca St., P. O. Box 42. Phone Elliot 3425 

UNITED FISHERMEN'S UNION OF SO. CALIFORNIA 
SAN DIEGO, Calif JAS. FALLON, Secretary. Box 78 

EUREKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 

EUREKA, Calif G. A. SVENSON, Secretary 

P. O. Box 541; Phone 8-R-5 

COLUMBIA RIVER FISHERMEN'S PROTECTIVE 

UNION 

ASTORIA, Ore ARVID MATTSON, Sec'y, P.O. Box 281 

COQUILLE RIVER FISHERMEN'S UNION 
BANDON, Ore F. REIMANN. Secretary 

TILLAMOOK COUNTY FISHERMEN'S UNION 
BAY CITY, Ore _ EARL BLANCHARD, Secretary 

ROGUE RIVER FISHERMEN'S UNION 
GOLD BEACH. Ore., WARREN H. HOSKINS, Sec'y-Tr. 



DEEP SEA FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters 

SEATTLE. Wash P. B. GILL, Secretary 

86 Seneca St., P. O. Box 65; Phone Elliot 6752 

Branch 

KETCHIKAN, Alaska., GUST OLSEN, Agt., P.O. Box A17 



FISHERMEN'S UNION OF PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND 

AND VICINITY 
CORDOVA, Alaska, N. SWANSON, Sec'y, P. O. Box 597 



FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal C. W. DEAL, Secretary 

Room "J," Ferry Building; Phone Davenport 7928 



FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION OF PUGET SOUND 

SEATTLE, Wash JOHN M. FOX, Secretary 

509 Railway Exchange Bldg. 



We don't hear so much about the "American 
Plan" these days. Like every other passing 
fancy, it seems to have run its course. The busi- 
ness men, bankers and others who loudly pro- 
claimed its virtues are now silent and convinced 
that when labor is fully employed, well paid and 
contented everyone prospers. Live and let live 
is a humanitarian principle, but it is also a splen- 
did business policy. 



14 



January, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



15 



Professional Cards 



Attorney for the Sailors' Union of the 
Pacific since its organization 

H. W. Hutton 

331 Pacific Building, Fourth and Market Sts. 
SAN FRANCISCO 
Phone DOuglas 315 



Albert Michelson 

ATTORNEY-AT-LAW 

Attorney for 

Marine Firemen and Watertenders' 
Union of Pacific 
Marine Diesel and Gasoline Engi- 
neers' Association No. 49 
611 Russ Bldg. Tel. SUtter 3866 

San Francisco, California 



ANDERSON 8C LAMB 

Attorney s-at-Law 

1226 Engineers Bank Building 

CLEVELAND, OHIO 

Personal Injury Attorneys for Seamen on 
the Great Lakes 



JENSEN 8C NELSEN 

Gents' Furnishing Goods 

Saver's Oil Skin Clothing 
Uniforms, Caps, Hats, Shoes 



110 EAST STREET 
GArfield 9633 



NEAR MISSION 
San Francisco 



"Oh, that the too censorious 
world would learn this wholesome 
rule, and with each other bear. But 
man, as if a foe to his own species, 
takes pleasure to report his neigh- 
bor's faults, judging with rigor 
every small offense and prides him- 
self in scandal." 



Force of Habit 

"You look like a respectable sort 
of a man. What were you doing 
breaking into that house last night?" 

"I thought it was my own house." 

"But when the lady of the house 
came you jumped through window. 
Why was that?" 

"I thought it was my wife." 



DENTIST 




Plates and 

Bridgework 

DR. C. S. FORD 

702 Market Street 

At Market-Geary-Kearny Sts. 

Phone EXbrook 0329 

Daily Office hours, 8:30 a. m. to 7 p. l 
Sunday hours, 9 a.m. till noon 
"One Patient Tells Another" 



Alarm at Night 

Two lady school teachers from 
Brooklyn, spending their sabbatical 
year exploring western Canada, 
stopped at a small and old-fashioned 
hotel in Alberta recently. 

One of the pair was inclined to be 
worrisome when traveling, and she 
couldn't rest until she had made a 
tour of the corridors to hunt out 
exits in case of fire. The first door 
she opened, unfortunately, turned 
out to be that of the public bath, 
occupied by an elderly gentleman 
taking a shower. 

"Oh, excuse me!" the lady stam- 
mered, flustered. "I'm looking for 
the fire escape." Then she ran for it. 

To her dismay, she hadn't got far 
along the corridor when she heard 
a shout behind her and, looking 
around, saw the gentleman, wearing 
only a towel, running after her. 
"Where's the fire?" he hollered. 



Incurable 

A Congressional candidate, while 
addressing a meeting, was fre- 
quently interrupted by a man who 
was inebriated, and who kept on 
saying: "You're silly." 

The would-be Congressman could 
stand it no longer, and suddenly ex- 
claimed: 

"You're drunk, man; you're 
drunk!" 

"Aye, I know," retorted the tipsy 
one, "but I'll be sober in the morn- 
in', and you'll still be silly." 



M. BROWN & SONS 

SAN PEDRO, CALIFORNIA 

Clothing and Furnishing Goods 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 

Exclusive Agents Florsheim Shoes and Hart Schaffner & Marx 

Clothing and the Best in Oil Clothing and Boots 

See Them at M. Brown & Sons 

109 SIXTH STREET, SAN PEDRO 



SEATTLE, WASH, 



K. K. Tvete & Sons 

Established 1890 

MEN'S CLOTHING, SHOES, HATS, 
AND FURNISHING GOODS 

1300-1302 First Ave., cor. University 
SEATTLE, WASH. 



Westerman's 

UNION LABEL 

Clothier, Furnisher & Hatter 

Alaska Outfitter 

TWO BIG STORES 

Store No. 1 — Cor. Main and First 

Store No. 2 — West lake and Pine 

SEATTLE 



Bonney- Watson Co. 

Funeral Directors 

Crematory and Columbarium 

1702 Broadway Seattle 



INFORMATION WANTED 

Will any witnesses who know 
about the accident to Eugene Mc- 
Carthy on the steamship Sabotawan 
in September, 1924, please call or 
communicate with the undersigned 
as soon as possible. The accident 
happened Pier 3, Army Base, Brook- 
lyn. Lucien V. Axtell, Attorney, 15 
Moore Street, New York City. 



Important Things First 

An Englishman visiting a Scotch 
laird was taken by his host on a 
fishing trip. In the morning the vis- 
itor, who was a novice at the sport, 
hooked a fine salmon, and fell into 
the river. 

The keeper, noticing that he was 
no swimmer, hooked onto him with 
a gaff and was about to drag him 
ashore when the laird called out: 

"What are ye about, Donald? Get 
haud o' the rod and look to the fush! 
Ma friend can bide a wee, but the 
fush winna." 



Suggests a Silencer 

The argument had been all on 
Mrs. Brown's side throughout the 
evening, and Brown was distinctly 
annoyed. 

"You seem to think a cold in the 
head means nothing to a woman," 
stormed his wife. "I don't know of 
anything more annoying." 

Her husband peered over the 
newspaper he had been trying to 
read. 

"No?" he countered with a rare 
flash of spirit. "What about lock- 
jaw?" 



Savage Reprisals 

"Bobby, why are you so unkind 
to nurse? Don't you like her?" 

"No, I hate her. I'd like to pinch 
her cheeks like Daddy does." 



15 



16 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January, 1933 



Taylor's Nautical Academy 

FOR NAVIGATORS AND MARINE ENGINEERS 
Established 1888 

consular Bldg., Corner Washington 
and Battery Sts., opp. New Custom 

House, San Francisco, Calif. 
THIS OLD AND NOTEWORTHY 
SCHOOL, is under the direct and per- 
sonal supervision of CAPT. HENRY 
TAYLOR, and equipped with all mod- 
ern appliances to illustrate and teach 
any branch of Navigation. 

The class of teachers of Navigation 
in the past have been those having 
simply a knowledge of Navigation and 
Navigation only. Conditions have 

• ■hanged, and the American seamen 
demand a man as a teacher with 
higher attainments than one who has 

• inly the limited ability of a seaman. 
The Principal of this School, keeping 
this always in view, studied several 
years the Maritime Law. and is now, 

In addition to being a thorough teacher of Navigation and its kindred 
subjects, a regularly admitted Member of the Bar. 

There is no standard of education required of a pupil entering the 
School, for no matter how ignorant the seaman may be, even in the 
rudiments of common education, Captain Henry Taylor will teach and 
raise him from the depths of ignorance to the height of the average 
well informed man, and in a comparatively short interval of time. 




Phone GARFIELD 2076 

DR. EDMOND J. BARRETT 

DENTIST 

Rooms 2429-30, 450 Sutter Building 
Hours: 9 A. M. to 5 P. M. and 

by Appointment 



Seamen's Furnishing Goods 

OTTO PAHL 

Shoes, Oilskins, Seaboots and Underwear 
Suits cleaned and pressed while you wait 

140 EMBARCADERO 
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 



98 EMBARCADERO 
DAvenport 0594 



202 THIRD ST. 
KEarny 5241 



O. B. OLSEN'S 
RESTAURANT 

Scandinavian and American Cooking 
QUICK SERVICE 

San Francisco California 



Union-made Work Clothes and Shoes 

Uniform Caps, Oilskins and 

Seaboots, Belfast Cord 

and Buckles 



SAM'S 



Shore and Offshore Outfitting Store 
Formerly with Geo. A. Price 

4 Clay Street, San Francisco 
Phone GArfield 6784 



The father of Thomas Carlyle 
was a stone mason, whose walls 
stood true and needed no rebuild- 
ing. Carlile's prayer was: Let me 
write my hooks as he built his 
houses. — Henry Van Dyke. 



-BOSS- 
union TAILOR 

"#45.00 Specials" 




1034 MARKET STREET 
SAN FRANCISCO 



Not Nervous 
In hi> eighty-fifth year President 
von Hindenburg entered his second 
term as head of the German Reich. 

"I have heen called by age and 
office tn live and work." he said. 

"What do yen do, sir, when you 
get nervous?" asked an interviewer. 

"1 whistle." 

"I have never heard yon whistle." 

"1 never have." 



What 1 must do is all that con- 
cerns me, not what the people think. 
It is easy in solitude to live after 
our own opinions; but the great man 
is he who in the midst of the crowd 
keeps, with perfect sweetness, the 
independence oi solitude. — R. W. 
Emerson. 



Adam and Eve 



"Well, how are you getting on 
now you are* married?" 

"It is just like the Garden of 
Eden." 

"I am glad to hear that." 

"Yes, we have nothing to wear 
and arc in daily fear of being turned 
out." 



In 



A Great Store 

Built Upon 

Successful 

Service to 

Millions 




HALE BROS. 

INC. 

Market at Fifth 

SAN FRANCISCO 
SUTTER 8000 



THE 

James H. Barry Co. 

The Star Press 

Printing 



1122-1124 MISSION STREET 
SAN FRANCISCO 



We print "The Seamen's Journal' 



KODAKS 

Exchanged * Bought 
Sold 

Developing and Printing 

SAN FRANCISCO 
CAMERA EXCHANGE 

88 Third Street, at Mission 
SAN FRANCISCO CALIFORNIA 




A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, FOR SEAMEN 



Our Aim : The Brotherhood of the Sea 



Our Motto: Justice by Organization 



VOL. XLVII, No. 2 



SAN FRANCISCO, FEBRUARY 1, 1933 



WHOLE NO. 2029 



MANNING AMERICAN SHIPS 




HE importation of 160 Chinese seamen 
for service on an American ship at a time 
when thousands of American seamen are 
jobless and destitute is such a mercenary 
transaction that it becomes difficult to find 
language permissible and yet suitable for the occa- 
sion. Under these circumstances it is gratifying 
to have the Hearst papers go to the bat with the 
following elucidating editorial published on Jan- 
uary 24, under the caption "Unpatriotic Act'' : 

The employment of a Chinese crew for an 
American ship dependent on American Govern- 
ment subsidy is a most amazingly asinine thing 
for the directors of the Dollar Line to have per- 
mitted. 

Granting that the Dollar Line did not itself 
hire the Chinese crew, nevertheless the Dollar 
Line leased one of its own boats under conditions 
which allowed the hiring of the Chinese crew and, 
furthermore, the Dollar Line could not have been 
ignorant of the fact that the conditions of the 
lease permitted the hiring of an oriental crew, 
because the Dollar Line had previously leased the 
same vessel, the President Johnson, to the same 
lessee, the Boring Company, and the Boring Com- 
pany had previously employed a Chinese crew in 
the same manner that it is now employing one. 
The Dollar Line cannot therefore divest itself 
of responsibility for this not only unpatriotic, but 
utterly idiotic act. 



Nor can the Boring Company escape due odium 
and opprobrium by declaring that, "If there is 
any evasion of the law," the company will "get a 
crew elsewhere." 

The question is not merely a matter of law 
evasion. It is a question of disloyally repudiating 
the obligation to the nation to give employment 
to Americans when twelve million Americans are 
out of work. 

It is a question, too, of utter failure to show 
some sort of patriotic appreciation of the foster- 
ing care of the United States Government and the 
liberal patronage of the American people. And 
if these obligations make no appeal to the officials 
of the Dollar Line and the Boring Tourist Agency, 
there is still the question of ordinary rudimentary 
intelligence, which ought to prevent any sane per- 
son from flouting the feelings of the American 
people upon whose generosity the existence of 
this line and this tourist agency depend. 

If the Dollar Line has no broader outlook than 
it has exhibited in th : s instance — if it has not even 
the sense of gratitude which is cynically described 
as "a lively sense of favors to come," it should 
change its name to the Plugged Nickel Line and 
be appropriately designated. 

The Hearst papers are incensed because these 
papers are trying to help build the American 
merchant marine and the task is made difficult by 
such heartless and brainless exhibitions of callous 



18 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February, 1933 



indifference and ingratitude on the part of the 
beneficiaries of American favor. 

Congratulations are due Andrew Furuseth, ad- 
mirable defender of the rights of the American 
working man, and Representative William Siro- 
vich, alert congressional guardian of the public 
interest, for exposing and promptly moving to 
correct this rightly termed ''outrageous" situation. 
The Hearst papers w r ill continue their campaign 
for an American merchant marine, confident that 
no thoughtless acts of certain short-sighted indi- 
viduals can discredit so great a cause or perma- 
nently prevent the development of so worthy and 
so necessary a policy. 



CANADIAN SEAMEN'S DEMANDS 



The Canadian Seamen's Association, whose 
headquarters are at Vancouver, recently embodied 
demands aiming at the reform of seamen's work- 
ing conditions in a memorandum addressed to 
seventy members of the Dominion Legislature. 

The chief reforms suggested, the adoption of 
which would entail amendment of the Canada 
Shipping Act, are as follows : 

Wages. — The memorandum calls for the estab- 
lishment of a Minimum Wage Board, whose pow- 
ers would comprise the regulation of seamen's 
pay and hours of work. 

Certificates. — The Association also proposes the 
establishment of a system of certificates for lower 
ratings, intended to ensure the employment of 
qualified seamen in the place of inexperienced 
hands. The possession of a certificate would be 
indicated in the seamen's discharge book. Three 
years' deep water or four years' coasting service 
would be required to qualify for an A. B.'s cer- 
tificate, eighteen months for a trimmer's and two 
or three years' service for a fireman's certificate, 
and two years' service on a motorship for a 
greaser's certificate. 

Life-boat certificates should also be instituted 
for seamen of all departments with two years' 
experience; and on passenger liners the majority 
of the crew would be required to hold a certifi- 
cate of this kind. 

Certificates for marine cooks, issued by a rec- 
ognized school of marine cookery similar to those 
already in existence in Great Britain, in Australia 
and in New Zealand, are also proposed. 

It is alleged in the memorandum that special 
measures are required to protect Canadian sea- 



men against competition from Asiatic seamen, of 
whom over 2,500 are at present employed on 
Canadian vessels; and the establishment of cer- 
tificates would, apart from other damages, con- 
stitute a measure of protection. 

Accommodation. — It is alleged that the accom- 
modation on many Canadian vessels is far from 
satisfactory and that reforms are essential. Food 
and sleeping quarters are part of a seaman's 
wages; and shipowners should be compelled to 
supply sheets, pillowcases, towels and soap twice 
monthly, and to arrange that blanket- should be 
changed and cleaned every two months. 



There was a touch of irony in one of the con- 
signments of food that recently arrived in Auck- 
land, Xew Zealand, for the unemployed. The 
Arawa tribe of Maoris, in the Rotorua district, 
sent several tons of potatoes for its white brothers 
in distress. Inasmuch as the European invader has 
dispossessed the Maori of most of his land, the 
gift has appealed to the popular imagination. It 
was the same tribe that a few months ago on its 
own initiative surrendered to the government a 
percentage of the annual income it receives from 
the state in compensation for its loss of fishing 
rights as a contribution to the state in a time of 
economic distress. These aborigines may not 
have acquired all of the white man's boasted civi- 
lization, but, let it be said to their credit and glory, 
they do not believe that anyone should go hungry 
as long as there is enough for all. In this re- 
spect the uncultured natives have been unable to 
see the light of modern civilization. 



India has had an increase of more than 10 per 
cent in population in ten years. The addition of 
34,000,000, the largest in any ten-year period, 
brings the total to 352,M7.77*. Within the 
1,800,000 square miles of the Indian Empin 225 
languages are spoken and twenty different scripts 
arc employed in giving these languages written 
form. Men outnumber women, there being only 
940 females to every 1000 males. India has radio, 
but attempts no national broadcasts. Imagine -ax- 
ing something nice about somebody's soap, then 
pausing to repeat the patter in 224 other tongues! 



In the field of destiny we reap as we have 
sown. — Drummond. 



His own character is the arbiter of every one's 
fortune. — Cyrus. 



February, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



19 



CHARLEY SCHWAB'S PHILOSOPHY 



"I have been a very rich man and I had always 
thought that the question of money or anything 
else in my life would never come up. But let 
me say that there are no rich men in America 
today. We don't know where we stand." This 
statement was made at a recent dinner by no less 
a bread-liner than poor Charles Schwab of the 
Bethlehem Steel Corporation. 

This is news indeed. To think that all the while 
we didn't know that poor Charley and his friends 
the Morgans, the Rockefellers, the Du Ponts, the 
Raskobs, and other of our unemployed were down 
to their last nickel with not even a ham sandwich 
in sight. But is Charley complaining? Not at 
all. He is a philosopher and, far from protesting 
against his unexpected poverty, he consoles the 
world by stating that "with it all I have never 
lost the feeling that things will ultimately be all 
right. We had five or six years of great prosper- 
ity. We didn't stop to think that they were quickly 
gliding by. We mustn't complain if we have five 
or six years of very great depression." So, you 
see everything will be all right in five or six years. 
If the grocer presses us in the future for his bill, 
or the landlord for his rent, we will follow Char- 
ley's advice and tell them not to worry since for 
five or six years we paid our bills promptly and 
they mustn't complain if we don't pay for the 
next five or six. 

Aside from this, thanks to Charley, we now 
know that the millions of unemployed have no 
kick coming. According to him, the vanishing 
rich are doing all the worrying and "the happy 
man and the happy woman are the ones who have 
no obligations to meet because they can always 
conduct their affairs to suit their income to condi- 
tion of life, no matter how poor they may be." 

Of course, we wouldn't advise anyone to take 
Schwab literally, that is to say, don't send him a 
special delivery letter offering to exchange the 
happiness of poverty for his worries and what is 
left of his bank account. Knowing Schwab as 
we do, we are quite convinced that he will prefer 
to continue to worry on the basis of status quo 
and forego the pleasure of being happy while 
broke. 

On the other hand, since there are "no rich men 
in America/' and poverty is supposed to be syn- 
onymous with happiness, we must come to the con- 
clusion that at present we are the happiest people 



on the face of the earth. Carrying this Schwab- 
ian philosophy to its logical conclusion, we should 
do nothing to lift the depression, for to do so 
would be to destroy the state of heavenly bliss in 
which we find ourselves. 

But, of course, even the Iron Master doesn't 
quite believe in his own thesis, and, in fact, he 
out of the wisdom of his seventy years gives us 
a very simple remedy, to-wit : "There is one great 
thing for a real man to do — that is to sweat, to 
go to work, to do the best he can under the cir- 
cumstances to build for his industry, to build for 
his home, to build for his country, for the future." 
There is a flaw in the advice, or rather an omis- 
sion of importance. He tells us to go to work, 
but doesn't tell us where. For nearly three years 
now some millions of real American workers 
have been wanting to go to work and haven't 
succeeded in finding the "where." 

Seriously, however, it is getting a bit tiresome 
to be made to listen to the inane verbal outbursts 
of men like Schwab who, because they have suc- 
ceeded in squeezing the American wage earners 
dry through exploitation, are set up before us as 
oracles in whom there repose the alpha and omega 
of all wisdom. These men know how to make the 
almighty dollar for themselves under ordinary 
circumstances with no regard for the masses, but 
when a crisis hits the country their so-called wis- 
dom is about as useful to the nation as a Palm 
Beach suit to an Eskimo or a fur coat to a Hot- 
tentot. In the midst of the people's misery the 
Schwabs might at least spare us their sappy ad- 
vice. — Upholsterers' Journal. 



Japan is gravely concerned over the fall of the 
yen, which drops to 20 cents and is expected to 
go lower. Some Tokio newspapers say the nation 
faces a financial catastrophe. The assigned reason 
is lack of confidence in their own currency by the 
people, owing to huge appropriations forced by the 
army and naval ministries and the Government's 
inability to balance the budget. The new budget 
is above 2,000,000,000 yen, which will entail bond 
issues. Japan nurses a grievous disappointment — 
Manchuria appeared a great asset, but has so far 
proved a stupendous liability. 



Organized labor has presented the real cure 
for depression — namely, the payment of wages 
high enough to allow consumption to keep step 
with production. 



20 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February, 1033 



NEWS AND COMMENT 

Concerning Seamen the World Over 



The Danish shipowners have recently given no- 
tice to terminate their collective agreements, prob- 
ably at the bidding of the Employers' Associa- 
tion, which has asked its members to cancel all 
agreements with a view to pressing for reduc- 
tions of 20 per cent in wages. The workers are 
not disposed to accept such reductions, so that 
serious conflicts are probably ahead in the spring 
— the agreements are due to expire on March 31. 

* * * 

The Dutch shipowners have given notice can- 
celling all the collective agreements in force in 
the fishing industry. This was the first time that 
negotiations took place for all the groups at once. 
They began on December 7. The owners, among 
other things, demand an all-round reduction of 
five per cent in wages. If the employers' de- 
mands are enforced it will mean the loss of all 
that has been gained during the past ten years. 

* * * 

Another concession has been granted by Brit- 
ish railway companies in respect of special re- 
duced fare facilities to officers and men of the 
Merchant Marine traveling on leave from their 
ships. The organizations affiliated with the Na- 
tional Maritime Board have been advised that the 
com] (anils have agreed that the period of avail- 
ability of the cheap fare concessions granted to 
those traveling on leave from a Continental port 
to Great Britain, via the companies' continental 
steamship services, shall be extended from one 
month to three months. 

* * * 

The collective agreement in force in German 
Rhine shipping provides that six free days must 
be given during every quarter. The owners sought 
to introduce arrangements which would reduce 
the number of free days. They discovered that 
a day contains twenty- four hours and on the 
strength of this decreed that a free day com- 
mencing at a given time on one day should end 
exactly the same time the following day. The 
unionists regard this as a violation of the agree- 
ment and contend that they are entitled to a full 
day. They appealed to the Employers' Associa- 
tion, wheh finally fell in with their point of view 
and promised to urge the owners to carry out the 
terms of the agreement as in the past. 



Several meetings of the principal organizations 
of Yugoslav seamen, including the Alerchant 
Captains' Club, the Marine Engineers' Club and 
the Merchant Seamen's Federation, were held re- 
cently in Susak, Grobnik, Split and Dubrovnik, 
for the purpose of discussing the principal ques- 
tions affecting the interests of seamen. Several 
resolutions were adopted, which were forwarded 
to the authorities. These resolutions asked, aim >ng 
other things, for the speedy completion and put- 
ting into effect of the new Maritime Code at 
present in preparation; application of the system 
of pension insurance to all seamen ; restriction of 
the number of seamen's certificates; and co- 
operation with the employment exchanges for the 
purpose of granting assistance to unemployed offi- 
cers so far as possible. 

* * * 

The postgraduate course which had been 
arranged for British ships' surgeons promises to 
be very successful. Such a provision for round- 
ing off the education of ships' doctors is cer- 
tainly overdue. At the introductory lecture de- 
livered by Dr. Gwynne Maitland, medical super- 
intendent of the Cunard Line, at the London 
Tropical School of Medicine, it was stated that 
the courses will be held so far as possible during 
the slack periods of the shipping companies and 
will embrace ships' hygiene and tropical and 
clinical subjects. The class of practitioner who 
now goes to sea is vastly different even from 
what it was ten years ago, when in many cases 
a doctor's job on board ship was looked upon 
more as a holiday calling than a serious branch 
of the medical profession. 

* * * 

The new British wireless telegraphy rules, 
which became effective on January 1, provide 
that the ships which must be equipped with 
wireless telegraphy remain unaltered; that is, 
all sea-going passenger ships, irrespective of their 
tonnage, and all sea-going cargo ships of 1,600 
tons gross and upwards. Generally speaking, 
the nature of the installation to be fitted will 
also be the same as before, but a new obligation 
is that a direction-finding apparatus must be fitted 
in all passenger ships of 5,000 tons gross and up- 
wards before January 1, 1935. The classification 
of ships for the purpose of wireless watch-keep- 
ing at sea for safety purposes has been revised 
and is now based on the gross tonnage instead of 
on the number of persons on board. The old 



February, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



21 



system of grading wireless operators according 
to their length of service has been abolished, but 
the chief or sole, operator in all passenger ships 
and cargo ships of 3,000 tons gross or over must 
have had at least three months' service at sea as 
an operator. 

The Journal regrets to announce the death of 
Itaro Narasaki, ex-president of the Japanese Sea- 
men's Union and Japanese workers' delegate at 
the eighth and ninth sessions (1926) of the In- 
ternational Labor Conference. Mr. Narasaki's 
seafaring life of more than twenty years came to 
an end in 1909 when he took charge of the harbor 
office of the Port of Darien. After holding other 
important posts he became first the adviser and 
later president of the Asahi Marine Fire In- 
surance Company. In 1921 Mr. Narasaki took 
part in the formation of the Japanese Seamen's 
Union, by the fusion of a score or more of the 
existing small and scattered unions of seamen, 
firemen, stewards, cooks, etc., and was at once 
elected president of the newly formed national 
union of seafaring workers. He devoted all his 
energies as well as his fortune to the union, and 
it was largely due to his self-sacrificing efforts 
and his profound personal influence that the 
union grew rapidly in membership and prestige 
till it became the most powerful workers' organ- 
ization existing in Japan. He retired from the 
presidency of the union in 1927, and died in 
Kobe on October 22, 1932, at the age of 68. 



A trade union of Rumanian seamen has recently 
been established, and has drawn up a program 
which calls for the following measures : Amend- 
ment of the Merchant Shipping* Act so as to 
make it compulsory for vessels flying the Ru- 
manian flag to engage Rumanian crews; estab- 
lishment of a system of supervision of seamen's 
articles of agreement so as to guarantee them a 
fair wage; appointment of a delegate of the Sea- 
men's Union to assist harbormasters in supervis- 
ing the engagement of crews of Rumanian ves- 
sels ; giving work, such as painting ships, night 
watch duty on board laid-up vessels, etc., to un- 
employed seamen, with a view to relieving exist- 
ing unemployment. A memorandum to the 
Minister of Labor requests that all engagements 
of seamen should take place on the basis of 
certificates issued by the harbormasters, so as to 



avoid the employment of unskilled seamen. The 
Union also protests against the practice of re- 
quiring members of crews to work for more than 
eight hours in the day in port, while loading or 
discharging cargo. The statutory eight-hour day 
should be strictly enforced ; overtime should only 
be required in cases where it is absolutely neces- 
sary and should be paid for at overtime rates. 
* * * 

The large proportion of shipping at present laid 
up in French ports, and the consequent unem- 
ployment among French seafarers, has resulted 
in a considerable number of French colonial na- 
tive seamen finding themselves unemployed and 
in distress in French metropolitan ports. With 
a view to assisting these seamen, and to relieving" 
the unemployment position among seamen gen- 
erally, a Ministerial Circular prescribes measures 
with a view to the repatriation of native colonial 
seamen. The circular states that, according to re- 
ports from the prefects of the departments af- 
fected and from the local maritime authorities, 
distress among native colonial seamen is becom- 
ing more and more acute, although they are, in 
certain ports, in receipt of relief from the special 
seamen's unemployment funds. It has, therefore, 
been decided to take measures similar to those 
previously prescribed concerning the return to 
their homes of French seamen unemployed in sea- 
ports. The maritime registration authorities are 
instructed to assist native colonial seamen to re- 
turn to their own homes, in order to relieve the 
congestion of the labor market which exists in 
the principal seaports and the resulting strain on 
the resources of the municipal unemployment 
funds which have been established in these ports. 
Native colonial seamen who are unemployed and 
who apply to the maritime authorities are to be 
assisted to return to their native countries by 
granting them transport requisition forms, re- 
quiring the master of a ship proceeding to a port 
in the colony in question to carry them at re- 
duced rates. 

A fellow who would leash a hungry dog to a 
pole and place tempting food near by, but just 
too far for the dog to reach would be considered 
the meanest man in the world. Then what are we 
to think of a system of society that keeps millions 
of workmen starving because our warehouses are 
bulging with surplus food and goods? — The New 
Leader. 



5 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February, 1033 



Seamen's Journal 

Established in 1887 
Published on the first day of each month at 525 
Market Street, San Francisco, by and under the di- 
rection of the International Seamen's Union of 
America. 

PAUL SCHARRENBERG, Editor 

© 



Entered at the San Francisco Postoffice as second- 
class matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate 
of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of Oc- 
tober 3, 1917, authorized September 7, 1918. 

Subscription price $1.00 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 



NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will be 
published, provided they are of general interest, 
brief, legible, written on one side only of the paper, 
and accompanied by the writer's own name and ad- 
dress. The JOURNAL is not responsible for the ex- 
pressions of correspondents, nor for the return of 
manuscripts. 



February 1, 1933 



EACH ONE FOR HIMSELF 



Following the very latest wage slash, the three 
Pacific Coast District Unions of the International 
Seamen's Union of America sent the following 
letter of protest to the Pacific-American Steam- 
ship Association and to the Shipowners' Associa- 
tion of the Pacific Coast: 

Gentlemen: — We, the undersigned authorized repre- 
sentatives of the Marine Unions, comprising the Pa- 
cific District of the International Seamen's Union of 
America, hereby most emphatically protest against 
the continued unjustifiable wage reduction.-, on ships 
operated from Pacific Coast ports. 

Since 1921, wages of the unlicensed seafaring per- 
sonnel have been reduced approximately 50 per cent. 
Xo other group of workers employed in the shipping 
business on the Pacific Coast have been subjected to 
such drastic cuts. 

For instance, the Longshoremen at San Francisco 
have only suffered a 16 per cent reduction since 1921. 
Under the circumstances, we cannot help but feel that 
the continued heavy wage slashing of the seafaring 
personnel, as contrasted with the minor reductions 
made to shore workers, is contrary to all elements of 
justice and fair play. 

Another feature entering into your policy of wage 
cutting is the fact that the heavy subsidy received by 
certain companies is paid largely upon the theory that 
higher wages are paid on American ships. In the light 
of recent developments, this contention has fallen 
utterly because your competitors are now paying as 
high a wage as the American operators. 

The Pacific American Steamship Association 

entirely ignored the protest. The Shipowners' 

Association of the Pacific Coast, through their 

secretary, Nat Levin, acknowledged receipt of the 

letter and supplied this interesting information: 

"Please be advised that this Association has noth- 



ing to do with the matter of wages aboard ship 
or elsewhere, this being a matter entirely in the 
hands of each individual member." 

From the foregoing it would appear as if the 
organized shipowners have informally resolved to 
let each member cut wages just as often as cir- 
cumstances will permit. For twenty years, i. c, 
from 1901 to 1921, seamen's wages and working 
conditions were fixed by collective action between 
the organized seamen and the organized ship- 
owners. In 1921, the shipowners decided to elimi- 
nate the organized seamen as partners in the 
shipping business. At first, spokesmen for the 
shipowners were suave and diplomatic. While 
declining to have anything further to do with the 
unions, they emphatically declared that the 
men would be given a ''square deal." The ship- 
owners' letter and other current events furnish 
conclusive evidence that the promise of a square 
deal was not made in good faith. It was merely 
bait to catch the poor gullible fish. 

Fair play and the square deal will come back 
only when seamen are again able to enforce recog- 
nition of Seamen's Union ! 



WHAT DO THE FILIPINOS WANT? 



On March 12, 1521, Ferdinand Magellan, a 
Portuguese in the employ of the Spaniards, landed 
in the Philippines and attempted to establish 
Spanish rule. Magellan was killed, but Spain as- 
serted her control after years of fighting. 

The Filipinos have ever since been fighting or 
lustily shouting for independence, for freedom, 
for the right to govern themselves. 

The United States took charge of the Philip- 
pines in 1898, but the struggle for freedom kept 
right on. It is a long stretch from 1521 to 1933. 
At any rate, the United States Congress has 
finally granted the long-sought-for independence. 
President Hoover tried to take it away again, but 
the House of Representatives killed his veto by 
274 to 94, and the Senate followed suit by oxer- 
riding the veto with 66 to 24 votes. So, when 
everything was set for a grand and glorious in- 
dependence celebration leading Filipino politicians 
decided they did not want their freedom, after all. 

The bill, while granting independence some ten 
years hence, provides also for absolute exclusion 
of Filipino laborers to take effect at once. In addi- 
tion, the bill provides for a gradual abrogation of 



February, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



23 






the special tariff privileges now enjoyed by Philip- 
pine goods shipped to the United States. 

The Filipinos, it seems, not only want their 
freedom but they also want perpetuation of all 
the special privileges which they have enjoyed 
while a dependency of the United States. 

It is hard to figure out just what our little 
brown brothers are after. Evidently they, them- 
selves, have not the faintest idea that a free and 
independent nation must stand upon its own feet 
and must accept the same treatment with respect 
to tariff and immigration as is accorded to other 
nations. 

In the meantime, due to the depression, the lot 
of Filipino immigrants in America is anything but 
enviable. So many complaints upon this score 
have come to Washington that free transportation 
for unemployed destitute Filipinos back to the 
Philippine Islands is proposed in Representative 
Dickstein's resolution (H. J. Res. 549), pending 
in the House Committee on Immigration and 
Naturalization. 

According to Mr. Dickstein, the adoption of his 
resolution would relieve charitable institutions in 
the United States from a heavy burden and elimi- 
nate considerable competition with American citi- 
zens for jobs. 

The Secretary of Labor, William N. Doak; 
W. C. Hushing, legislative representative of the 
American Federation of Labor; and Camilo Osias 
and Pedro Guevara, resident commissioners of the 
Philippine Islands, were among the witnesses 
testifying in favor of the resolution. 

Under the measure, the Army and Navy would 
transport back to the Philippines without charge 
those Filipinos who are found to be unemployed 
and destitute and who wish to return to their own 
land. 

The Quartermaster General of the Army, 
Major General J. L. DeWitt, told the Committee 
an Army transport is available which could take 
6,600 Filipinos a year back to the islands at a 
per capita cost of $65, and Commander W. R. 
Purnell of the Navy said the Navy could trans- 
port about 2,000 a year on its regular schedule 
of sailings at a cost of $17.50 per capita. The 
difference in cost was explained by the fact that 
the Army has to employ civilian ship personnel. 

Murray W. Garsson, special assistant to Mr. 
Doak, told the committee he had made a special 
study of the situation with respect to Filipinos in 



the United States. He was advised, he said, that 
15,000 probably would ask for transportation to 
their home land from Los Angeles County, Cali- 
fornia, alone, and he added that his guess is that 
30,000 would leave from all the states. 

There was no opposition whatever to Mr. Dick- 
stein's proposal. This indicates that it may go 
through. And yet, what sense is there in giving 
the Filipinos a free ride home as long as we per- 
mit their unrestricted immigration to the United 
States. What we need is the prompt enactment 
of a Filipino exclusion bill — with or without 
Philippine independence. The evils of Filipino 
immigration are altogether too serious. The solu- 
tion of that evil must not be delayed nor tied to 
an academic debate over independence ! 



SOCIAL TRENDS 



National economic and social planning, a better 
distribution of income, an increase of the purchas- 
ing power of the masses, a six-hour day and a 
five-day week in order to distribute employment, 
are among the recommendations made in a report 
just issued by the Research Committee of 500 in- 
vestigators appointed by President Hoover three 
years ago to survey the whole American field. 

The report further advocates the establishment 
of a "solvent unemployment fund," the extension 
of old-age pensions, the extension of public con- 
trol over public utilities (including perhaps the 
coal industry), and an increase in the inheritance 
taxes. 

The committee declares in a striking passage: 

Unless there can be more impressive integration of 
social skills and fusing of social purposes than is re- 
vealed by the recent trends, there can be no assurance 
that a violent revolution and dark periods of serious 
repression of libertarian and democratic forms, and 
the proscription and loss- of many useful elements in 
the present productive system, can be averted. 

The report expresses concern over the spread 
of graft and racketeering in the government and 
in parts of the judiciary, mentioning the Teapot 
Dome scandal and the traffic in judgeships. It 
says that the American standard of living in the 
near future may decline owing to unemployment 
and weakness of mass action by the employees, as, 
for instance, is shown by the decline in the mem- 
bership of the American trade unions from 5,000,- 
000 in 1920 to 3,300,000 in 1931. 

While expressing the warning that there is need 
to tackle the problem of the machine, the report 
says that the depression has forced employers to 



24 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February, 1933 



devise a new means of saving labor, so that "at 
best the problem of technological unemployment 
promises to remain grave for years to come." 

The Research Committee does not go as far 
as the Technocrats but they surely go very much 
further than Mr. Hoover ever did. "Rugged In- 
dividualism has received a knockout blow by Mr. 
Hoover's own Research Committee." 



TRYING TO USE UNCLE SAM 



WEBSTER'S PROPHECY 



Even the greatest minds can make curious er- 
rors, when they enter the realm of prophecy. 

In the current issue of Railway Aye is a ([no- 
tation from a speech made by Daniel Webster 
in the senate in 1850, opposing a bill to make a 
survey of a possible railroad route to the Pacific 
Coast. 

At that time Webster said: 

What do we want of this vast worthless area — this 
region of cactus and wild beasts, of deserts of dust, of 
cactus and prairie dogs. 

What can we ever hope to do with the western 
coast of 3,000 miles, rockhound, cheerless and not a 
harhor on it. 

Mr. President, I will never vote one cent from the 
treasury to place the Pacific Coast one inch nearer 
Boston than it now is. 

Two years later Daniel Webster was dead, so 
that he never lived to see how vastly mistaken 
he was. 

It would be interesting to watch the reactions 
of the great patriot could he return to earth and 
see how this region of cactus and prairie dogs 
lias grown into one of the richest and most pro- 
ductive sections of the nation, with one city al- 
most twice as large as his beloved Boston and 
another approaching it in population. 

California alone has 1,000,000 more people than 
Massachusetts and in the letters and arts feels she- 
is at least equal to the ( >ld Bay State. 



A new Federal prison recently was completed 
at Lewisburg, Pa., built at a cost of $2,400,000. 
It will be used to relieve some of the overcrowd- 
ing now so apparent at Leavenworth. Atlanta and 
other Federal penitentiaries. This congestion in 
these prisons can be traced to just one factor — 
prohibition. Nearly 40 per cent of all those con- 
fined therein are dry law violators. In addition, 
there has been a large overflow into state prisons 
and county jails. Instead of emptying jails, as 
promised by every prohibitionist, the "noble ex- 
periment" has proved an unbearable tax on their 
capacity. 



After receiving the Lytton report, which vig- 
orously criticized the Japanese invasion of Man- 
churia and the continued occupation of that Chi- 
nese province as a violation of the covenant of 
the League of Nations, the League council passed 
the matter on to the League assembly for action. 

Some of the hotter heads in that body were 
at first all for the passage of resolutions excoriat- 
ing Japanese policy. But it was finally agreed 
that such a policy would not l>e politic — rather 
that the next effort to settle the Sino- Japanese 
conflict should take the form of a commission of 
conciliation in which the United States and Rus- 
sia would participate. 

in other words, the policy of the league will 
lie to pass the buck to the United States and 
Russia. 

That will be easier in intention than in actual 
realization. 

In the first place, it is safe to say our govern- 
ment, during the time between now and March 
4. will not commit itself to any such program 
in view of the approaching change in an admin- 
istration. In the second place, if Japan has 
violated the terms of the covenant of the I 
of Nations against aggression, it i^ for the league 
members, not outsiders, to decide what shall Ik.* 
done about it. 

The chief difficulty is that the Other 
powers in the league, while publicly deploring 
the action of Japan, privately sympathize with 
her. .After all, Japan is but doing in China what 
they have been doing all over the world for lo 
these many years past. It is not by the consent 
of the governed that the Hags of France, Italy 
and Great Britain wave over the greater portion 
of Africa, much of Asia and even portions of 
America. 



Four American states have had Jewish Gov- 
ernors beginning with January 1, 1933. Herbert 
H. Lehman was inaugurated in New York, 
Henry Horner in Illinois; New Mexico already 
had Governor Seligman and Oregon Governor 
Meier. Up to the recent election there had been 
but eight in American history. Twelve legislatures 
will have seventy-eight Jewish members; there 
will be ten in the new House of Representatives. 
Who was it that called the Jews a people without 
a country? 



February, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



25 



WHAT IS TECHNOCRACY? 



Technocracy is based upon a scientific matter- 
of-fact study of power resources within the 
United States, and in particular, the diminishing 
amount of man-power needed per unit of produc- 
tion, under recent technological development. Most 
of this study has been done by a large group of 
engineers working over a period of several years 
at Columbia University — their number is at pres- 
ent about one hundred — and a smaller group has 
been at work for more than a decade. 

The "Technocrats" maintain that technological 
unemployment, the displacement of men by ma- 
chines, has created problems incapable of solution 
by existing methods. They claim that at least half 
of America's 13,000,000 or 14,000,000 unem- 
ployed are no longer needed in the industries from 
which they have been ejected; and that inventions 
already available will increase this unemployment 
to 20,000,000 or 25,000,000. This is on the 
assumption that the standard of living remains 
as high as formerly and that exports are not 
diminished from their formal normal volume. 

The adherents of Technocracy argue that the 
only way out of this dilemma is the abolition of 
"the price system." They criticize Communism 
as being old-fashioned and insufficiently radical, 
since it retains the use of money. Under a re- 
constructed society as the Technocrats would have 
it, all adults between the ages of 25 and 45, would 
work about six hundred hours a year in electri- 
fied super-factories or other designated places of 
employment, and by their activity would produce 
sufficient goods of every kind to raise the present 
standard of living in the United States about 1.000 
per cent. These goods would be made available 
on a basis of need, and not on a basis of money. 

The supporters of Technocracy are not plan- 
ning a revolution. Like the Socialists they insist 
that capitalism is cracking up, and that society 
will be forced to adopt their ideas as the only 
alternative to chaos and starvation. The guiding- 
spirit in Technocracy is Mr. Howard Scott, a 
highly trained engineer, with an extraordinary 
faculty of attaching to himself persons who be- 
come indifferent to personal gain. Only within the 
last few months have the Technocracy group 
permitted anything to be published about their 
work, and at the present time the American press 
is being flooded with articles descriptive of their 



plan and explaining in detail how the existing 
economic machinery of America cannot survive. 

It is especially interesting to note that Tech- 
nocracy does not establish claims as a world-wide 
panacea. Mr. Scott and his followers insist that 
only the North American continent is at present 
properly equipped both with the necessary raw 
materials and with technologically trained popu- 
lation to give Technocracy fair expression. What 
they propose is an isolated unit cut off as com- 
pletely as possible from the rest of the world. 

And so history may repeat itself in her own 
mvsterious fashion. Two thousand years ago the 
Chinese built their great wall to keep out the 
barbarians and to develop their own superior civ- 
ilization unhampered and undisturbed. Well, the 
Chinese within their wall have certainly developed 
a strange civilization. Nowhere on earth are wages 
as low and working hours as long as in China. 

Needless to state, the sad fate of the workers 
in China does not necessarily reflect upon the 
Technocrats but the very idea of trying out an- 
other high wall to better develop our own civiliza- 
tion — it makes us defer judgment. 



CALLICOTTE'S UNION RECORD 



Paul M. Callicotte. who claims he planted the 
alleged bomb for which crime Mooney and Bill- 
ings are serving life terms in California prisons, 
was for a short period a member of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America. Callicotte 
was admitted to the Eastern and Gulf Sailors' 
Association on October 10, 1920. Shortly there- 
after he became a member of the Sailors' Union 
of the Pacific. The transfer of membership from 
the Atlantic to the Pacific District was recorded 
at Portland, Oregon, on October 23, 1920. ( )n 
May 1, 1921, the union was forced into a defen- 
sive strike to resist wage reductions and general 
lowering of working conditions. Shortly there- 
after Callicotte was charged with scabbing. Upon 
due investigation and trial by a jury consisting 
of his brother members, he was found guilty as 
charged and expelled from the union on August 
15, 1921. The foregoing facts are published by 
request of the San Pedro branch of the Sailors' 
Union of the Pacific. 



Where there is much light there is much 
shade. 

Lean liberty is better than fat slavery. 



26 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



Fchruarv. 1933 



CURRENT LEGAL NOTES 



A Ten Thousand Dollar Award. — In the 
case of the Parismina (Bartolo Scala vs. United 
Fruit Company), the United States District Court 
in Texas held it to be negligent to send the sea- 
men to the forecastle in a storm to secure the 
canvas covers to the hawse pipes. For a broken 
leg, twisted foot, shortened leg and permanent 
incapacity to pursue the calling of seaman the 
sum of $10,000 was awarded. The court said, 
in part : 

Libellant signed as a seaman on the steamship 
Parismina about February 26, 1931, for a voyage from 
New Orleans to Panama and return at wages of $55 
per month. While the steamship was at sea, return- 
ing from Panama by way of Yucatan Channel, and a 
short distance from Puerto Castilla, she, on the morn- 
ing of March 3, 1931, encountered a storm around 65 
miles per hour. The steamship was headed into the 
wind at a speed of approximately eight or nine knots 
per hour. While the conditions above set forth pre- 
vailed, libellant was ordered by an officer of the steam- 
ship to place canvas covers on the anchor chain pipes 
on the forecastle deck. 

I find that the master, officers and operators of said 
steamship were negligent in ordering libellant on said 
forecastle deck under the circumstances under which 
he was ordered there, and that such negligence was 
the proximate cause of his injury. It is clear that 
such master, officers and operators of the said steam- 
ship believed and knew that it was dangerous to send 
libellant to the forecastle deck under the circumstances. 
That they did so believe and know is made certain 
by the fact that the ropes were removed from and the 
watch ordered to leave the forecastle deck immediately 
before libellant was ordered there. * * * 

I find that the sum of $10,000 would reasonably com- 
pensate libellant for his damages, including his pain 
and suffering, disability and expenses incurred, etc., 
and for wages, maintenance and cure, and I find for 
him in that amount. 

Definition of Injury. — The death of a pipe- 
fitter caused by cerebro-spinal meningitis con- 
tracted while working on board a vessel after its 
arrival at port following a voyage during which 
several cases of such disease had developed was 
the result of an "injury" within the meaning of 
the Longshoremen's and Harbor Workers' Com- 
pensation Act in view of a provision of such Act 
defining an "injury" as "accidental injury or 
death arising out of and in the course of employ- 
ment, and such occupational disease or infection 
as arises naturally out of such employment or as 
naturally or unavoidably results from such acci- 
dental injury." The employer and its insurance 
carrier, in disclaiming liability for compensation 
under the Act, admitted that spinal meningitis is a 
disease resulting from infection but denied that 
the Act was applicable thereto, contending that in- 
fection to come within the operation of the Act 
must be occupational. The Circuit Court of Ap- 



peals rejected the contention, stating that such 
construction would in effect strike out of the 
statute the words "or infection." The court held 
that the injury which resulted in the death of the 
employe was either an "accidental" injury or such 
an "infection as arises naturally out of such em- 
ployment" within the meaning of the Act. The 
court held that it was not concluded by the deci- 
sions of the New York courts because the statute 
in the respects under consideration differs from 
the Xew York Compensation Law from which in 
the main the Longshoremen's and Harbor Work- 
ers' Compensation Act is taken. — Todd Dry 
Docks, Inc., etc., ct al. v. Marshall, Deputy Comr., 
etc.: C. C. A. 9, No. 691?. Nov. 7, 1932. 



BOOK REVIEW 



MERCHANT VESSELS OF THE UNITED 
STATES, 1932 — Compiled and published by the 
Bureau of Navigation and Steamboat Inspection 
of the Department of Commerce. Bound in imita- 
tion canvas. 1,121 pages, 7 x 10 inches. Price $2.75. 

This canvas covered volume, popularly referred 
to as the Blue Book of American shipping, con- 
tains the name of every documented merchant 
vessel and yacht in the United States, approxi- 
mately 29,000, with such descriptive data as offi- 
cial number, gross and net tonnage, dimensions, 
material, horsepower, home port, year and place 
of building, service and number of men compos- 
ing the crew, together with the name and address 
of the owner. 

Steam, motor, sail, unrigged vessels and yachts 
are listed separately, in the alphabetical order of 
their names. The type of engine and kind of 
fuel used by the steam and motor vessels are in- 
dicated. Vessels equipped with radio transmitting 
apparatus or radio compass, or both, are marked, 
as are those which are classed by the American 
Bureau of Shipping. 

There is a list of every documented merchant 
vessel and yacht which was lost, abandoned, sold 
to aliens, or removed from the American mer- 
chant marine, for any reason, during the fiscal 
year. 

All shipyards building vessels of 100 gross tons 
and over since 1910 are listed with the names and 
description of the vessels built by them during 
that period. There also is a register of owners 
of vessels of 100 gross tons and over with the 
name and other pertinent information concerning 
each vessel of that class owned by them. 



10 



February, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



27 



SHIPPING NEWS 



Five of the major Dutch shipowners have asked 
the government for financial assistance through 
the semi-official financing company recently estab- 
lished at The Hague. 

Italian shipyards have obtained a contract from 
the Persian War Office for the construction of 
several war vessels, while German companies have 
received orders from Persia for military airplanes. 

Bilbao shipyards have been granted a credit 
equal to. £600,000 by the Spanish government to 
finance the construction of two vessels for the 
Mediterranean trade. This action was taken by 
the government to create work for the large num- 
bers of unemployed in the Bilbao district. 

Four vessels, each of 3,000 tons, have been 
added to the Black Sea service to the Continent 
by the Soviet authorities under a program to 
modernize the Black Sea merchant fleet. The ves- 
sels are the Noguin, Skllansky, Tsuriupa and 
Timiriasev. Two 10,000-ton tankers, the Soy us 
Vodnikov and Mossoviet, are also to be added to 
the Black Sea service. 

Action on the Copeland bill providing for the 
regulation of intercoastal shipping rates by the 
United States Shipping Board will be delayed for 
several months, according to the chairman of the 
House Committee on Merchant Marine, Radio 
and Fisheries, to which the bill has been referred. 
At the last session of Congress, the Senate passed 
the bill but it reached the House too late for 
action. 

The French liner company Chargeurs Reunis 
for the year to June 30, 1931, reports gross re- 
ceipts of 253,567,684 francs, against 350,815,453 
francs in the previous year. The operating profit 
is 19,682,477 francs, against 21,245,871 francs. 
After meeting debenture interest and deprecia- 
tion, there remains a net profit of 5,217 francs. 
For the second year in succession, no dividend is 
paid. The fleet is valued at 395,607,268 francs. 

Scrapping of as much unprofitable tonnage 
as possible is urged upon owners of passenger and 
freight ships in a resolution adopted by the ship- 
owners' committee of the International Chamber 
of Commerce at a meeting recently held in Paris. 
Opposition to the practice of "artifically stimulat- 
ing shipbuilding or maintaining in commission 



through state subsidies ships which cannot other- 
wise be run at a profit," was also expressed in 
the resolution. 

Harbor construction contemplated at Ham- 
burg will be financed by a loan of 2,925,000 marks 
to the Hamburg authorities by the Gesellschaft 
fur Oeffentliche Arbeiten, trustee of the govern- 
ment funds. The Reichsanstalt fur Arbeitsver- 
mittlung und Arbeitslosenfursorge will provide 
an additional 300,000 marks. A sum of 2,700,000 
marks has also been advanced to the port of 
Bremen for harbor improvement which will pro- 
vide work for 50,000 working days. The primary 
purpose of these construction programs is to 
create work for the unemployed. 

Consolidation of the Nippon Yusen Kaisha, 
Kinkai Yusen Kaisha and Osaka Shosen Kaisha, 
to become effective early in January, 1933, is re- 
ported from Tokyo. It is understood that the 
consolidation of the three lines will be in the 
nature of a close working agreement rather than 
an actual merger. The combined fleets of the 
N. Y. K. and K. Y. K. total 147 vessels of 
865,087 tons gross, while the O. S. K. has a 
fleet of 173 vessels of 533,964 tons gross, in ad- 
dition to thirty-seven vessels of 583,918 tons 
gross operated under charter. Details of the pro- 
posed combination are expected to be published 
by the companies before the merger becomes ef- 
fective. 

Right of seizure and search of British vessels 
by Finnish authorities for suspected liquor smug- 
gling beyond the limits of the Finnish territorial 
waters has been protested by the British govern- 
ment. Last spring Finland passed a law per- 
mitting her authorities to seize ^suspected vessels 
in international waters, but the attitude of the 
British government is expected to take the teeth 
out of the law, and it is predicted that smugglers 
will seek the protection of the British flag. When 
Finland created a government liquor monopoly 
last April, after twelve years of prohibition, the 
prices fixed were considerably lower than those 
previously charged by the bootleggers. But they 
are still competing with government prices in 
order to save their trade, with the result that a 
drastic anti-smuggling law had to be enacted. 

A saving of almost $1,000,000 in salaries and 
wages was the result of the reduction in the 
personnel of the Merchant Fleet Corporation by 
566 employees, according to the annual report of 
the Shipping Board for the year ended June 30, 



11 



28 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February, 1933 



1932. Since July 1, 1928, 2,037 employees have 
been discharged with a saving of $3,063,309. Dur- 
ing the year, advances from the Board's construc- 
tion loan fund totaled $50,817,809, against $28,- 
704,786 in 1931. Four additional ocean mail con- 
tracts were awarded to operators, making a total 
of forty-four since the Merchant Marine Act of 
1928 was passed. These contracts call for the 
construction of sixty-nine vessels, including five 
reconditioned ships, and fifty-seven vessels to be 
improved or substituted. The cost of the new 
ships will be $300,000,000 and that of the im- 
provements, $22,300,000. 

During January, two mighty new vessels made 
their debuts in San Francisco on maiden voyages 
from the builders on the east coast — the Grace 
liner Santa Paula and the Matson-Oceanic liner 
Lurline. The Santa Paula is the second of four 
bottoms constructed at the Federal Shipbuilding 
Company, Kearny. X. J., for the intercoastal and 
coastwise services. In the Santa Paula and the 
other three new Grace liners, foyers, corridors and 
stairways have lost their "ship look." Portholes 
for the most part have been replaced by attrac- 
tively curtained windows. Although the ships of 
the new Grace fleet are 508 feet long, 72 feet 
beam, and of 17,000 tons displacement, they will 
each accommodate only 222 first-class passengers. 
Cabins are large outside- rooms and each has a 
private bath or shower. Fifty-two motor-driven 
fans, with a total capacity of 170,000 cubic feet 
of air per minute, are employed in ventilating 
the cargo holds, hull and passenger accommoda- 
tions. In addition to these, there are also 200 
bracket fans located in various staterooms and 
public rooms. The Lurline marks tin- completion 
of the building program of the Matson house, 
being the last of three passenger and cargo ships 
turned out by the Fore River plant of the Bethle- 
hem Shipbuilding Corporation. The Lurline has 
accommodations for 672 passengers, 443 of these 
being in first-class and 229 in cabin-class, and 
arrangements have been made for transforming 
the latter into first class accommodations when 
necessary by opening up certain passageway doors. 
Space is provided for 5,000 tons of dry cargo 
and 850 tons of refrigerated cargo. Special com- 
partments are provided for small express pack- 
ages and for bullion. The general particulars of 
the new liner are: Gross register, 18,500 tons; 
length over all, 632 feet ; beam, 79 feet ; draft, 
28 feet ; displacement, 26,000 tons. 



LABOR NEWS 



At the first convention of the International Air- 
line 1'ilots' Association, held in Chicago recently, 
it was reported that 80 per cent of eligible pilots 
were affiliated with the association. Which, you 
must admit, is not a bad record for so young an 
organization. 

James A. Farley, chairman of the Democratic 
National Committee, declared that there will be 
about 150,000 political jobs for deserving Demo- 
crats when the Roosevelt administration takes 
over the government next March. The -jobs run 
all the way from doorkeepers to positions in the 
( 'abinet. 

The San Francisco Board of Supervisors has 
adopted the six-hour day, thirty-hour week, with 
a higher wage scale for all field workers on mu- 
nicipal construction projects during the next six 
months. ( Mticials said the scale will affect more 
than NO per cent of the labor involved and will 

increase the cost estimate of scheduled projects, 

as based on city civil service wage recommenda- 
tions, approximately $150,000. The total cost esti- 
mate of projects is approximately $2,000,000. 

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics has 
become the second largest producer of petroleum 
in the world, with the United States ranking first 
and Ven/.uela third, according to figures made 
public by the United State- Department of Com- 
merce. From January to September of 1932, 
United States production reached 595, 198,000 
barrel-: Soviet Union, 120,160,623 barrels; Ven- 
zuela, 88,287,647 barrels: Rumania. 36.913,929 
barrels: Persia, 35,981,989 barrels, and Mexico 
24,633,972 barrels. In the Soviet Union the pro- 
duction and marketing of oil is a government 
monopoly. 

The United States Census Bureau announced 
that of the 13,216,928 foreign-born white persons 
above ten years of age in the United States 
1,304,084, or 9.9 per cent, are illiterate. The 
low< st percentage of illiteracy, or three-tenths of 
one per cent, was found among the Scotch. 
Among the English and Canadians it was six- 
tenths of one per cent, and among those from 
Newfoundland eight-tenths of one per cent. The 
highest percentage (36.9) was found among the 
groups from the Azores, with Portuguese I 34.7) 
and Italians (25.3) next in order. 



12 



February, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



29 



Senator Black of Alabama introduced a bill 
in the Senate designed to establish the five-day 
week and six-hour day in all industries by pro- 
hibiting shipment in interstate or foreign com- 
merce of goods produced by persons employed 
longer hours than those proposed in the measure. 
A fine of not more than $200 or imprisonment 
for three months, or both, for violating its pro- 
visions is provided. The bill was referred to the 
judiciary committee. "We have got to take some 
action and take it quickly," said Senator Black, 
"to absorb the millions of unemployed. This bill 
would enable millions to be given work. I think 
it is the most important measure yet proposed in 
connection with the unemployment situation." 

What is the likelihood of the older worker 
getting a job when business conditions return to 
normal? He has less than half a chance, accord- 
ing to the New York State Commission on Old 
Age Security. Men above 35 and women above 
30 are discriminated against in filling 89 per cent 
of available jobs, it says, while they are definitely 
barred from 59 per cent of gainful occupations. 
That there is no sound reason for scrapping men 
who have passed the industrial deadline has been 
disclosed by the commission's study. It found 
that about 25 per cent of the men between 50 
and 89 years of age are able to do as well in 
tests as the average men in the group between 
18 and 45 years. 

Three American railroads pay their chief execu- 
tive officers a salary in excess of $100,000 a year. 
Twenty-five executives receive salaries of $60,000 
or more a year. A group of 83 receive an aver- 
age (median) salary of $30,000, and of this num- 
ber 28 are in the fifty-thousand-a-year class or 
above. Prince among the princes of salary getters 
is the chairman of the board of the Southern 
Pacific Company, who receives $135,000 a year — 
a little less than $450 per working day. Next in 
line of this royal family is the doughty general 
of the Pennsylvania lines, whose job of presi- 
dent brings him $121,500 a year, but before a 
recent cut his salary topped them all — $150,000 
a year. The Baltimore & Ohio pays its president 
$120,000, which is five thousand less than he 
received before his salary was cut. 

Bidding briskly against opposition, the Brick- 
layers, Masons and Plasterers' International 
Union was able to record one of the most bril- 
liant real estate purchases of the year here this 



week, adding another to the already sizeable 
group of permanent union headquarters in Wash- 
ington. The union purchased at auction the F. H. 
Smith Building, 815-817 Fifteenth Street, N. W., 
for $335,000. The building is nine stories high, 
with brick basement. It has a magnificent bank- 
ing room, mezzanine, safety deposit vaults and 
120 offices. It will be operated by the union 
as an investment, in addition to serving as the 
permanent headquarters. The original estimated 
cost of the building was $700,000 and its current 
assessed valuation is $658,920, including land and 
structure. The maximum depth of the building 
is 139 feet. The width is 49 feet. 

As just about the last vestige of freedom for 
German trade unions disappears under Orders 
in Council and court decisions, we see again the 
penalty of dictatorship visited upon the head of 
labor. German unions have today no authority 
and no power to enforce wage agreements or 
wage rates. The movement is virtually stripped 
of vital powers. Whether recovery of the Ger- 
man nation can be hastened by robbing her work- 
ing people of their rights to self-protection re- 
mains to be seen. Our guess is NO. Through- 
out Continental Europe the rights of workers 
suffer today. The heavy hand of depression has 
been helped by the heavier hand of armed Gov- 
ernmental authority. Not that way lies progress. 
But Iron Men on Horseback never did see clearly 
into the future. Always it has been necessary 
to convince them by throwing them out. 

All the important mines in Japan, in particular 
the coal mines, have been seriously affected by 
the economic depression in recent years. The 
principal factors affecting the- mining industry 
have been the curtailment of production in manu- 
facturing industries, the electrification of motive 
power, especially in the spinning mills, and the 
inactivity of the shipping business. The result 
has been a noticeable decrease in the number of 
mines in operation and miners employed, as well 
as in the amount of the workers' earnings. The 
average wages for men, women and all workers 
during the past year were 1.45 yen, 0.81 yen and 
1.38 yen per day respectively. The correspond- 
ing figures for the previous year were 1.66, 1.02 
and 1.57. The average wage thus fell by about 
12 per cent. The miners actually worked 8 hours 
53 minutes a day and 25.7 days in the month 
during the year. 






13 



30 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February. 1933 



THE PASSING VAUDEVILLE 



That the hoi polloi will certainly miss the 
depression after it is over and the country has 
returned to normalcy is without question. In 
the period since the nosedive of 1929, when the 
country dove from its perch in a haze of camou- 
flaged disaster known as prosperity, we have been 
treated to the greatest vaudeville skit in history. 

Starting in with the assurance of the temporary 
nature of the debacle and assured that a greater 
and more lasting prosperity was around the 
corner, we have gradually come to the conclusion 
that things will never recover and if anything 
become worse. All investigations have disclosed 
what any intelligent school boy already knew. 
We have seen the predictions of our best think- 
ers and captains of industry come to naught. 
Many outstanding figures in finance and banking 
have been shown up to be imbeciles where they 
were not outright crooks. Every effort of the na- 
tional administration seems to have been bungled 
hopelessly through the political exigencies attend- 
ant to its receiving consideration at the hands 
of politicians or "statesmen" if you please, who 
seem to only consider private interests. 

The people have faintly heard the echoes of 
learned commissions that discovered that various 
law.-, were disregarded or disobeyed. For instance, 
bootleggers flourished, that police, judges, crooks, 
politicians and the people in general drank liquor 
supplied by bootleggers. That betting on horse 
races, lotteries and allied forms of gambling 
ilourished. That bribery was rife, that sharp 
practices in practically all financial operations 
were the rule, that pull and influence counted 
above the law. 

We were told that wage cutting was the last 
thing to be resorted to as it would only intensify 
the panic. The very men that wanted "more 
business in government and less government in 
business" wailed for government aid lest they 
perish. With practical farmers giving up and 
hitting the road to the cities from farms taken 
over by the banks, some morons cried, "Back 
to the land." 

Now come some of the last stages of the de- 
lirium, "Technocracy" and "Buy American." We 
watch 165 Chinese imported from China at $6 
per month to man one American ship starting out 
on a luxury cruise. We see newsprint coming in 
plentifully with the caption, "Made in Canada." 



We have seen our great industrialists install plants 
in foreign countries and American wages reduced 
to the point where a month's wages will not keep 
the worker for a month in enforced idleness pro- 
vided he is idle only a month. 

A census nt" the breadline would undoubtedly 
reveal as many Technocrats as it would believers 
in other absurd fads. The tragedy is every one 
of them has one thing in common and that is a 
lack of trust in what once was held up to all as 
the spirit of integrity and progress, our great 
captains of industry, our statesmen and expound- 
ers of economics. The physical harm that this 
generation will experience will not have half the 
effect on the future as the mental complex that 
this grotesque or macabre comedy i- developing 
in the mass of the people. 

In maritime circles, the crowning developments 
come in rapid succession. First, the rapid decline 
in wages in the subsidized ships, next the state- 
ment of a shipowner of some prominence, whose 
ships are engaged in the well protected inter- 
coastal trade that these subsidies enabled us to 
have a Merchant Marine built by Americans, 
owned by Americans and "Paying American 
Wages!" The ships of this gentleman's concern 
are a byword and an execration among seamen, 
because he is paying the very lowest possible 
wages, around $25 per month now. I believe, and 
using extensive charity labor and providing ardu- 
ous work. Let us hope we have reached the apex 
of the fun in this bizarre comedy so that in 
time to come people can look back kindly on the 
depression and say, "Well, we saw some of the 
wise guys as they really were!" You know. ( ihancli 
even wouldn't look like much in a dr 
Samentu. 



Nothing is accomplished by an attempt to make 
a portion of mankind safe at the expense of an- 
other portion — Frenchmen at the expei 
< iermans. capitalists at the expense of wage- 
earners, white men at the expense of yellow men, 
and so on. Such methods only increase terror in 
the dominant group lest just resentment should 
lead the oppressed to rebel. Only justice can give 
security, and by "justice" I mean the recognition 
of the equal claims of all human beings. — Ber- 
trand Russell. 



The work of organization is hard, but the re- 
sults make it worth the time and effort — bring 
in a new member. 



14 



February, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



31 



Professional Cards 



Attorney for the Sailors' Union of the 
Pacific since its organization 

H. W. Hutton 

531 Pacific Building, Fourth and Market Sts. 

SAN FRANCISCO 

PHONE DOUGLAS 0315 



Albert Michelson 

ATTORNEY-AT-LAW 

Attorney for 

Marine Firemen and Watertenders' 
Union of Pacific 
Marine Diesel and Gasoline Engi- 
neers' Association No. 49 
611 Russ Bidg. Tel. SUtter 3866 

San Francisco, California 



ANDERSON 8C LAMB 

Attorney s-at-Law 

1226 Engineers Bank Building 

CLEVELAND, OHIO 

Personal Injury Attorneys for Seamen on 
the Great Lakes 



Frank Orwitz 



ATTORNEY-AT-LAW 



Room No. 630, Hearst Building 
Market Street and Third 



SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 
Telephone GArfield 6353 



"Hold on There!"' 

An Irishman got off a train at a 
station for refreshments, but the 
train started before he had finished 
his sandwich. Running along the 
platform after the train he shouted: 
"Hold on there! Hold on! You've 
got a passenger aboard that's left 
behind!" 



Age Limit for Ricksha Drivers' 
Pullers 

The Bureau of Public Safety in 
Shanghai, China, has fixed an age 
limit of 17 for "drivers' licenses" on 
rickshas, deciding that youths under 
that age are not sufficiently matured 
to pull the one-man vehicles through 
the streets. 



DENTIST 




Plates and 
Bridgework 

DR. C. S. FORD 

702 Market Street 

At Market-Geary-Kearny Sts. 
Phone EXbrook 0329 

Daily Office hours, 8:30 a. m. to 7 p. m. 
Sunday hours, 9 a.m. till noon 
"One Patient Tells Another" 



JENSEN 8c NELSEN 

Gents' Furnishing Goods 

Sayer's Oil Skin Clothing 
Uniforms, Caps, Hats, Shoes 



110 EAST STREET 
GArfield 9633 



NEAR MISSION 
San Francisco 



Fire Insurance 

Mrs. Mose Johnson, whose mari- 
tal path was anything but smooth, 
walked into an insurance office and 
inquired, "Does you-all hab any of 
dat fire assurance heah?" 

"We do," a clerk replied. "What 
do you want insured?" 

"Mah husband," was the reply. 

"Then you don't want fire in- 
surance," smiled the clerk, as he 
reached for another application form. 
"What you want is a life insurance 
policy." 

"No, Ah don't!" Mrs. Johnson ex- 
claimed. "Ah wants fire insurance. 
Dat nigger's been fired fo' times in 
de las' two weeks." 



Living the Truth 

Boss: If Mr. Simpson calls today 
tell him I'm out. 

Floor Salesman: Yes, sir. 

Boss: But don't be doing any 
work or he won't believe you. 



Fast Work 

Barber: "Why, sir, your hair is 
turning gray at the temple." 

Cusomer: "I wouldn't doubt it a 
bit. It may be white before I get 
out of here." 



M. BROWN & SONS 

SAN PEDRO, CALIFORNIA 

Clothing and Furnishing Goods 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 

Exclusive Agents Florsheim Shoes and Hart Schaffner & Marx 

Clothing and the Best in Oil Clothing and Boots 

See Them at M. Brown & Sons 

109 SIXTH STREET, SAN PEDRO 



15 



SEATTLE, WASH. 



K. K. Tvete & Sons 

Established 1890 

MEN'S CLOTHING, SHOES, HATS, 
AND FURNISHING GOODS 

1300-1302 First Ave., cor. University 
SEATTLE, WASH. 



Westerman's 

UNION LABEL, 

Clothier, Furnisher & Hatter 

Alaska Outfitter 

TWO BIG STORES 

Store No. 1 — Cor. Main and First 

Store No. 2 — Westlake and Pine 

SEATTLE 



Bonney- Watson Go. 

Funeral Directors 

Crematory and Columbarium 

1702 Broadway Seattle 



The Undelivered Vote 
A Kentuckian had seventeen chil- 
dren, all boys. When they came of 
age the)- voted uniformly the Demo- 
cratic ticket all except one boy. The 
father was asked to explain this evi- 
dent fall from grace. 

"Wal," said he, "I've always tried 
to bring them boys up right, in the 
fear of the Lord and Democrats to 
the bone; but John, the ornery cuss, 
got to readin.' " 



Profitable 

"I always encourage my husband 
to recline in an easy chair and put 
his feet on top of the radiator." 

"Why so?" 

"When he goes to bed there is 
usually a dollar or so in small 
change left in the chair." 



In Doubt 

"Sometimes," confided Mrs. Long- 
wed to her intimate friend, "I 
think my husband is the patientest, 
gentlest, best-natured soul that ever 
lived, and sometimes I think its just 
laziness." ' ■ 



Dumb-bells 

Teacher: If there are any dumb- 
bells in the room, please stand up. 
After a slight pause, Jimmie stood 
up. 

"Why, Jimmie, do you consider 
yourself a dumb-bell?"' 

"Well, not exactly, teacher, but T 
hated to see you standing all alone." 



Getting the Wages 
Father (proudly) : Yes, my daugh- 
ter is now getting a man's wages. 
Visitor: Oh, when did she marry? 



No Friend of His 

Usher (to cold, dignified lady) : 
Are you a friend of the groom? 

The Lady: No, indeed! I am the 
bride's mother. 



32 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February, 1933 



Taylor's Nautical Academy 

FOR NAVIGATORS AND MARINE ENGINEERS 
Established 1888 

Consular Bldg., Corner Washington 
and Battery Sts., opp. New Custom 

House, San Francisco, Calif. 
THIS OL,D AND NOTEWORTHY 
SCHOOL is under the direct and per- 
sonal supervision of CAPT. HENRY 
TAYLOR, and equipped with all mod- 
ern appliances to illustrate and teach 
any branch of Navigation. 

The class of teachers of Navigation 
in the past have been those having 
simply a knowledge of Navigation and 
Navigation only. Conditions have 
changed, and the American seamen 
demand a man as a teacher with 
higher attainments than one who has 
only the limited ability of a seaman. 
The Principal of this School, keeping 
this always in view, studied several 
years the Maritime Law. and is now, 
in addition to being a thorough teacher of Navigation and its kindred 
subjects, a regularly admitted Member of the Bar. 

There is no standard of education required of a pupil entering the 
School, for no matter how ignorant the seaman may be, even in the 
rudiments of common education, Captain Henry Taylor will teach and 
raise him from the depths of ignorance to the height of the average 
well informed man. and in a comparatively short interval of time. 




Phono GARFIELD 2076 

DR. EDMOND J. BARRETT 

DENTIST 

Rooms 2429-30, 450 Sutter Building 

Hours: 9 A. M. to 5 P. M. and 

by Appointment 



Seamen's Furnishing Goods 

OTTO PAHL 

Shoes, Oilskins, Seaboots and Underwear 
Suits cleaned and pressed while you wait 

140 EMBARCADERO 
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 



98 EMBARCADERO 
DAvenport 0594 



202 THIRD ST. 
KEarny 5241 



O. B. OLSEN'S 
RESTAURANT 

Scandinavian and American Cooking 

QUICK SERVICE 
San Francisco California 



Union-made Work Clothes and Shoes 

Uniform Caps, Oilskins and 

Seaboots, Belfast Cord 

and Buckles 



SAM'S 



Shore and Offshore Outfitting Store 
Formerly with Geo. A. Price 

4 Clay Street, San Francisco 

Phone GArfield 6784 



Checking Up 

"I didn't say nothin' impolite to 

Mrs. Smith. I just asked her to let 
me see if her tongue was a yard 
long like Papa said it was." 



-BOSS- 
union TAILOR 

"£45.00 Specials" 




1034 MARKET STREET 

SAN FRANC J M 



Ritzy 
"Got a sweetheart, Lily?" 
"Yes, and he's a regular gentle- 
man." 

"You don't say so?" 

"Yes, he took me to a restaurant 
lasl ni^lit and poured his tea into 
a saucer to cool it; but he didn't 
blow it like common people do — he 
fanned it with his hat — and say. I 
wish you'd sec how he cleans up 
the gravy with a piece of bread. It's 
the prettiest thing in the world." 



The Pastor Says 



We used to get our exercise by 
taking it in person, but now we hear 
it over the radio from a man em- 
ployed to watch it for us. — John An- 
drew Holmes. 



Early Stage Innovation 
It is said that the first character 
impersonated by a woman on the 
English sta^e was when an actress 
appeared in "Othello." 



Cypress Really Pine 
The cypress belongs to the pine 
family. Any tree of the pine family 
in Africa is called African cypress. 

16 



A Great Store 

Built Upon 

Successful 

Service to 

Millions 




HALE BROS. 

INC. 

Market at Fifth 

SAN FRANCISCO 
SUTTER 8000 



THE 

James H. Barry Co. 

The Star Press 

Printing 



1122-1124 MISSION STREET 
SAN FRANCISCO 



We print "The Seamen's Journal' 



KODAKS 

Exchanged / Bought 
Sold 

Developing and Printing 

SAN FRANCISCO 
CAMERA EXCHANGE 

88 Third Street, at Mission 
SAN FRANCISCO CALIFORNIA 







A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, FOR SEAMEN 



Our Aim : The Brotherhood of the Sea 



Our Motto: Justice by Organization 



VOL. XLVII, No. 3 



SAN FRANCISCO. MARCH 1, 1933 



WHOLE NO. 2030 



DICTATORSHIP BY BANKERS 




HE present regime of the United States 
is virtually a dictatorship of the bankers. 
Municipal and state governments, private 
corporations, and even the national gov- 
ernment has received peremptory demands 
from the bankers to reduce budgets. In many 
instances they have made the specific demand that 
payrolls be cut. The nature of their business 
makes it inevitable that they should make such 
demands. For the value of the securities they 
hold or sell depend upon balanced budgets and to 
them the most obvious method of balancing a 
budget in time of stress is to cut the payrolls. 
Yet, these "exemplary" citizens, the bankers, 
do not hesitate to demand higher rates of interest 
for themselves while demanding that workers' 
wages and salaries be reduced. According to 
Moody's Manual of Banks, thirty-one of the 
largest public banks of New York City have made 
profits as follows: 



Year 

1929 

1930 .. 


Net 
Profits 
...$162,039,000 
... 143,746,000 
... 189,924,000 
.) 66,433,000 


Dividends 
Paid 

$103,402,000 

112,306,000 

132,003,000 

55,985,000 


Surplus and 
Undiv. Profits 
$1,244,714,000 

1 396 945 000 


1931 

1932 (6mos 


1,172,847,000 
1,058,473,000 



Totals $562,142,000 $403,696,000 

From this table it will be observed that these 
banks have paid dividends in the third year 
of the worst depression on record at a rate that 
will total nearly $112,000,000, or about $9,000,000 



more than they paid themselves in 1929 when 
prosperity was at its peak for other businesses. 
Some of these banks have reduced their dividends 
this year, but their dividends still range from 6 
per cent to 100 per cent of their capital stock, or 
an average dividend of 14.5 per cent. On their 
total capital structure, which consists of their capi- 
tal stock and the accumulated surplus and undi- 
vided profits, their 1932 dividends amount to 
6.14 per cent. This is a little greater than it was 
in 1929. 

Of course the accumulated surplus is profit 
too. In other words, profits are being pyramided 
on profits at a rate of over 6 per cent this year. 
Yet this is an understatement of the profits of the 
interests who are demanding so strongly that our 
salaries be cut. For it does not include the profits 
of the big private banks like J. P. Morgan & 
Company, Speyer & Company, Kuhn, Loeb & 
Company, because the records of their profits are 
not available to the public. 

Louis Brandeis, now Justice of the United 
States Supreme Court, exposed the bankers' 
methods of profiteering eighteen years ago in his 
little book entitled "Other People's Money and 
How the Bankers Use It." Recently a new edi- 
tion of this significant book has been published, 
and it is even more timely, if possible, than it 
was in 1914. Brandeis makes a clear exposition 
of what Thorstein Veblen and others have shown 



34 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1933 



in more abstruse languages, viz., that bankers 
dominate the business and industrial life of the 
capitalist world. 

In the first place, they have in their control 
the medium of exchange of practically the whole 
business world, it being entrusted to them on 
deposit. Not only are they the custodians of the 
petty accounts of ordinary persons but their insti- 
tutions are the depositories of the insurance com- 
panies, the public utilities, the railroads, other 
big corporations, and the municipal, state and 
national governments. And. of course, they have 
the moral and legal right to loan these funds for 
their own profit. 

Brandeis makes plain how the bankers have 
gone far beyond the role of mere custodians of 
other people's money and the role of dealer in 
securities and commercial paper. They have ob- 
tained control of the management, either directly 
or indirectly, of all of the key industries, such as 
railroads, public utilities, steel, oil, coal, etc., etc. 

Labor, too, has felt the dictatorship of the 
bankers. Ever since the elder J. P. Morgan 
founded the Steel Trust and waged war upon the 
steel workers' union, bankers have used their in- 
fluence to prevent workers from organizing and 
to keep wages down. In the great railroad strike 
of 1922 the workers found that they were opposed 
by the bankers rather than the managers. And 
undoubtedly the present demand for a further 
reduction of railroad workers' pay comes from 
the same source. For the bankers are hell-bent 
on saving the capital structure of the railroads 
even though it be at the expense of Labor. The 
bankers' own employees are among the poorest 
paid white-collar workers, and many of them have- 
been summarily discharged for daring to try to 
organize. 

Verily the bankers dominate the economic 
world like the demi-gods that lived in the imagi- 
nation of the Greeks. 

What can we do in the face of so powerful a 
dictatorship? The answer is ORGANIZE! There 
can be no way out without organization. The 
burdens of the depression and of the readjust- 
ments that it makes necessary are being shifted 
in the direction of the least resistance, and woe 
unto those who pursue the policy of yielding to 
the demands of the bankers and big business gen- 
erally. There is no limit to what these high pres- 
sure go-getters will take if we will accommodat- 
ingly give it to them. 



AIRPLANE COMPETITION 



A regular mail service between Berlin and 
Shanghai will be established shortly as a joint 
service to be operated by four European com- 
panies. The Deutsche Lufthansa and the 
German-Russian Company Deruluft will dispatch 
planes from Berlin to Moscow, where the mail 
will be turned over to planes of the Central Rus- 
sian air lines, Aeroflot, and carried along the 
Trans-Siberian Railroad. At Omsk, the route 
will be southward to Semipalatinsk and Chu- 
gutchak on the Chinese border, where the mail 
will be picked up by planes of the German-Chi- 
nese Company, Eurasia, and flown by way of 
Urumchi and Lanchow to Shanghai. This line 
will be the longest commercial airline in the world 
— 6,250 miles — and the distance will be flown in 
five days, although it is hoped later to bring the 
flying time down to three days through the em- 
ployment of faster planes now under construction 
and increased night flying. No passengers will be 
carried at the beginning, while the frequency of 
the service will be determined by the volume of 
mail and freight offering. Mail by steamer is six 
weeks in transit from Berlin to Shanghai. Freight 
requires about three weeks by fast train. Com- 
menting on the foregoing significant develop- 
ments our New York contemporary Nauticus 
says: "This is but another indication of future 
airplane operation, and adds one more source of 
competition to the already large list with which 
shipping has to contend. Xo matter from what 
standpoint the matter may be viewed, the fact 
remains that the annihilation of long distance may 
only lie accomplished by air travel. Yet the 
major shipping groups seem to believe that these 
are still the times of bygone days." 



The monthly bulletin of the California Indus- 
trial Accident Commission (known as California 
Safety News) has warmly congratulated the 
Municipal Railway of San Francisco on the fact 
that "281,665,770 passengers were carried in 
three years without a single fatality." The Mu- 
nicipal Railway, as its name indicates, is owned 
and operated by the City of San Francisco, and 
is completely unionized. 



An honest man's word is as good a^ his 
bond. 



An idle brain is the devil's workshop. 



March, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



35 



MOTORSHIPS INCREASING 

A growing popularity in motor vessels and a 
corresponding decline in the number of steam 
vessels is indicated in the records of the statistical 
section of the Bureau of Navigation and Steam- 
boat Inspection of the Commerce Department, 
according to information made public by Arthur J. 
Tyrer, assistant director. 

In the ten-year period ended June 30, 1932, the 
number of motor vessels increased from 10,783 
to 12,448, an increase of slightly more than 15 
per cent in the number of vessels. In the same 
period, the number of steam vessels fell from 
8177 to 5776, a decrease of about 29 per cent. 

Among the steam vessels, coal burning types 
decreased from 6462 to 3713 vessels, but oil 
burners increased from 1715 to 2038 vessels. 
Vessels of electric drive increased from two in 
1924 to twenty-five at the end of June. None of 
the electric drive vessels burn coal. 

In the motor classification, the gas engine class 
fell from 10,688 vessels in 1922 to 8900 ten years 
later, but oil engine vessels increased from ninety- 
one vessels in 1922 to 3396, and electric screw 
vessels increased from four in 1922 to sixty-two 
on June 30, 1932. 



THE "BUY AMERICAN" CAMPAIGN 



"Buy American Goods" is the new slogan of- 
fered as a means of stimulating trade. It is an 
excellent slogan, but it is incomplete. It offers no 
protection to American Labor. 

America has gradually become the sweatshop 
of the world. The eastern and New England 
states are havens for vicious exploiters of child 
labor. The southern states, notorious for their 
lax labor laws and equally as infamous for their 
lack of compulsory school attendance statutes, 
have become the refuge for other exploiters of 
labor. The east central states and the mining 
sections of the nation have gradually driven 
down the wage scales until American standards 
of living are only a memory. 

Just a few days ago an investigation of the 
canning industry revealed the startling fact that 
wages as low as eight cents per hour for a twelve- 
hour day are common ; that men workers are 
paid from seventeen to twenty cents per hour ; 
that a top wage for a male worker was twenty- 



seven and a half cents per hour. Machine pro- 
duction has brought about these low wage scales. 
The small, independent canners declare they can- 
not pay a higher scale and compete with the large 
plants which have branch canneries scattered 
from coast to coast. The large plants pay a uni- 
form scale of twelve and a half cents per hour to 
women and seventeen and a half cents per hour to 
men. 

The canning industry is but one of many in- 
dustries which hope to benefit from this new 
slogan "Buy American Goods." But buying the 
products of sweatshops is nothing less than per- 
petuating one of the most loathsome industrial 
institutions known to civilization. Buying their 
wares simply because they are made in America 
does not give virtue to the products of near- 
slave labor. 

"Buy American Goods Bearing the Union 
Label" means something. It means that you are 
insisting that American Labor be guaranteed a 
higher standard of living than that afforded bv 
sweatshop exploiters. It means that you are op- 
posed to child labor. It means that you demand 
quality in goods produced under sane, safe and 
sanitary conditions. It means that you are un- 
alterably opposed to the enslavement of American 
men, women and children. 

Buy American Goods Bearing the Union Label ! 
That is a slogan which means something. 



ON "LETTING GEORGE DO IT" 



Have been pretty busy in and around San 
Francisco helping to iron out some of the differ- 
ences and difficulties, and gotJ)y in nice shape. 
It is noticeable that in locals where the member- 
ship is awake and attending meetings of the union 
regularly the process of "ironing out" is much 
easier than in the locals where "George will have 
to do it" the year around. Leaving everything 
to the officials makes the work for the officials 
much stiffer, and often they are at sea as just 
how to handle themselves. I hope this depression 
will have one good effect upon the membership, 
namely, to bring home to them the necessity of 
attending the meetings of their local oftener 
than in the past and assisting the officers in shap- 
ing the destinies of the union. — Hugo Ernst in 
Catering Industry Employee. 



It takes two to make a bargain. 



36 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1933 



NEWS AND COMMENT 

Concerning Seamen the World Over 



The collective agreements in force in the Nor- 
wegian long-sea trade have been automatically 
prolonged until February 1, 1934. 

- * * 

Under an agreement in force in the Norwegian 
coastwise trade wage rates arc fixed according to 
the level of the cost of living index number. As 
a result a reduction of 2.8% is due. It is doubt- 
ful, however, whether the cut will be actually ap- 
plied. Negotiations arc still proceeding. 

Under a settlement reached on January 4, the 
collective agreement for the German deep-sea 
fishing industry has been temporarily renewed. 
In the main the rates of wages and allowances 
have not been changed, although owing to the 
critical situation certain impairments had to be 
agreed to. .The employers had thought to enforce 
sweeping reductions, and in the circumstances 
there is reason for the men to be satisfied. 

•■':■ ■;■ * 

Negotiations which took place at Bremerhaven 
recently have resulted in renewal of the collective 
agreement in the German deep-sea fisheries until 
December 31, 1933. In the main the wage rates 
and other earnings of the fishermen have not been 
altered. If the Unions have had to accept some 
modifications in conditions, the shipowners on 
the other hand have had to renounce demands for 

reductions of a much more sweeping character. 

* * * 

Britain plans to dot its coast line with a chain 
of British-owned fish canneries. The mining of 
the tin, making of the cans, catching and packing 
of the fish is to be entirely in British hands. S. W. 
Smedley, heading one of the canning companies, 
explains the sudden, determined move. Although 
Britain is the leading fish nation, and its fisheries 
are of vital importance, the bulk of its canned fish 
now comes from abroad. The announced plan is 
to meet the home market, but not to halt there — 
meaning that a second profitable market is be- 
lieved to await overseas. 

* * * 

The late Edgar Wallace once wrote a thriller 
about a gang of international crooks who stole an 
ocean liner, its cargo, passengers and all, and were 



finally rounded up in the Arctic Ocean by the 
United States Navy. It was a good yarn, but it 
did seem highly implausible. Now, however, cur- 
rent history tells us about mutineers who have 
stolen a Dutch warship, officers, ammunition and 
all. In a way, the real-life exploit seems to be 
more picturesque than the imaginary one. For 
one thing, stealing a warship is really a more 
exciting form of larceny than stealing a mere 
passenger ship. For another, the tropical setting 
of this wild adventure adds to its picaresque qual- 
ity. What Joseph Conrad could do with it if he 
were still alive ! 



* * * 



The Czechoslovakian Danubian Shipping Com- 
pany has informed its employees that owing to 
tlie unfavorable financial situation it is obliged 
temporarily to dispense with some of the staff. 
Fmployees have been further informed how the 
temporary dismissals will be effected and what 
are their implications. Men temporarily dispensed 
with are required "voluntarily" to sign a state- 
ment that they are in agreement with the pro- 
cedure, failing which the measure of definite dis- 
missal will of course be resorted to. The Czech 
Railwaymen's Union which has jurisdiction over 
these river workers, has appealed to the men to 
make a united stand against the employers' attack. 
* * * 

Already twenty ships have been chartered to 
carry the South Australian wheat harvest, which 
is estimated to return between 60,000.000 and 
70,000,000 bushels. This means that there will 
be at least twenty-three sailers in the annual race 
overseas with the season's grain, the large ma- 
jority being under the Finnish flag. As several 
new vessels are included in the fleet, and one, the 
four-masted bark Passat, has a reputation as a 
flier, the contest will have unusual interest. The 
/'amir, which won this year, is again in the list 
and also the Hcrzogin Cecilie, with six victories 
to her credit — both four-masted barks with speedy 
qualities. Another newcomer will be the four- 
masted bark UAvenir, formerly French-owned, 
but now a unit of Captain Gustaf Erickson's fleet, 
and apparently a factor to In- reckoned with in 
the big race. , ; # ^ 

From the columns of the Australian Worker 
we note that the Federal President of the Marine 
Stewards' Union (Mr. G. E. Moate) stated at 
Melbourne recently that advantage was being 



March, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



37 



taken of the suspension of the coastal clauses of 
the Navigation Act by the overseas shipping com- 
panies to carry tourists from port to port around 
Australia, thus depriving marine stewards, sea- 
men and others of the employment that they 
looked forward to obtaining during 1933. When 
the government first made the proposal to sus- 
pend the clauses of the Act it was understood by 
the Maritime Unions that it was purely to enable 
the boats to carry passengers during the apple 
season from Australian ports direct to Tasmania, 
thus assisting the tourist traffic to the island State. 
The position was that passengers were now book- 
ing from port to port for conveyance on vessels 
manned in many instances by coolie and Chinese 
labor, and the apple season in Tasmania would 
not open until next month. 

* * * 

Attempts are being made in many countries 
to prepare the "atmosphere" for a widespread at- 
tack on seafarers' wages and conditions. These 
efforts are having the gratifying result of bring- 
ing officers' and seamen's organizations together 
for concerted action. This move has been en- 
couraged by the successful cooperation of the 
Dutch officers and seamen in resisting the recent 
attack by the Dutch owners. Recently a joint 
meeting was held at Hamburg between rep- 
resentatives of the International Mercantile Ma- 
rine Officers' Association and the Seamen's Sec- 
tion of the International Transport Workers' 
Federation. They reviewed the situation in de- 
tail, and the result was complete agreement as to 
the necessity of the utmost concerted resistance, 
national and international, against any attack on 
wages and other standards. A permanent joint 
committee, consisting of three representatives 
from each International, was appointed for the 
purpose of maintaining contact and making prep- 
arations for all necessary measures of resistance 
or attack. 

* * * 

The Japanese Seamen's Union embraces all the 
seamen of the country except those in the service 
of a few smaller firms. The biggest firm among 
the latter was the Amagasaki Steamship Com- 
pany, which owns twenty-nine ships of 500 to 
1,000 tons or something like 20,000 tons in the 
aggregate. The Union had been conducting a 
campaign among the employees of the company, 
which by the way of counter-measure, began to 
recruit "yellow" elements. This led the Union to 



put forward the following ultimatum : ( 1 ) recog- 
nition of the Union, (2) fixing of a minimum 
wage, (3) payment of a gratuity twice a year, 
(4) better rations, and (5) payment of seniority 
allowances. As the ultimatum was ignored a 
strike was proclaimed. Although the company had 
taken the precaution of engaging non-union men, 
the Union succeeded in holding up seventeen 
ships, and a similar fate awaited another twelve 
ships. After two days the Company surrendered. 
The Union secured recognition, all wages are to 
be increased by two yen a month, the rations are 
to be improved, and seniority allowances will be 
paid, at the rate of one yen a month after one 
year's service and two and one-half yen after 
three years' service, to boatswains, donkeymen 
and stewards, and one yen and two yen a month 
after one year's and three years' service respec- 
tively to other ranks. 

* * * 

French public opinion is deeply concerned about 
the loss of the Atlantique in the Channel and the 
similar destruction of the Georges Philippar by 
fire in the Indian Ocean. Nor is it a matter 
where anxiety is confined to the French. In the 
past six years nearly three hundred ships of 
various nationalities have been lost through fire, 
so that the subject is one that is of formidable 
interest to all travelers by sea and to all maritime 
peoples. One possible encouragement to disaster 
certainly seems to lie in the increasing tendency 
to turn the passenger liner into a close imitation 
of a luxury hotel on land. In the nature of things 
a ship's passages, in the case of an outbreak of 
fire, are terribly ready to be turned into lateral 
flues which draw the flames along the vessel ; if 
those flues are flanked by panelling and furniture 
of a type found in hotels the danger must be 
greatly increased. One of the orders already is- 
sued by the French Ministry of Mercantile Ma- 
rine makes the use of wood "totally forbidden" 
for stairways, lift-shafts, and service ladders; 
where it is used in gangways and passages it must 
now be protected by sheets of asbestos. Some 
of our own shipbuilding experts would place more 
faith in the non-inflammable "impregnated" tim- 
ber which is largely used by the navy; bulkheads 
of that fire-resisting material might localize an 
outbreak better than metal. It is now understood 
in Paris that the official inquiry will attribute the 
actual origin of the fire on the Atlantique to a 
short-circuit of the electrical installation. 



38 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1933 



Seamen's Journal 

Established in 1887 
Published on the first day of each month at 525 
Market Street, San Francisco, by and under the di- 
rection of the International Seamen's Union of 
America. 

PAUL SCHARRENBERG, Editor 

© 

Entered at the San Francisco Postomce as second- 
class matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate 
of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of Oc- 
tober 3, 1917, authorized September 7, 1918. 

Subscription price $1.00 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 



NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will be 
published, provided they are of general interest, 
brief, legible, written on one side only of the paper, 
and accompanied by the writer's own name and ad- 
dress. The JOURNAL is not responsible for the ex- 
pressions of correspondents, nor for the return of 
manuscripts. 



March 1, 1933 



"WE CANNOT GET AMERICANS' 



While ocean mail subsidy contracts were under 
discussion by the United States Senate on Feb- 
ruary 4, Senator Shipstead from Minnesota of- 
fered an amendment to the effect that no part of 
money appropriated for ocean mail subsidy "shall 
be paid on any contract covering a ship or ships 
employing alien seamen on ships leaving Amer- 
ican ports." 

The amendment was opposed by Senator White 
oi Maine and by Senator Bingham, who has long 
been recognized as a spokesman of big business 
and has, therefore, been retired from the Senate 
by the intelligent electorate of Connecticut. 

Senator Bingham said, among other things, that 
the amendment, if adopted, "would put out of 
business practically all of the American lines now 
operating on the Pacific Ocean." That statement 
indicated the gentleman's utter inability to con- 
form to fact or truth. 

Then the worthy Senator assured his colleagues 
that the only reason American ships carry alien 
seamen "is to compete with foreign lines" ! On 
many previous occasions we have been told that 
ship subsidies would enable American ships to 
compete with foreign lines. Now that those sub- 
sidies are being paid that old story is placed 
on the shelf, unused and uncatalogued — until 
needed again to get some more subsidy. 

The honorable Senator from Maine went very 



much further in misrepresenting the situation than 

did his before mentioned lame duck associate. 

Said Senator White: 

I concur in what the Senator from Connecticut 
(Mr. Bingham) has said, that with respect to trade 
upon the Pacific Ocean, certainly with respect to those 
trades that take our vessels into the torrid zones of 
the earth, we cannot get American citizens to go down 
into the stokeholds of the steamers, we cannot get 
American citizens to go into the stewards' departments 
of the steamers and serve in those capacities. 

The man who, at a time like the present, de- 
clares, ''We can not get American citizens to work 
in menial capacities aboard ship," is recklessly 
distorting the truth ! 

During the present crisis hundreds of thou- 
sands of Americans — able, qualified and com- 
petent — are anxious and willing to work any- 
where for food and shelter only. 

The Senator from the rock-riblx.'d state of 
Maine talks with horror of the torrid zones and 
awful stokeholds! Americans from Maine have 
sailed the torrid zones in various capacities on 
all sort of craft. They began doing so long before 
Senator White was born and will doubtless con- 
tinue when their Senator can no longer plead for 
aliens on American ships. 



LINCOLN AND ROOSEVELT 



The assassin's attempt upon the life of Presi- 
dent-elect Roosevelt has fortunately failed. In 
commenting upon the tremendous task con- 
fronting our new President, Professor Harry 
Elmer Barnes, in his syndicated column in an 
eastern newspaper, says in part: 

It often has been contended that when Abraham 
Lincoln took office, he was confronted with the most 
serious complex of difficulties which ever confronted 
one of our chief executives. 

It is my opinion, however, that Lincoln took hold 
of a rather simple situation compared with that with 
which Gov. Roosevelt will be compelled to grapple. 

In support of that view, Barnes points out that 
Lincoln had but one major problem facing him, 
namely, that of dealing with the seceding states. 
Otherwise the country was generally prosperous. 
Its budget was balanced. Its taxes were low, the 
total federal revenue being less than now collected 
in any one of the principal states. 

Unemployment scarcely existed anywhere 
throughout the Union. Banks were not failing. 
Relations with Europe and Asia were marred by 
no shadow or cloud. There was no vast machine 
of production, operating to outdistance consump- 
tion. There were no huge farm surpluses de- 



March, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



39 



pressing prices below the subsistence level. There 
were few pension payments in 1861. It would 
appear, therefore, that Barnes does not exaggerate 
the truth when he says : 

Neither domestic nor international relations present 
a cheerful spectacle. Staggering issues will face Frank- 
lin Delano Roosevelt on the afternoon of March 4. 

We can only wish him well and get encouragement 
from the fact that he is far better equipped by ex- 
perience and far better advised than was Abraham 
Lincoln. 

It is the hope of the nation that Franklin 
Roosevelt may lead us in our present troublous 
times with something of the statesmanship and 
wisdom that Lincoln showed in meeting and mas- 
tering the threat of American disunion. 

Millions of people in the United States — yes, 
probably three-fourths of the population — are 
looking forward to March 4, when the new ad- 
ministration will take the reins of government. 
And while it is a difficult and trying task that 
confronts those who are to control the political 
power of the United States, there can be no 
doubt that the present situation offers perhaps 
the most wonderful opportunity for service that 
ever presented itself to an incoming President and 
a newly elected Congress. 



DISMISSAL PAY 



San Franciscans are proud of the fact that the 
Golden Gate Bridge is under actual construction. 

Last month witnessed its beginning — the begin- 
ning of the longest suspension bridge in the world, 
a $33,000,000 structure which will span the en- 
trance to San Francisco Bay and extend from 
Fort Point, in San Francisco, to Lime Point, in 
Marin County. This steel and concrete master- 
piece will be 8,943 feet long, including approaches, 
and 90 feet wide, with a 60-foot roadway and 
two 10-foot sidewalks. 

The Golden Gate Bridge will be completed and 
ready for traffic in just four years, according to 
an estimate by Chief Engineer Joseph B. Strauss. 
The other contemplated bay bridge between San 
Francisco and Alameda County, will probably be 
completed a year or two later. 

All of this reads like desirable progress in 
transportation. There is, however, a dark side 
to the picture. The men employed on the ferries 
of San Francisco Bay — more than a thousand — 
are looking forward to an uncertain future. The 
majority of the ferryboats, which have furnished 



them a means of livelihood, will cease to operate 
when the two bay bridges are completed. So far, 
no provision whatever has been made for the fu- 
ture of these men. The useful and necessary jobs 
for which they have been trained will simply 
cease to exist, and they will be forced to join 
the ever growing army of the unemployed. This 
is in striking contrast to the very considerate 
treatment given to the capital invested in the 
ferryboats. The fares on the ferries are pur- 
posely fixed at a rate high enough to provide for 
gradual amortization of virtually the entire cap- 
ital invested. 

Having in mind this unequal treatment of labor 
and capital, the representatives of the unions con- 
cerned, i. e., Ferryboatmen and Masters, Mates 
and Pilots, introduced the following resolution in 
the San Francisco Labor Council and obtained 
its unanimous approval : 

Whereas, The recent Cincinnati convention of the 
American Federation of Labor adopted the following 
declaration on the displacement of labor by the ma- 
chine: "The machine is good when it is made to serve 
man. It becomes a menace, a veritable Frankenstein, 
when it is used to displace him. The true purpose of 
the machine is to lighten the burden of labor by enab- 
ling greater production for human needs to be accom- 
plished in a shorter time"; and 

Whereas, There has been no cessation in the intro- 
duction of new machines and new labor-saving de- 
vices and there is every indication that this process 
will continue indefinitely; and 

Whereas, Recognizing the gravity of the situation 
thus created, certain trade unions have negotiated col- 
lective agreements with the employers providing for 
so-called dismissal pay; in addition more than fifty- 
large American corporations have voluntarily provided 
a graduated system of dismissal pay for workers who 
are permanently dismissed because of the introduction 
of new machines or new labor-saving devices; there- 
fore, be it 

Resolved, By the San Francisco Labor Council that 
we favor the principle of dismissal pay, i. e., the pay- 
ment of a sum to workers permanently dismissed be- 
cause of the introduction of labor-saving devices, such 
sum to be graduated in accordance with the years of 
service rendered; further 

Resolved, That we urge all affiliated unions to con- 
sider the principle herein outlined and urge its adop- 
tion whenever and wherever possible. 

So-called dismissal compensation is not alto- 
gether a new feature in America's industrial life. 
A recent survey of various existing "plans" has 
been compiled by the Industrial Relations Section 
of Princeton University. 

The Princeton survey lists no less than forty- 
nine companies known to have plans for dis- 
missal compensation, with the memorandum that 
twelve more are in existence, information about 
them being either "confidential" or incomplete. This 
list is not offered as an exhaustive one, although 



40 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1933 



the remark is made that it "probably includes a 
majority of the definitely formulated plans that 
provide for considerable payments as a regular 
procedure." The movement for formal dismis- 
sal compensation is obviously in its infancy. There 
is plenty of room for expansion and improve- 
ment. 

The schemes effective in the forty-nine firms 
whose plans were reported upon vary greatly in 
their coverage. Some firms pay dismissal compen- 
sation only to employees of fifteen or twenty 
years' standing. Others include all workers who 
have been on the payroll six months. Between 
these extremes almost every possible limit may 
be found. 

Some companies vary the service requirement 
with the age of the employee who is discharged. 
Thus, in the United States Rubber Company, 
the employee who is under forty-five is entitled 
to dismissal compensation only when he has been 
in the employ of the company for fifteen years. 
The worker who is forty-five or over need have 
been employed only ten. 

The Associated Oil Company requires ten years 
of service for men under fifty and only five years 
for men over that age. Obviously this is in rec- 
ognition of the increased difficulty of obtaining 
new employment experienced by the man past 
forty years of age. 

Some firms include in their plans only selected 
employees whose tenure has been of the more per- 
manent type, such as salaried workers, or work- 
ers paid by the week or month rather than by 
the hour or day. 

The amount of compensation is in more plans 
adjusted to the earnings of the employee dis- 
charged and to the length of time that he has 
served the firm. Only a few grant a "flat" bene- 
fit to all men permanently laid off. 

In a few plans listed in the Princeton survey, 
a greater amount is granted to the older worker, 
regardless of the length of his service with the 
firm. A not unusual provision is a variation in 
the amount with the type of service performed. A 
lump sum payment is made in the great ma- 
jority of plans, although periodic payments are 
the rule with several large concerns. On the 
whole, the former method seems favored by busi- 
ness men as making a "cleaner cut." It is con- 
sidered that putting the worker out for a fresh 
start is more apt to result in his taking the im- 



mediate responsibility of finding new employ- 
ment. 

There seems to Ik.- a tendency to include work- 
ers with short service records and to extend dis- 
missal compensation arrangements to wage earn- 
ers as well as the salaried employees. 

Some tendency is seen toward the mergr 
the administration of dismissal compensation with 
other "welfare programs" involving such plans as 
retirement pensions, >ickness or permanent dis- 
ability insurance. 

Without doubt, the widespread depression of 
the past few year- has awakened many business 
men to the importance of some provision for the 
worker> who. because of economic conditions, are 
permanently laid off. To the extent that the 
organized workers take the initiative we may lo..k 
for a substantial development in the field of dis- 
missal compensation. Such provision, of course, 
will but ease the jolt of discharge in most cases, 
and cannot l>e looked upon as a possible substitute 
for unemployment insurance plans. 



CHINESE SEAMEN HOMEWARD BOUND 



The Chinese seamen recently imported on the 
Dollar liner President Lincoln for service on the 
President Johnson and the subsidized Grace liner. 
Santa Lucia, have been deported. This is the 
first break American seamen have had in a very 
long while! 

The Solicitor of the Department of Labor in 
his report on the subject decided that these men 
were not aliens in transit through the United 
States and that their status could not be changed. 
The immigration inspectors made the usual ex- 
aminations while the Chinese wire >till on the 
President Lincoln. As a result of the pre- 
liminary examination all were denied admission 
and sent to the Detention Station on Ellis 
Island. There each one was examined by a Board 
of Special Inquiry and all were recommended 
for deportation because they were in part immi- 
grants. An appeal was taken to Washington where 
a Board of Review upheld the decisions arrived 
at in New York. Moreover, the Secretary of 
Labor insisted that they must be sent back on 
the same vessel on which they came or another 
vessel of the same company, as provided by law. 

According to reports the order of deportation 
has been obeyed and the Chinese are on their way 
home — as passengers. It is also reliably reported 



March, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



41 



that a copy of the opinion and decision, along with 
a circular, to strictly enforce the same, has been 
sent to all ocean immigration stations. Additional 
importations of Chinese for service on the Grace 
liners Santa Ana and Santa Rosa were affected 
by the "new deal" and have been ordered de- 
ported. 

All is well that ends well ! But it has taken the 
tireless efforts of the International Seamen's 
Union of America for a number of years to gain 
this victory. Non-union American seamen, who 
depend upon a voluntary square deal from the 
shipowners, will please take notice ! 



AN AWFUL CONTRAST 



Although heavily subsidized American ship- 
owners are still slashing seamen's wages, without 
rhyme or reason, we are advised by the current 
news letter of the International Transportworkers 
Federation that the shipowners in Japan have just 
agreed to a raise in seamen's wages. 

Since the big seamen's strike in 1928 an agree- 
ment fixing minimum wages for seamen has been 
in force in Japan. On the grounds of the uni- 
versal shipping slump the Japanese shipowners 
at the end of 1930 asked for reductions of IS to 
20 per cent in wages, and after long negotiations 
a cut of 6 per cent was applied at the end of 
January, 1931. The actual reduction amounted to 
4 yen a month for boatswains, leading firemen and 
stewards, and 3 yen for others. 

When the shipping situation in Japan began 
to show some improvement, laid-up tonnage hav- 
ing diminished from 540,000 to 170,000 tons, the 
Seamen's Union asked for an increase in wages. 
Recognizing the justification of the demand, the 
shipowners finally agreed to return to the wage 
rates of 1928. This proposal was accepted by the 
Union. 

Things have certainly come to an awful mess. 
In the richest country on earth where practically 
the entire wage cost of operation is paid for by 
the Government in the shape of mail subsidies, 
the shipowners compete with each other to grind 
down seamen's wages below any level known by 
the present seafaring generation. 

At the same time, the shipowners in Japan, one 
of the poorest countries on earth so far as natural 
resources are concerned, can see their way clear 
to increase wages! 

What are we going to do about it? Well, issu- 



ing fervent prayers for a "square deal" will get us 
nowhere. We must resist and protest in language 
that can be understood. And we cannot effectively 
resist unless we are organized for that purpose. 
What is stopping us? 



The Schneider bill (H. R. 12173), a com- 
panion bill to Senator King's well-known bill, 
"to prevent the smuggling of immigrants in the 
guise of seamen and for other purpose," has re- 
ceived the favorable report of the House Com- 
mittee on Immigration and Naturalization and 
will probably come to a vote of the House of 
Representatives before these lines are in print. 
The committee report which accompanies the 
Schneider bill sets forth in clear and convincing- 
language the reasons why the proposed legisla- 
tion should be enacted. Two eminent "lame 
ducks," namely Messrs. Free of California and 
Johnson of Washington, filed a minority report 
against the bill. Some men seem to be quite un- 
able to sense the eternal propriety of things. Hav- 
ing been repudiated by their constituents for good 
and sufficient reasons, this pair of "lame ducks" 
in their last gasp try to throw a monkey wrench 
into the wheels of progress. 



February 20 was a memorable day in the 
United States, made so by the fact that the House 
of Representatives, by a vote of 289 to 121, gave 
approval to a resolution previously adopted by the 
Senate providing for submission to a vote of the 
states the repeal of the eighteenth amendment to 
the Constitution. Under its terms conventions will 
be called in the various states to pass on the ques- 
tion, creating a precedent which will require new 
legislation to make it effective. 'Thus is the first 
step taken in doing away- with prohibition. Thirty- 
six states must approve the resolution within 
seven years to make it effective. 



The December Journal had an editorial re- 
view of the Report of the Commissioner of Navi- 
gation. In said review complaint was made that 
the Commissioner "kept us in the dark about the 
number of seamen shipped by American consuls 
in foreign ports." The desired information came 
along in a subsequent publication. Therefore, we 
withdraw our criticism with apologies to Mr. 
Tyrer. The number of seamen shipped and re- 
shipped by our consuls in foreign ports during 
the last fiscal year was 14,527. 



42 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1933 



BOOK REVIEW 



THE NEEDLE WATCHER. By Richard Blaker. Pub- 
lishers, Doubleday-Doran, New York. Price $2.50. 

"From Seaman Into Samurai" should be the 
title of this volume because such is the gist of 
the story so picturesquely related by Mr. Blaker. 

The author writes of hardy English seamen, 
of Spanish and Portuguese traders, of the cu- 
pidity of certain Japanese pirates, and of the 
powerful shogun, Ieyasu. The story concerns 
the adventures of Will Adams, English seaman 
who in the year 1600 is wrecked on the coast of 
Japan. He and his associates are captured, and 
Adams as spokesman is brought before Ieyasu. 
Through the seaman's knowledge of the compass, 
he catches and holds the attention of the shogun, 
and through his quick wit in presenting the ruler 
with this curious needle, his only treasure saved 
from the wreck, his life is spared and, with his 
companions, he is held not as prisoner but as 
"guest" in the empire over which Ieyasu holds 
sway. 

Adams discovers that although he may come 
and go freely in the land, any attempt to return 
to England would place him at once within a 
circle of drawn swords. He philosophically ac- 
cepts the situation, and sets about learning the 
language, in addition to becoming proficient in 
the art of fencing with both rapier and words. 
He even acquires a Japanese name, An-jin, be- 
stowed upon him in friendliness by the natives. 

The progress of this seaman from the rags of 
a shipwrecked sailor to the habiliments of a 
Samurai, with the gift of swords from Ieyasu. 
indicative of his rank as nobleman, and his last 
voyage with its unforeseen ending, with a final 
return to Japan, make a story some parts of 
which will easily bear a second reading. — C. S. M. 



USE OF ANCIENT AUTOS 



The development of the world trade in automo- 
biles has produced innumerable instances of novel 
transportation uses of the automobile. But the 
life of a car does not end after it has finished its 
years of operation. Sadly reduced in appearance 
and circumstances, perhaps lacking in identity 
through frequent changes in ownership and 
usually brought to only a vague resemblance of its 
former mechanical completeness, it nevertheless 



goes on contributing to the comfort and welfare 
of mankind. 

Assembled from products brought from the 
remote regions of the world, thousands of Ameri- 
can automobiles are disassembled and end their 
existence in strange form in the same countries 
where some of the raw products used in their 
manufacture originated. 

A striking testimonial to the durability and 
efficiency of American automobile engines is seen 
in the many and varied uses to which these engines 
are adapted abroad after being removed from 
car and truck chassis. From Singapore and other 
parts of the Orient comes news that they are em- 
ployed as power units in Chinese sampans; in 
Canadian forests they are employed to operate 
small sawmills ; in almost every country they are 
used to propel both small fishing and pleasure 
craft. 



MR. MILLS REVIEWS HIMSELF 



Recently the treasury department granted an 
abatement of $5,870,000 an actual tax refund 
of $45,000 to the estate of Ogden Mills, father 
of the secretary of the treasury. 

Commenting on the case, Paul Y. Anderson, 
the Nation correspondent in Washington, writes: 

Inquiry revealed a truly amazing set of facts. In the 
first place, Secretary Mills is executor of the estate. 
and as such made the return upon which his subordi- 
nates hased the original assessment Afterward a claim 
was made, and the assessment was revised. Conse- 
quently, as described on the senate floor, the procedure 
was as follows: Executor Mills acting on hehalf of 
Taxpayer Mills, made the original return. More than a 
year later Taxpayer Mills lodged a claim witli Sec- 
retary Mills, representing that Kxecutor Mills had 
overvalued the estate. 

Secretary Mills, through his subordinates, examined 
the claim, decided that Executor Mills had been in 
error, and ordered that a refund he made to Taxpayer 
Mills. So far as 1 know, this is the first recorded in- 
stance in which a man won a large amount at solitaire. 

But neither are many men fortunate enough to 
he secretary of the treasury and thus be in a po- 
sition to play solitaire yielding such handsome re- 
turns. 

How unfortunate for Mills the game must end 
March 4! 



Wherever the ownership of the soil is so en- 
grossed by a small part of the community that the 
far larger number are compelled to pay whatever 
the few may see fit to exact for the privilge of 
occupying and cultivating the earth, there is 
something very like slavery. — Grccly. 



10 



March, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



43 



SHIPPING NEWS 



A new speed record between New York and 
the Canal Zone has been established by the Italia 
liner Rex, which completed the run to Colon in 
three days, eight hours, during a special holiday 
cruise to Matanzas, Cuba. 

The United States Lines steamship Washington 
will be delivered to her owners May 1 and is due 
to leave New York on her maiden voyage to 
Hamburg May 10. She was launched from the 
Camden yards of the New York Shipbuilding 
Company, y\ugust 10. 

The U. S. Frigate Constitution is visiting Pa- 
cific Coast ports. The historic vessel will be in 
San Francisco from March 22 to April 12 and 
again from August 11 to August 21. The Con- 
stitution will be moored on the south side of 
Pier 36 at the foot of Townsend Street. 

Twenty German vessels, of about 109,000 gross 
tons, have been turned over to shopbreakers for 
scrapping, in accordance with the national ship 
scrapping plan, which is financed by the govern- 
ment for the purpose of retiring obsolete tonnage. 
Pending the placing of orders for new vessels, 
however, it is not expected that the yards will 
hasten the actual scrapping. 

The Italian line, according to advices from 
Genoa, has under consideration plans for the con- 
struction of two additional superliners of about 
the same dimensions as the Rex and Conte di 
Savoia. The new vessel, the construction of which 
depends upon increased traffic demands in the 
Italy-North American trade, are likely to be 
named the Dux and the Duca di Genova. 

A mammoth carriage of 350,000 barrels of 
cement from San Francisco to Balboa will be 
conducted during the next nine months by the 
McCormick Steamship Company. The material, 
which will be used in construction work on the 
Madden Dam in Gatun Lake, will be supplied by 
the Santa Cruz Portland Cement Company. The 
first shipment will move in March. 

Lord Essendon will be at the head of a pro- 
tective committee of four directors to be ap- 
pointed early next year on behalf of the most 
important groups of creditors of the White Star 
Line. The other members of the committee will 
be Sir Arthur Maxwell, acting for Glyn, Mills & 



Company, bankers ; Frank Charleton, for the de- 
benture trustees ; and A. B. Cauty, for the Bank 
of England. Lord Essendon will act for the 
British treasury and the government of northern 
Ireland. 

France has dedicated its gigantic maritime sta- 
tion at Cherbourg. This receiving depot, built 
primarily for the accommodation of American 
tourists and adorned with the arms of the city of 
New York, has gone up while the harbor was 
being deepened. The liners will no longer anchor 
two miles out, but will come to berth at the dock. 
The French liner DeGrasse makes successful trial 
of the new facilities. There still remains the long 
ride to Paris, but ever faster trains are being put 
on — and Paris really requires a thoughtful and 
deliberate approach. 

Election of officers of the recently reorganized 
Pacific Steamship Company, now the Pacific 
Steamship Lines, Ltd., held during the month, 
shows a definite control of this company by Dol- 
lar interests. Those elected were J. Harold Dollar, 
president and general manager; R. Stanley Dol- 
lar, vice-president ; A. F. Haines, vice-president, 
and E. H. Hall, secretary-treasurer. The new 
president said the company, still retaining its 
trademark of "Admiral Line," is starting on a 
new era of progressive action unhampered by in- 
debtedness. 

The board of the Union-Castle Mail Steam- 
ship Company, Ltd., London, again passes the 
semi-annual dividend on the cumulative A l / 2 % , 
6 c /oA and 6j/2% cumulative preference shares. 
These dividends are in arrears since July 1, 1931. 
Interest on the 6% debentures due February 1 
will be paid. The liabilities in. connection with 
calls on the company's holding of ordinary shares 
in White Star Line, Ltd., have been met, and the 
loan guaranteed by the British Treasury under 
the Trade Facilities Acts has been repaid in full. 
The loan guaranteed by the government of north- 
ern Ireland now stands at £570,000. 

The new Pacific Coast inland port of Stockton, 
California, with its capable cargo-handling fa- 
cilities and navigable channel approaches, logged 
an important initial entry in its record as a deep- 
water terminal Friday, February 10, when the 
coastwise steel cargo steamer Peter Helms of the 
McCormick Steamship Company called there with 
lumber and general cargo from Puget Sound. 
Drawing approximately 25 feet of water, the 



11 



44 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1933 



Peter Helms, 2025 net tons, established a record 
for the 90-mile transit from Oakland to Stock- 
ton of eight hours and twenty minutes. Several 
hundred persons greeted the coastal liner on ar- 
rival, and the event was further signalized by 
a luncheon tendered by the Stockton Chamber 
of Commerce. 

Disclosing profit from operations of $108,534 
in 1932 as against an operating loss of $158,744 
in 1931, the thirty-fourth annual report of the 
American -Hawaiian Steamship Company was 
presented by President Roger D. Lapham. Other 
income added $71,927 to operating profits, but 
after reserves for depreciation the company had 
a loss of $300,953 for the year. This compares 
with a loss of $774,141, after depreciation, in 
1931. Operating earnings in 1932 amounted to 
$7,971,555, off about 14 per cent from 1931; 
operating expenses, which totaled $7,803,020. were 
down approximately 19 per cent. The company's 
current position continues strong, with current 
assets of $2,679,949, comparing with current 
liabilities of $167,075. Of current assets, cash 
amounted to $2,101,960, as compared to a cash 
account standing at $1,298,798 at the end of 1931. 

The amount of new work delivered by Ameri- 
can shipyards in 1932 was about equal to that of 
the previous year, but inasmuch as all the work- 
created by the existing mail contracts has been 
delivered, the outlook for future business is ex- 
ceedingly poor. There were launched during the 
year thirteen merchant vessels of 122,017 gross 
tons and one government vessel of 10,000 tons 
displacement. This comparts with seventeen mer- 
chant vessels of 145,600 tons gross and six gov- 
ernment vessels of 36,000 tons displacement the 
previous year. There were delivered during the 
year sixteen merchant vessels of 151,187 gross 
tons and two government vessels of 12,000 tons 
displacement, thus almost duplicating in both re- 
spects the record of the year 1931. The contracts 
for the construction of three tankers were can- 
celled during the year, so that the amount of new 
work on the books of American shipbuilders at 
the end of the year represented only four mer- 
chant vessels of 53,652 gross tons and seven gov- 
ernment vessels of 47,900 tons, as compared with 
twenty-three merchant vessels of 236,100 gross 
tons and eight government vessels of 49,900 tons 
at the end of 1931. In addition to the above, 
fourteen vessels were extensively reconditioned 
during the year and delivered to their owners. 



LABOR NEWS 



The Methodist Book Concern, one of the larg- 
est religious publishing houses in the world, with 
plants in Cincinnati, New York and Chicago, be- 
came unionized in all departments on January 1. 
Some 350 jobs were brought under union wages 
and working conditions. Under the agreement 
the composing room, press room, bindery and art 
department of the Cincinnati plant have been 
unionized, bringing 200 men within the fold of 
unionism. The Chicago plant, employing fifty 
men, has been similarly unionized. In New York, 
where the composing and press rooms have been 
unionized, the bindery and electrotyping depart- 
ments will also be unionized, so that all depart- 
ments of this great house will be fully organized. 

The decree of Dr. J. G. William Greef, Com- 
missioner of Hospitals, dismissing all alien em- 
ployes from New York City's hospital system 
threw 1.415 workers on the streets. Because of 
a reduction in the budget for hospitals about 800 
of the 1,415 will not be replaced. Exemptions 
from the discharge decree included persons in 
the militia of the state or veterans of military or 
naval service, wives of citizens, teachers in nurs- 
ing schools, persons ten years or longer in the 
city pension system, and a personally selected list 
decided by Dr. Greef as worthy of special con- 
sideration. Internes, not being salaried employees, 
were not affected. Officials refused to recognize 
as valid ground for exemption aliens who had 
taken out first papers. 

Of particular interest to Americans is a report 
just issued by the International Labor Office at 
Geneva entitled, "Unemployment Insurance and 
Various Forms of Relief for the Unemployed." 
This report will be of real use to the many per- 
sons in the United States who are concerned not 
only with the immediate relief of the unemployed 
but with measures which may help to eliminate 
unemployment in the future. It defines unem- 
ployment, gives the scope of unemployment bene- 
fit schemes, conditions and qualifications which en- 
title a claimant to benefit, the amounts and 
durations of benefits, types of contributions and 
financial and administrative organizations. It is 
an international compilation of the scope and prac- 



12 



March, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



45 



tice of unemployment insurance, and as such is 
probably unique. 

Reviewing general economic conditions, "Facts 
for Workers," the monthly economic news letter 
published by the Labor Bureau, Inc., says that 
about the only favorable development in the past 
month was a seasonal spurt in automobile manu- 
facture, which might have been larger if the pro- 
duction of the new Ford had not been held up 
by strikes against low wages and bad working con- 
ditions in body building plants. "Meanwhile other 
factors in the industrial situation have become 
worse," the review says. "The level of com- 
modity prices has, after its spurt of last summer, 
fallen to a new low, under the former depression 
low of last June. The drop has come chiefly in 
agricultural commodities, which experienced the 
rise of last summer. The result is that the dis- 
parity between the prices received by the farmer 
and the prices of industrial products is wider than 
ever." 

Interest has been aroused by the mechanical 
"trimming" of grain in vessels at the port of 
Montreal, which is done by a private company 
under a contract with the Cunard-Anchor-Don- 
aldson Line. Tests of the all mechanical equip- 
ment controlled by the company thus far have 
shown little actual saving in costs compared with 
"trimming" by man-power, as considerable time 
is required to rig up the mechanical equipment, 
but the new device has introduced a new element 
of competition. Indeed, the men have accepted 
the challenge of the mechanical "trimmer" and 
have made special efforts to outdo the machine. 
In addition to economy in time and cost, other 
advantages are claimed for the new device. More 
grain can be loaded in the holds, with a conse- 
quent saving in shipping space. The new equip- 
ment was first employed in an experimental way 
at Vancouver, but this season's work at Montreal 
represents the first real commercial tests. 

The United States Bureau of Internal Revenue 
announced that income tax return blanks on which 
reports on 1932 income must be made by indi- 
viduals by midnight March 15 were available 
through collectors and deputy collectors of in- 
ternal revenue throughout the country. "Returns 
are required of every single person who for the 
year 1932 had a gross income of $5,000 or more, 
and a net income of $1,000 or more, and of every 
husband and wife living together who had an 
aggregate gross income of $5,000 or more or an 



aggregate net income of $2,500 or more," the Bu- 
reau said, in explaining the new income tax law. 
Approximately 1,500,000 persons reported tax- 
able incomes for 1931 under the laws governing 
incomes for that year. The new income tax pro- 
visions included in the Revenue Act, passed by 
Congress last summer, added about 1,700,000 per- 
sons to the list of those reporting taxable incomes 
for 1932, the Treasury Department estimated. 

Shortening of the working week is necessary to 
the national welfare, the House Committee on 
Labor declares in a report approving the Connery 
five-day week, six-hour day bill. The nation must 
shorten working periods or pay a costly "dole," 
the committee said. "The committee believes," its 
report said, "that either we must provide, through 
some governmental agency, for the maintenance 
of several millions of American industrial work- 
ers who are unable and will continue to be unable 
to secure profitable employment or we must by 
legislation so restrict the hours of labor that all 
American industrial workers will be provided with 
opportunities of employment." The committee ex- 
pressed the belief that early enactment of the 
thirty-hour week bill would relieve privation and 
suffering of millions of unemployed workers and 
their families, would avoid natural unrest and 
shocks to the government, and would help agri- 
culture by increasing the purchasing power of 
great numbers of industrial workers. 

Declaring that "nearly half our population are 
now living below the minimum needed to main- 
tain health and efficiency," William Green, presi- 
dent of the American Federation of Labor, told 
the Senate Manufactures Committee that the 
Federation gave its full support to the La Follette- 
Costigan $500,000,000 Federal unemployment re- 
lief bill. Mr. Green pointed out that private con- 
tributions to relief needs made through Com- 
munity Chests will be twenty per cent less this 
year than last year. "Yet," he added, "the demand 
for relief is rising." He declared that data col- 
lected by the American Federation of Labor con- 
firmed the statements of other witnesses that 
actual slow starvation is widespread in the nation. 
"The damage," he said, "is terrible, immeasur- 
able." He emphasized "the great decline in human 
values — health, faith, hope, morale — that will stay 
with us for a long time. If the nation thoroughly 
understood the conditions prevailing, he insisted, 
public opinion would force Congress to adopt the 
La Follette-Costigan bill or a similar measure. 



13 



46 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March. 1933 



International Seamen's Union of America 

Affiliated with the American Federation of Labor 
and the International Seafarers' Federation 

EXECUTIVE BOARD 
President: ANDREW Fl'RUSETH, 59 Clay St., 
San Francisco, Calif. Vice-Presidents: PATRICK 
FLYNN, 58 Commercial St., San Francisco, Calif.; 
P. B. GILL, 84 Seneca St., Seattle, Wash.: PERCY 
J. PRYOR, 1M> Lewis St.. Boston, Mass.; OSCAR 
CARLSON, 70 South St.. New York. X. Y.; PAT- 
RICK O'BRIEN, 71 Main St.. Buffalo. N. Y. ; PETER 
B. OLSEN, 49 clay St., San Francisco, Calif; EVAN 
HUNTER, 1038 Third St., Detroit, Mich. Editor: 
PAUL SCHARRENBERG, 525 Market St.. San 
Francisco, Calif. Secretary-Treasurer: VICTOR A. 
OLANDER, 666 Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, 111. 



DISTRICT UNIONS AND BRANCHES 
ATLANTIC DISTRICT 

EASTERN AND GULF SAILORS' ASSOCIATION 
Headquarters 

BOSTON, Mass PERCY J. PRYOR, Secretary 

IVj Lewis Street. Phone Capitol 5178 
Branches 

NEW YORK, N. Y .ADOLF KILE, Agent 

70 South Street. Phone John 4-1637 

BALTIMORE. Md E. C. ANDREWS, Agent 

715 S. Broadway. Phone Wolfe 5910 

NORFOLK, Va FRED SORENSEN. Agent 

54 Commercial Place. Phone 23868 Norfolk 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, AND W ATERTEN DERS' 

UNION OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters 

\E\v YORK. X. Y OSCAR CARLSON, Secretary 

70 South Street, Telephone John 0975 
Branches 

BOSTON, Mass JOHN FITZGERALD, Agent 

288 State Street 

BALTIMORE, Md. JOHN BLET, Agent 

723 S. Broadway. Phone Wolfe 5630 

NORFOLK, Va FRED SORENSEN, Acting Agent 

54 Commercial Place. 23868 .Norfolk. 



MARINE COOKS AND STEWARDS' UNION OF THE 

ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters 

NEW YoliK. N. Y I). E, GRANGE, Secretary 

61 Whitehall Street. Phone Bowling Green 1287 

Branches 

NEW YORK (West Side Branch)— JAMES ALLEN, Agent 

61 Whitehall St. Phone Bowling Green 1297 

BOSTON, Mass JOHN MARTIN, Agent 

288 Stat. Stre -t 
BALTIMORE, Md. FRANK BTOCKL, Agent 

1230 North Decker Avenue 

NORFOLK, Va. . FRED SORENSEN, Acting Agenl 

54 Commercial Place. 23868 Norfolk 

FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE ATLANTIC 
BOSTON, Mass. PERCY J. PRYOR, Secretarj 

J. M. NICKERSON, Agent 
I-. L.-wis Street. Phone Richmond 0827 



HARBOR BOATMEN'S UNION OF CAMDEN. 

PHILADELPHIA AND VICINITY 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa.... J. T. MORRIS, Secretary 

303A Marine Bldg., Delaware Ave. and Smith St. 

GREAT LAKES DI STRUT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters 

CHICAGO, 111. VICTOR A. OLANDER, Secretary 

CLAUDE M. GOSHORN, Treasurer 

Mo'. North dark St. Phone Superior .">17."> 

Branches 

BUFFALO, N. Y. JOHN W. ELLISON, Agenl 

71 Main Street 
CLEVELAND. Ohio.. E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

1426 West Third Street. Phone Main 1842 
MILWAUKEE, Wis. CHAS. BRADHERING, Agenl 

234 South Second Street. Phone Daily 0489 

DETROIT, Mich. [VAN HUNTER, Agent 

1038 Third Street 

MARINE FIREMEN. OILERS. WATERTENDERS AND 

COAL PASSERS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters 

DETROIT, Mich.. IVAN HUNTER, Secretary 

,i.\s hay max. Treasurer 

1038 Third Street. Phone Cadillac si70 



BUFFALO, X. Y rOHN W. ELLISON, Agent 

71 Main Street. Phone Cleveland 7391 

CLEVELAND, Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN. Agenl 

Km. 211, Blackstone Bldg., 1426 W. 3rd St. Ph. Main 1842 

MILWAUKEE, Wis ERNEST ELLIS. Agenl 

234 South Second Street. Phone Daily 0489 

CHICAGO, 111 JOHN McGINN, Agent 

156 W. Grand Ave. Phont- Superior 2152 



MARINE COOKS AND STEWARDS' UNION 
Headquarters 

BUFFALO, N. Y. J. M BECORD, Secretary 

71 Main Street 
Branches 

CHICAGO. Ill O. EDWARDS, Agenl 

64 West Illinois Street. Phone Delaware 1031 

CLEVELAND, Ohio i: J. BULLTVAN, Agent 

Room 211, Blackstone Bldg., 1426 W. Srd St. Ph. Main 1 S4^ 

MILWAUKEE, Wis. OTTO EDWARDS, Agenl 

234 South Second Street. Rhone Broadway 189 

DETROIT, Mich. 410 Shelby Street 

Phone Randolph 0044 

PACD1C DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters 

s\.\ FRANCISCO, Cal GEORGE LARSON 

59 i 'lay Street. Telephone Kearny 2228 
Branches 

SEATTLE, Wash P. B. GILL, Agenl 

86 Seneca St., P. O. Box 65. Phone Elliot 6752 

PORTLAND. Ore JOHN A FEUDJE, Agent 

242 Flanders Street. Telephone Beacon : 

SAX PEDRO, Cal 1. A. HAAKKLA! 

130 South Palos Verdes Street R. O. Box 68. Phon, 626M 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, AND WATERTENDERS' 

UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

Headquarters 

sax FRANCISCO, Cal PATRICK FLYNN, Secretary 

;,s Commercial Street. Telephone Kearny 

MARINE COOKS AND STEWARDS' ASSOCIATION 

OF THE PACIFIC COAST 

Headquarters 

SAX FRANCISCO, Cal EUGENE BURKE, Secretary 

86 Commercial Street. Phone Kearn 
Branch 
SEATTLE, Wasi, ,i. i.. NORKGAUER, Agent 

Room 203, Grand Trunk Dock. Phone Main 2233 



ALASKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 
Headquarters 
SAX FRANCISCO, Cal. 49 Oaj 

PETER E. OLSEN, Secretary. Phone Butter 6452 

Branches 
SEATTLE, Wash CHARLES F. HAMMAK1X 

86 Seneca St.. P. O. Box 42. Phone Elliot 8425 

PORTLAND, Ore. PAUL GERHARDT, Agent 

1 12 Flanders street 

UNITED FISHERMEN'S UNION OF SO. CALIFORNIA 

sax DIEGO, Calif JAS. FALLON, Secretary, Box 7s 

EUREKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 

EUREKA, Calif, .G. A. SVENSON, Secretary 

P. O. Box 541. Phone 8-R-5 



COLUMBIA RIVER FISHERMEN'S PROTECTIVE 

UNION 

ASTORIA, Ore. ARVID MATTSON, Sec'y, P. O Box 281 

COQUILLE RIVER FISHERMEN'S UNION 
BANDON, Ore. F. REIMANN, Secretary 



TILLAMOOK COUNTY FISHERMEN'S UNION 
lay CITY. Ore. EARL BLANCHARD, Secretarj 

ROGUE RIVER FISHERMEN'S UNION 
GOLD BEACH, Ore.. WARREN II. HOSKINS, Sec'y-Tr. 

DEEP SEA FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

Headquarters 
SEATTLE, Wash. P. I :. GILL, Secretary 

s«; Seneca St., P. O. Boa 65. Phone Elliot ■ 

KETCHIKAN, Alaska ..GUST OLSEN, Agl . P I I Box All 

FISHERMEN'S UNION OF PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND 

AND VICINITY 
CORDOVA, Alaska x SWANSON, Sec'y, P. O. Box 587 

FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION 

sax FRANCISCO, Cal. C. W. DEAL, Secretary 

Room "K," Ferry Building; Phone Douglas B664 



FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION OF PUGET SOUND 

SEATTLE, Wash. JOHN M FOX, Secretary 

220 Maritime Bldg. 



14 



March, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



47 



Professional Cards 



Attorney for the Sailors' Union of the 
Pacific since its organization 

H. W. Hutton 

531 Pacific Building, Fourth and Market Sts. 

SAN FRANCISCO 

PHONE DOUGLAS 0315 



Albert Michelson 

ATTORNEY-AT-LAW 

Attorney for 

Marine Firemen and Watertenders' 
Union of Pacific 
Marine Diesel and Gasoline Engi- 
neers' Association No. 49 
611 Russ Bldg. Tel. SUtter 3866 

San Francisco, California 



ANDERSON 8c LAMB 

A ttorneys-at-Law 

1226 Engineers Bank Building 

CLEVELAND, OHIO 

Personal Injury Attorneys for Seamen on 
the Great Lakes 



Frank Orwitz 

ATTORNEY-AT-LAW 

Room No. 630, Hearst Building 
Market Street and Third 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 

Telephone GArfield 6353 



Not That Bad 

The minister called at the Jones 
home one Sunday afternoon, and 
little Willie answered the bell. "Pa 
ain't home," he announced. "He 
went over to the golf club." 

The minister's brow darkened, 
and Willie hastened to explain. 

"Oh, he ain't gonna play any golf. 
Not on Sunday. He just went over 
for a few highballs and a little stud 
poker." 



The Can-did Method 

The happy husband is one who 
can eat a dinner that came from 
cans and tell his wife what a good 
cook she is. — Albany Evening News. 




Plates and 

Bridgework 

DR. G. S. FORD 

702 Market Street 

At Market-Geary-Kearny Sts. 

Phone EXbrook 0329 

Daily Office hours, 8:30 a. m. to 7 p. i 

Sunday hours, 9 a.m. till noon 

"One Patient Tells Another" 



JENSEN 8C NELSEN 

Gents' Furnishing Goods 

Sayer's Oil Skin Clothing 
Uniforms, Caps, Hats, Shoes 



110 EAST STREET 
GArfield 9633 



NEAR MISSION 
San Francisco 



Which? 

Father: "You kept the car out 
rather late last night, son. What 
delayed you?" 

Son: "Had a blowout, dad." 
Father: "Huh! Tire or road- 
house?" 



Doctor (to fair patient) : You 
certainly have acute appendicitis. 

Fair Patient: Oh, Doctor, you 
natter me. — Transit News. 



"Only fools are certain, Bobby; 
wise men hesitate." 

"Are you sure of that, Pop?" 
"Yes, certain of it." — Exchange. 



"Warp" and "Woof" 
In weaving, the warp refers to 
the threads extending lengthwise in 
the loom, which are crossed by the 
woof, the threads carried by the 
shuttle. 



Start Now 

Senior: "I'll give you a hundred 
dollars to do my worrying for me." 

Frosh: "Great! Where is the 
hundred?" 

Senior: "That's your first worry." 



M. BROWN & SONS 

SAN PEDRO, CALIFORNIA 

Clothing and Furnishing Goods 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 

Exclusive Agents Florsheim Shoes and Hart Schaffner & Marx 

Clothing and the Best in Oil Clothing and Boots 

See Them at M. Brown & Sons 

109 SIXTH STREET, SAN PEDRO 



SEATTLE, WASH. 



K. K. Tvete & Sons 

Established 1890 

MEN'S CLOTHING, SHOES, HATS, 
AND FURNISHING GOODS 

1300-1302 First Ave., cor. University 
SEATTLE, WASH. 



Westerman's 

UNION LABEL 

Clothier, Furnisher Be Hatter 

Alaska Outfitter 

TWO BIG STORES 

Store No. 1 — Cor. Main and First 

Store No. 2 — Westlake and Pine 

SEATTLE 



Bonney- Watson Co. 

Funeral Directors 

Crematory and Columbarium 

1702 Broadway Seattle 



Claims Against Government 
The government of the United 
States cannot be sued without its 
own consent. Statutes, however, 
provide for suits for compensation 
of claims. 



Tom: "Why do you carry that 
rabbit's foot with your money?" 

Frank: "For luck." 

Tom: "Had any yet?" 

Frank: "Yes, my wife put her 
hand in my pocket last night and 
thought it was a mouse." 



Fifty-Fifty 

Customer: "What is a joint 
checking account?" 

Banker: "Easy — you deposit the 
money and your wife checks it out." 

That indefinable thing we call 
"charm" is what enables a girl to 
violate the traffic rules day after day 
with absolute impunity. 



"What does a bride think as she 
enters the church?" 

"Aisle Altar Hymn!" j 



Business Man (to applicant for 
position): "I want a man like my- 
self, who will put his heart and soul 
in the business. I think nothing of 
starting work at six o'clock in the 
morning." - 

Applicant: "I don't think much of 
it, either." 



The canvasser, having knocked at 
a street door and summoned a 
gloomy-looking man in answer, pro- 
duced a book. 

"I have here," said the canvasser, 
"a book for every business man. It 
tells you how to collect debts." 

"Keep it!" said the gloomy one. 
"What I want is a book telling me 
how to pay them!" 



15 



48 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1933 



Taylor's Nautical Academy 

FOR NAVIGATORS AND MARINE ENGINEERS 
Established 1888 

Consular Bldg., Corner Washington 
and Battery Sts., opp. New Custom 

House, San Francisco, Calif. 
THIS OLD AND NOTEWORTHY 
SCHOOL is under the direct and per- 
sonal supervision of CAPT. HENRY 
TAYLOR, and equipped with all mod- 
ern appliances to illustrate and teach 
any branch of Navigation. 

The class of teachers of Navigation 
in the past have been those having 
simply a knowledge of Navigation and 
Navigation only. Conditions have 
changed, and the American seamen 
demand a man as a teacher with 
higher attainments than one who has 
only the limited ability of a seaman. 
The Principal of this School, keeping 
this always in view, studied several 
years the Maritime Law. and is now, 
in addition to being a thorough teacher of Navigation and its kindred 
subjects, a regularly admitted Member of the Bar. 

There is no standard of education required of a pupil entering the 
School, for no matter how ignorant the seaman may be, even in the 
rudiments of common education. Captain Henry Taylor will teach and 
raise him from the depths of ignorance to the height of the average 
well informed man, and in a comparatively short interval of time. 




Phon, GARFIELD 2076 


DR. EDMOND J. BARRETT 


DENTIST 


Rooms 2429-30, 450 Sutter Building 

Hours: 9 A. M. to 5 P. M. and 

by Appointment 



Seamen's Furnishing Goods 

OTTO PAHL 

Shoes, Oilskins, Seaboots and Underwear 
Suit* cleaned and pressed while you wait 

140 EMBARCADERO 
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 



98 EMBARCADERO 
DAvenport 0394 



202 THIRD ST. 
KEarny 5241 



O. B. OLSEN'S 
RESTAURANT 

Scandinavian and American Cooking 
QUICK SERVICE 

San Francisco California 



Union-made Work Clothes and Shoes 

Uniform Caps, Oilskins and 

Seaboots, Belfast Cord 

and Buckles 



SAM'S 



Shore and Offshore Outfitting Store 
Formerly with Geo. A. Price 

4 Clay Street, San Francisco 

Phone GArfield 6784 



Birds Slow to Mature 

The condor is the only bird which 
keeps its young in its nest for a 
year. The young cannot fly for 
twelve months after being hatched. 



-BOSS- 
union TAILOR 

"#45.00 Specials" 




1034 MARKET STREET 

SAN FRANCISCO 



INFORMATION WANTED 



Will anyone who knows the 
whereabouts of James Connors, a 
former wiper of the steamship 
Exbrook, who was placed in irons 
at Smyrna. Turkey, in September. 
1929, communicate with him and 
advise the undersigned or inform 
him to communicate with his at- 
torney? 

LUCIEN V. AXTELL, 

15 Moore Street, New York City. 



Badly Needed 

A negro was in jail awaiting trial 
on the charge of stealing a calf. His 
wife called to see him. On the way 
out the jailer asked her if she had 
a lawyer for Jim. 

"No, sah," said the negress. "Ef 
Jim was guilty I'd get him a lawyer 
right away; but he tells me he ain't 
guilty, and so, of co'se, I ain't 
cal'lating to hire non." 

"Mr. Jailer," came a voice from 
the cells above, "you tell dot nigger 
woman down dar to get a lawyer — 
and get a good one, too." 



A Great Store 

Built Upon 

Successful 

Service to 

Millions 




HALE BROS. 

IMC 

Market at Fifth 

SAN FRANCISCO 
SUTTER 8000 



THE 

James H. Barry Co. 

The Star Press 

Printing 



1122-1124 MISSION STREET 
SAN FRANCISCO 

We print "The Setmen't Journal" 



KODAKS 

Exchanged * Bought 
Sold 

Developing and Printing 

SAN FRANCISCO 
CAMERA EXCHANGE 

88 Third Street, at Mission 
SAN FRANCISCO CALIFORNIA 



16 










A JOURNAL 


OF SEAMEN, 


BY 


SEAMEN, 


FOR SEAMEN 




Our Aim : 


The Brotherhood of the Sea 




Our Motto: 


Justice by Organiz 


ation 


VOL. 


XLVII 


No. 4 


SAN FRANCISCO, 


APRIL 1, 


1933 


WHOLE No. 


2031 



SAFETY OF LIFE AT SEA 




IP TO the enactment of the La Follette 
Seamen's Act, March 4, 1915, the United 
States looked upon seamen as being an 
International body of men, who came 
under the laws and disciplinary regula- 
tions of the nations on whose vessels they served. 
The exception to this policy was that the master 
and licensed officers must be citizens of the United 
States. The United States had entered into the 
treaties with practically all maritime nations in 
which treaties it was provided that upon demand 
by the master of a treaty nation any seaman sus- 
pected of intention to desert might be detained 
for safekeeping at the master's expense and that 
any seaman who had deserted might be arrested, 
detained and surrendered to the master of the 
vessel from which such seaman had deserted. 

When the 13th Amendment to the Constitu- 
tion of the United States was adopted, the 
statutes were revised to conform to the Amend- 
ment; but the laws governing American seamen 
were not revised and seamen remained the prop- 
erty of the vessel. 

The result of this status was that native Amer- 
icans did not seek the sea for livelihood and prior 
to the passing of the Seamen's Act only about 
five per cent of the men sailing before the mast 
on American vessels were native Americans. To 
eet the American to seek the sea the status had 



to be abolished and the condition had to be so 
improved that the American would seek the sea. 
In no other way could or can American seapower 
be developed. But the granting of freedom and 
improved conditions would increase the operating- 
wage to the extent of driving the American vessel 
from the sea unless the added expense could be 
imposed upon all vessels coming to American 
ports. It was believed that in setting the Amer- 
ican seaman free he would compel foreign ves- 
sels to pay the American wage rate in American 
ports. When the law was enacted it quickly 
proved itself effective for this purpose and as long- 
as real efforts were made to enforce the laws a 
substantial wage equality remained. In order to 
prevent desertion the different nations' shipowners 
increased the wages of their seamen until it came 
so close to equality that real seamen's interest in 
and desire for desertion passed away. 

The only nation to which this did not apply 
was France, and this exception arose from the 
French law under which the seaman is inscribed 
in the navy and desertion is a national offense, 
which is not condoned except by a general 
amnesty. The success of the law was so emphatic 
that by 1920 there were about fifty-one per cent 
of native Americans on American vessels. For- 
eign shipowners contested the law in our courts 
until the Supreme Court of the United States in 



50 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April, 1933 



the case of Dillon vs. Strathearn, had decided 
that the United States had the constitutional power 
to enact such law and to enforce it. The govern- 
ment and shipowners of foreign nations knew well 
that seapower is in skilled manpower (real sea- 
men) and that the United States had entered upon 
a policy that would create real American sea- 
power. They had protested and they had failed. 

In 1917 the United States entered upon a new 
policy with reference to immigration. Up to this 
time the general policy had been that anybody 
might come and be welcome. The exception to 
this was the Chinese Exclusion law ; which had no 
application to seamen. The Immigration law of 
1917 was made applicable to seamen with certain 
exceptions and under certain rules to be made 
by the Department of Labor. Here again a new 
policy was entered upon. Foreign nations again 
protested and so strongly that President Wilson 
either for that or other reasons vetoed the Immi- 
gration bill of 1917, which thereupon passed over 
his veto. By regulation under this Act and in 
accord with the freedom of seamen as established 
by the Seamen's Act, a seaman, who, not an 
American citizen, declared himself of again going 
to sea, was given sixty days to do so before the 
Immigration law applied. Under United States 
law a seaman is a person entered upon a vessel's 
articles as such. (Sec. 4612 R. S.) 

This was taken advantage of to sign immigrants 
on the articles as seamen and then let them land 
in the United States and mingle with the popula- 
tion and in this manner the immigration policy 
was used to destroy our maritime policy and the 
maritime policy in process of fuller development 
was and is used in destroying our immigration 
policy. More than five hundred thousand have 
come across from Europe in violation of our laws 
and the number that has come from China is not 
known. Many American shipowners in the foreign 
trade prefer to sign their crews in foreign ports 
and then keep them. The American comes to the 
sea and finds himself surrounded by men who are 
alien to him not only in nationality and language 
but in feelings, lie quits again and goes back 
whence he came telling his buddies that the Amer- 
ican ship is not for Americans. The young men 
out from whom would come real American sea- 
power of the future are taught to look upon their 
own country as they already look upon the ship- 
owners as a class. A nation that has no seamen 
of its own blood and feeling can have no sea- 



power. Seapower is in the seamen. The vessels 
are the tools used by seamen and the tools ulti- 
mately belong to the nations or races that know 
how to use them. Even if it were to be admitted 
that the International Treaty for Safety of Life 
at Sea does not repeal the Seamen's Act and the 
Act will still be the American law — a supposition 
utterly absurd — the condition created by the law 
would compel its repeal in order to permit the 
American vessels to compete in the shipping trade 
of the world. 

The present violation of the Immigration law 
would continue and increase. The two policies 
adopted and the International Treaty on Safety 
of Life at Sea cannot exist together and now is 
the time when it must be decided whether we 
want the seapower or the treaty, whether in the 
language of President Coolidge we "propose to 
barter away for the privilege of trade any of 
the cherished rights of humanity"; whether we 
"propose to make merchandise of American prin- 
ciples." Vessels are now being built by the tax- 
payers' money and operated by money collected 
as taxes, while tin personnel is becoming more 
and more alien in race, in nationality, in sentiment, 
and the skill of American seamen is more and 
more passing away. Are we going to apply or to 
disregard a fact taught by all history that ves- 
sels manned by loyal and efficient seamen are an 
asset in peace and a power in war, and that ves- 
sels manned by inefficient men are unsafe in 
peace and a liability in war. — Memorandum sub- 
mitted to Congress by Andrew Furuseth, Presi- 
dent, International Seamen's Union of America. 



SMUGGLING ALIENS 



Since the adoption of the quota restrictions on 
immigration to the United States, and particu- 
larly since the more rigid enforcement of exclu- 
sion laws, abuses have multiplied in connection 
with the illegal entry of aliens who arrive in 
American ports signed on as sailors. It has been 
ruled by the Supreme Court that, once in port, 
they cannot be detained in involuntary servitude 
on shipboard. Gaining shore leave, the alien "sea- 
men" disappear, thus securing admission which 
could not be gained if they applied as immigrants. 

Thousands of immigrants, not only Europeans, 
but Orientals as well, are known to have gained 
entrance by posing as seamen. By thus evad- 
ing the laws they have added to unemployment. 



April, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



51 



Unscrupulous shipmasters have found this a 
profitable field to exploit, as many aliens are will- 
ing to pay as much as $1,000 for the privilege of 
a chance to sneak into this country. 

A measure now before Congress would remedy 
this situation and plug the leak in the immigration 
regulations. The King bill would make the own- 
ers of vessels responsible for the crews they bring 
to American shores. Before being given shore 
leave all alleged seamen would be subject to in- 
spection, and if found subject to immigration re- 
strictions would be restrained and deported in 
like manner as other inadmissable aliens. For the 
protection of legimitate seamen and to prevent the 
abuses that have arisen in contravention of exclu- 
sion laws, it is urgent that the bill to stop this cor- 
rupt practice should receive favorable considera- 
tion from Congress. — Washington Post. 



BEATING THE MACHINE AGE 



IT'S A GREAT LIFE— IF! 



Man comes into this world without his consent, 
and leaves it against his will. During his stay on 
earth his time is spent in one continual round of 
controversies and misunderstandings with his 
fellow man. 

In his infancy he is an angel. In his boyhood 
he is a devil. In his manhood he is everything 
from a lizard up. In his duties he is a fool. If 
he raises a family he is a chump. If he raises a 
check he is a thief, and then the law raises hell 
with him. If he is a poor man he is a bad mana- 
ger and has no sense; if he is a rich man he is 
dishonest, but considered smart. If he is in poli- 
tics he is a grafter and a crook; if he is out of 
politics he is classed as an undesirable citizen. If 
he goes to church he is a hypocrite; if he stays 
away from church he is a sinner and damned. If 
he donates to foreign missions he does it for 
show ; if he doesn't he is stingy and a tightwad. 
When he first comes into this world everybody 
wants to kiss him; before he goes out of it they 
all want to kick him. If he dies young there was 
a great future before him; if he lives to a ripe 
old age he is in the way, and is only living to 
save funeral expenses. This is a hard road, but 
we all like to travel it. In order to be healthy he 
must eat nothing, drink nothing, smoke nothin, 
and see that the air is properly sterilized before 
breathing. So let's make the best of it. — Con- 
tributed by Frank Jones. 



The Machine Age that has now engulfed all 
mechanical wage earners makes it positively nec- 
essary that we develop a well educated class of 
workers. 

While the machine has been in evidence for a 
long time, its progress has been sufficiently slow 
so as not to arouse the workers to the full impor- 
tance of the effect it has and will play in the lives 
and well-being of all wage earners. Many work- 
ers did not fully realize, until the depression put 
them on the street and into the bread line, that 
they were being gradually but slowly displaced by 
the machine. 

Unfortunately, since the beginning of the fac- 
tory system, there has been a strong prejudice, 
from a lack of knowledge, against machines in 
work shops and factories. Many workers really 
believed that no machine could be invented that 
would do the work they were doing by hand 
process. Way back, in England, when the loom 
appeared, the workers rose up in rebellion. Strikes 
were organized and the workers went out and 
stayed out in the face of frightful persecution. 
This feeling has come down through all time since 
the advent of the factory system. But the work- 
ers remained unorganized and contented them- 
selves with making faces at the employers. 

In the past ten or more years the machine has 
increased so fast that the workers have been 
stunned, but many of them could not or would 
not accept the inevitable results. They kept out 
of the union and hung to the false hope and delu- 
sion that somehow the boss or the good Lord 
would take care of them. 

Through lack of true knowledge and trade 
union assistance the wages of the unorganized 
have been reduced and most of the workers 
crowded on the street and into the often vain 
search for any old kind of employment. 

What the wage earners need, more than any- 
thing else, is organization and education on just 
what the real true economic condition is. They 
will have to be organized and educated or they 
will be bewildered, numb, and left high and dry 
in a barren wilderness of despair. — Cigar Makers' 
Journal. 



Evil to him who evil thinks. 



Your sole contributor to the sum of things is 
yourself. — Crane. 



52 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April, 1933 



NEWS AND COMMENT 

Concerning Seamen the World Over 



The Congress of the International Chamber of 
Commerce will take place at Vienna from May 
29 to June 3. The agenda includes the follow- 
ing questions affecting seamen and transport 
workers: rail transport, rail and road, financing 
of roads, redundant tonnage, the difficulties of 
shipping, river navigation, air transport. 

* * * 

The Seamen's and Merchant Marine ( Mhcers' 
Federations of Argentine Republic have proposed 
to the Minister of Labor that the signing on of 
seamen in rotation should be made compulsory in 
the Argentine merchant marine. It is stated that 
negotiations with the shipping companies are well 
under way, and that there is every prospect of an 

agreement being come to. 

* * * 

As previously announced, notice to terminate 
the agreement in force in the Danish shipping in- 
dustry has been given by all the parties con- 
cerned, except for the Seamen's Union. The 
owners proposed reductions in wages, while the 
crews demanded increases in view of the de- 
preciation of the Danish currency. Negotiations 
which had been arranged have not taken place 
as under a new law all strike and lockout action 
has been prohibited for a year and all agreements 
in force must be prolonged. As a result the sea- 
men's agreement will operate in its present form 

until April 1, 1934. 

* * * 

A congress of Breton fishermen was held at 
Ouimper recently, under the chairmanship of 
Rene Moreux, editor of the Journal de la Marine 
marchande, was attended by some 150 delegates. 
Throughout the proceedings of the congress, par- 
ticular stress was laid on the severity of the eco- 
nomic depression from which the fishing industry 
of Britanny has been suffering during the last 
two years, and which was partly attributable, in 
the opinion of many delegates, to excessive eco- 
nomic individualism. It was suggested that the 
only effective remedy consisted of reorganizing 
the industry on a basis which would ensure effec- 
tive cooperation between employers and employed 
in the common interests of both parties : this in- 
volved unity of action on the part of all those 
economic groups and trade unions concerned 



which were prepared to recognize the principle 
of cooperation, but naturally implied the exclusion 
of those which professed the doctrine of class 
war. The conference insisted that unemployment 
benefit should be granted to all sea fishermen 
suffering from total or partial unemployment. The 
present regulations have proved impracticable and 
inoperative as regards Breton seamen; and special 
regulations for this purpose should therefore be 
adopted and applied. 



* * * 



Remarkable figures concerning the almost com- 
plete freedom of British ships from the risks of 
loss of life by fire at sea were given by \V. T. 
McAlister, the newly-elected president, at the an- 
nual meeting of the Chamber of Shipping of the 
United Kingdom, held in London recently. "Brit- 
ish shipowners have every reason to be proud of 
their achievements in this way," said Mr. Mc- 
Alister. "The statistics of recent years show that 
the risks of loss of life on British ships by fire 
is less than 0,00003 per cent. In other words, to 
be sure of being burned alive, if you made a sea 
trip every year you would have to live 3,000,000 
years. That record has been achieved by our 
constant and close attention to fire precautions 
in the building and equipping of our ships and 
by the organization and vigilance of our officers 
and crews and their cool heads and capable hands." 

* * * 

The negotiations between the Swedish Seamen's 
Union and Shipowners' Association were resumed 
in February before the official mediator appointed 
by the government. As the parties could not 
come to terms, the mediator was obliged to break 
off the negotiations. The government then ap- 
pointed an arbitration committee composed of 
three members, which invited the two parties to a 
meeting in Stockholm, whilst asking them to re- 
frain from taking any action pending the out- 
come of these negotiations. The shipowners in 
consequence had to abandon their intention of 
reducing wages by ten per cent. The committee 
duly put forward a compromise" proposal for the 
two parties to submit to their members. The 
ballots were fixed for March 7. Meanwhile the 
two parties were pledged to refrain from all hos- 
tilities. The terms of the compromise proposal are 

not yet available. 

* * * 

Only the genius of a Conrad could adequately 
portray the experiences of the Holt liner Pkemius 



April, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



53 



during her gallant struggle with a West Indian 
hurricane described by the United States naval 
authorities as the worst on record. Hurricanes, as 
every navigator knows, are best avoided, but un- 
fortunately the wireless messages respecting the 
course of this storm were misleading and the 
Phemius found herself right in its track. Hatches 
were stripped of their protective covering by a 
wall of spindrift travelling at 200 miles per hour ; 
a thousand tons of water poured below and the 
ship took a list of twenty degrees. Leaving the 
bridge in charge of the chief officer, the master 
went below to impress upon the engineers that 
the safety of ship and crew was dependent upon 
them keeping the pumps going. While he was 
below the funnel was carried away and the engine- 
room became an inferno of escaping high-pressure 
steam and oil fumes, and when the chaos was 
reduced it was found that the head of steam avail- 
able was insufficient to work the engines. The 
ship was thus helpless in the clutches of the hurri- 
cane for five days and nights, and on four oc- 
casions was in the sinister calm which marked its 
dead center. When her lower side was exposed 
to the weather, the force of the seas was reduced 
by oil obtained from the fuel tanks by lowering 
buckets down the ventilators. For two days the 
crew were without rest, food or water, and yet 
they worked on, mainly in darkness, for light 
and power had both failed. And finally, to use 
Mr. Holt's vivid words, she was spewed up by 
the storm and eventually picked up by the sal- 
vage vessel sent to seek her. This grim story of 
resourceful heroism, worthy of the highest tradi- 
tions of seamen, was not altogether unrelieved 
by a touch of humor. The steward, for example, 
was fully determined that whether the ship was 
in extremis or not his accounts should be in per- 
fect order, and he therefore insisted that all who 
were served with beer should sign the regulation 

chit - * * * 

According to the current monthly journal of 
the International Transportworkers' Federation, 
the Danish deep-sea fishing industry is chiefly 
carried on in Danish waters, viz., North Sea, 
Skagerak, Cattegat, Baltic Sea, Great Belt, Little 
Belt and Sound. There is hardly any fishing on 
a large scale. In the port of Esbjerg there are 
a few trawlers, but for the rest the industry is 
carried on with small vessels measuring five to 
fifty tons gross, operated by the owners or part- 
owners themselves. The Danish fishing industry 



may be regarded as a cooperative undertaking or 
rather a host of small cooperatives. If a boat 
is the property of more than one owner each 
shares in the profit in proportion to the holding 
in the ship. The number of fishermen in an 
employed capacity in Denmark is something like 
2,000, of whom about one-half are organized in 
the Danish Fishing Association, which has less 
the character of a trade union than of a mutual 
benefit society. The fishing fleet consists of about 
3,000 vessels (motor and sails), and operates 
chiefly during the spring and autumn seasons. 
The relationship between owners and helpers is 
as a rule not so formal as it usually is between 
employer and employed : there exist no contracts 
and the like to regulate wages and working con- 
ditions. Compensation for overtime is an un- 
known thing. Crews have to pay their own trav- 
eling expenses. In most cases they live in the 
immediate vicinity of the port. No payment is 
made in case of illness. Under Danish law every 
employer, even if employing only one man, is 
required to insure employed persons against acci- 
dents. All other forms of insurance are optional. 
Most of the men belong to a health and invalidity 
insurance fund. Organized fishermen are auto- 
matically insured against unemployment. All 
contributions, except those to the accident com- 
pensation scheme, are paid by the workers them- 
selves. In case of loss effects owing to ship- 
wreck the owner is under an obligation to pay 
compensation. 

A disarmament conference technical committee 
has decided the difficult question : When is a 
policeman not a policeman ? He is not a policeman 
but a military effective if he carries, instead of a 
mere club and pistol, a machine gun or Lewis gun, 
if he has had military training beyond mere 
physical drill, and if he has signaling, transport 
or engineering equipment at his disposal. Under 
this ruling about one-third of Germany's police 
force are not mere policemen but effectives. The 
same committee finds a sailor is practically always 
a sailor — Once out of the landlubber class, a real 
sailor just can't be disguised whether he is aboard 
a man-o'-war or a merchant vessel. 



The test of civilization is its estimate of 
women. 



Deliver your words not by number, but by 
weight 



54 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April. 1933 



Seamen's Journal 

Established in 1887 
Published on the first day of each month at 525 
Market Street, San Francisco, by and under the di- 
rection of the International Seamen's Union of 
America. 

PAUL SCHARRENBERG, Editor 

(7) 

Entered at the San Francisco Postoffice as second- 
class matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate 
of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of Oc- 
tober 3, 1917, authorized September 7, 1918. 

Subscription price $1.00 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 



NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will lie 
published, provided they are of general interest, 
brief, legible, written on one side only of the paper, 
and accompanied by the writer's own name and ad- 
dress. The JOURNAL is not responsible for the ex- 
pressions of correspondents, nor for the return of 
manuscripts. 



April 1. 1913 



PHILIPPINE INDEPENDENCE 



The Congress of the United States has clearly 
demonstrated that it will not subject 13,000,000 
Filipinos to the rigors of an American Exclusion 
Act, or to other handicaps placed upon the for- 
eigner as long as the Philippine Islands are held 
within the jurisdiction and under the protection of 
American sovereignty. 

The question seems to be: Are the Filipinos 
ready for self-government; can they maintain a 
stable self-government? 

There are only three high executive officials in 
the Philippine Islands who are not Filipinos. ( M 
the high judicial officials (nine in all) the chief 
justice and three of the associate justices arc 
Filipinos. 

The governors and members of the provincial 
boards of the thirty-nine regularly organized 
Provinces, and all members of the legislature from 
these Provinces, are Filipinos elected by the peo- 
ple. In the nine specially organized Provinces 
six governors are Filipinos and three Americans. 

From the beginning of American occupation the 
900 municipal governments of the islands have 
been administered practically exclusively by the 
elected Filipinos. There were on December 31, 
1928, only 494 Americans in the civil personnel of 
the Philippine government, while 19,606 Filipinos 
were permanently employed under civil service. 

At a recent election more than 1,000,000 Fili- 



pinos voted, not withstanding each voter is re- 
quired under the Philippine laws to possess cer- 
tain electoral qualifications. From 80 to 95 per 
cent of the registered voters actually vote. 

The Philippine government which has been self- 
supporting since the establishment of civil govern- 
ment in the islands, has been and is in a sound 
financial condition. Its income is in excess of 
Its expenditures for the present necessary activ- 
ities of the island government. 

Joined with the argument that there is some 
doubt as to the ability of the Filipinos to manage 
their own affairs is the frequently asserted state- 
ment that there exists a diversity of tribal inter- 
ests, antagonisms, and prejudices which would 
militate against the maintenance of a stable gov- 
ernment. The facts do not seem to bear out the 
statement. While there are many dialects in the 
Philippines, just as there are in all oriental coun- 
tries, there are but three basic dialects. More- 
over, as the result of the teaching of English in 
the islands for more than thirty years, a great 
number of the Filipinos, regardless of their 
groups or their dialects, speak the English lan- 
guage. 

In one of the Latin-American states of South 
America nearly 100 dialects are spoken; in Mex- 
ico there are estimated fifty-nine dialects, and in 
order to negative the contention that language dif- 
ferences are a* bar to independence, it is hardly 
necessary to mention China's countless dialects 
which have persisted for thousands of years. 

By itself the mere differences in language would 
hardly be a bar to national aspirations for inde- 
pendence. In 1930, according to the budget fig- 
ures, 28 per cent of the total Philippine revenues 
was set aside for education. 

No fundamental reason is found for refusing 
independence to the Filipino people because of 
correlated oriental problems. To attempt to fortify 
the Philippines for defense, if we hold them for 
future, would require a change in the treaty which 
now regulates American military and naval opera- 
tions in the Pacific. There is serious doubt as to 
their use to us in the event of armed conflict. 

The three-party treaty with Japan was a far- 
reaching decision and leaves the Philipine Islands, 
so far as the Army and Xavy of the United States 
are concerned, in an unprotected condition which 
can not be changed while this treaty remains in 
effect. It is asserted that the granting of in- 



April, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



55 



dependence to the Philippines will stimulate a de- 
sire for independence on the part of other de- 
pendencies. To give weight to such a theory 
would be to recognize an unsound philosophy or 
policy repugnant to the very best traditions of 
our nation. We are proud that our experiment in 
self-government has been imitated by all the na- 
tions in South America and by many of the 
nations of Europe. We are told that our reten- 
tion of the Philippine Islands has a beneficial 
effect on our intercourse and trade with the 
Orient. But there is no evidence to conclude that 
a continuation of our sovereignty over the Islands 
will be conducive to oriental friendship. 

The treaties and laws incident to our occupa- 
tion of the Philippines did not provide for the 
ultimate freedom of the Philippines. But the pre- 
amble of the Jones Act passed by Congress is a 
specific pledge that we are preparing the Philip- 
pines for independence. In addition to this act. 
Presidents Taft, Roosevelt and Wilson, at various 
times, made statements indicating a similar policy. 

If there be any doubt left that the ultimate 
purpose of the United States in is legislation with 
respect to the islands has been to prepare them 
for independence, it should be removed by the 
fact that in thirty years in which we have held 
the Philippines we have not attempted to incor- 
porate them. The plain implication is that our 
tenure of the Philippines is temporary in char- 
acter. So why continue the present unsatisfactory 
arrangement? 



SALARIES OF EXECUTIVES 



A POINTED OBJECT LESSON 

The Chicago Daily News of March 17, con- 
tains the following news item : 

A ten-day no-pay holiday for all employees of the 
Illinois Central system not covered by wage agree- 
ments was announced today by officials of the line. 
Five days will be taken in the fast half of March and 
five in the last part of April. 

Unorganized employees all along the road's 6,690 
miles of line in Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, 
Mississippi, Alabama and Louisiana will be affected by 
the order. Organized employees are exempt from the 
holiday, their wages being regulated by agreement. 

Non-union men who read the foregoing are 
urged to read it again and then do a little quiet 
thinking — all by themselves ! 

There are many other reasons why workers 
should affiliate with the unions of their craft but 
the moral of this little news item is so simple and 
straight forward that no one can possibly brush 
it aside ! 



Pacific Coast steamship companies have been 
most persistent in reducing seamen's wages, not 
once — but over and over again. 

The stated reason in each successive cut was 
"hard times" and inability to balance the ledger. 
Such a tale might have been persuasive had the 
big chiefs reduced their own salaries proportion- 
ately. This, it now appears, has not been done. 

By request of the Senate of the State of Cali- 
fornia, the salaries paid by public utilities, includ- 
ing transportation companies, subject to regula- 
tion under state law, were recently made public. 
The information thus obtained shows conclusively 
that the salaries which the executives of the be- 
fore-mentioned steamship companies pay to them- 
selves have not been subjected to that awful 
slashing given to seamen's wages. 

Here are a few choice examples: 

McCormick Steamship Company 

Name and Position Salary 

S. M. Hauptman, President $16,950.00 

Chas. R. McCormick. Chairman of Board 14,125.00 

C. E. Helms, Vice-President 8,239.58 

C. L Wheeler, Vice-Pres. and Gen. Mgr 14,125.00 

Jas. S. Brown, Secretary 2.035.42 

J. C. Strittmatter, General Traffic Manager 12,995.00 

M. C. Darr, General Auditor 6,215.00 

J. A. Lunny, Operating Manager 9,435.50 

Robert Hill, Port Engineer 6,215.00 

H. Lueddemann, District Traffic Manager.... 9,175.00 

Sam Y. Knight, District Traffic Manager 5,650.00 

John Halversen, District Operating Manager 5,085.00 

W. G. Libbey, District Operating Manager.. 7,910.00 

Los Angeles Steamship Company 

R. J. Chandler, Vice-Pres. and Gen. Mgr 19,500.00 

Clyde R. Burr, Vice-Pres. and Gen. Counsel 6,200.00 
J. B. Banning, Jr., Asst. to Vice-Pres. and 

General Manager 7,212.00 

G. R. Crofut, Assistant Manager 7,505.00 

R. F. Cullen, General Passenger Agent 5.892.50 

J. T. Kennedy, Freight Traffic Manager 5,850.00 

S. Lindo, Marine Superintendent 6,335.00 

S. P. Trood, Publicitv Director 7,405.00 

R. P. Dunbar, General Auditor 7.505.00 

T. M. Cole, Asst. Gen. Passenger Agent 5,015.00 

Los Angeles-San Francisco Navigation Co. 

A. E. Gillespie, President 12,000.00 

Nelson Steamship Company 

F. M. Fenwick, Vice-Pres. and Gen. Mgr 15,000.00 

F. W. S. Locke, Vice-President 12,000.00 

W. F. Taylor, Vice-President 9,000.00 

Pacific Steamship Company 

E. H. Hall, Treasurer-Comptroller 7,200.00 

W. P. Bannister, Operating Manager 7,200.00 

C. E. Five, Asst. Freight Traffic Mgr 6,300.00 

H. B. Brittan, General Passenger Agent 6,000.00 

R. B. Schutten Asst. Gen. Passenger Agent.. 5.400.00 

J. Marcovich, Cashier 5,040.00 

One ounce of mirth is worth more than a 
thousand weight of melancholy. 



56 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL April, L933 

"NOBLE EXPERIMENT" ON THE ROCKS THE EMDEN'S NAME-PLATE 



The liberal citizens of the United States, en- 
couraged by the recent clear-cut majority in Con- 
gress for repeal of the Eighteenth Amendment, 
are preparing to move upon the last line trenches 
of the drys. The battleground has now moved 
from the legislative halls and its final front will 
be in the proposed constitutional conventions of 
the several states. 

The fanatical drys. who in time of war and 
national hysteria, were able to put prohibition 
into the Constitution, will not surrender without 
first putting up a desperate battle in their last de- 
fensive position. "No surrender, no retreat, no 
compromise" is the slogan of the political preach- 
ers who manage Anti-Saloon League, but its 
former power, that for many years was able to 
deny the people the right to express their opinions. 
has been completely destroyed. Political bosses 
who had taken the word of the dry dictatorship 
that the American people were in the aggregate 
solidly for prohibition have discovered, to their 
apparent sorrow, that the opposite is the truth. 

While the people in the various states are get- 
ting ready to repeal the Eighteen Amendment an 
actual breach was made in the stone wall of pro- 
hibition during the month when the House legal- 
ized beer with a 3.2 "kick" for consumers and a 
$15,000,000 "pick-up" for the Federal Treasury. 

The Senate lost no time in taking up the House 
bill, and shoved it through by a vote of 43 to 
30. On motion of McAdoo, Democrat of Cali- 
fornia, it was amended to take in 3.2 per cent 
wine. Many authorities, however, contend that 
the wine amendment is meaningless because wine 
with such a low percentage of alcohol is not wine 
at all. 

The wet forces in Congress were unexpectedly 
boosted over the last hurdle by the President in 
a surprise message of seventy-two words — said 
to be the shortest on record— demanding imme- 
diate modification of the Volstead law to legalize 
"non-intoxicating beverages," so as to "provide a 
proper and much-needed revenue for the govern- 
ment." 

An American Federation of Labor survey re- 
ports that there are twenty-three states with an 
aggregate population of 72.000,000 persons in 
which beer may be sold during the ensuing month 
without legislative action. 



War memories were revived by the presenta- 
tion in Berlin recently of the name-plate of the 
German cruiser Enid en. which was destroyed by 
the Australian cruiser Sydney off Cocos Island on 
November 9, 1914. The plate has been in Aus- 
tralia House in London for some time. Mr. I 'nice, 
the Australian Minister in London, broke his 
journey from Geneva to hand to President liin- 
denburg, this historic souvenir, which, mounted on 
Australian blackwood, bears an inscription stating 
that it is the gift of the Australian people and 
government in recognition of the bravery of the 
Etnderis commander, officers and crew "and in re- 
memberance of the men and women of both na- 
tions who gave their lives in the World War." 

The linidcn, commanded by Karl von Miiller. 
was perhaps the most enterprising of the Ger- 
man raiders. She ravaged commerce in the In- 
dian Ocean for three months, and would have 
destroyed the Cocos cable and wireless station had 
it not been for the chance that the Melbourne and 
Sydney, assisting to convoy 30,000 troops to 
Egypt, were only a couple of hours' steam away 
when Cocos sent out its S< >S. The Sydney 
dashed up and, her guns outranging the Emden's, 
she soon drove the raider ashore a blazing wreck. 
Even when aground and helpless von Miiller 
would not surrender until two salvos had been 
fired into his ship at short range. Of the Emden's 
crew 129 were killed, and the survivors, including 
the captain, were taken prisoners. A landing 
party of about forty on Cocos, however, had 
seized a small schooner, the Ayesha, and made for 
the Dutch East Indies. Their journey home to 
Germany via the Red Sea and Constantinople was 
one of the war's most romantic adventures. Eight- 
een vears later the Emden's name-plate has fol- 
lowed them. 



DON'T SLANDER TIM-: V\\< VTES 



Our hard-hitting contemporary Labor, insists 

that we should not call certain business manipu- 
lators pirates. It is unfair to the pirates. 

The president of the American Tobacco Com- 
pany in 1930, was getting a salary of Sl.010.000 
and bonus of $1,169,280. four of the live vice- 
presidents of the company got $2,077,000 the 
same vear, or more than half a million a year 



April, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



57 



each. Most folks would be content with such 
incomes, but not these gentlemen. 

In January, 1931, these five men allotted them- 
selves 32,370 shares of unissued company stock, 
at a price of $25 per share. The day they put 
through this deal, that stock was selling on the 
market at $112 per share. They thus voted them- 
selves a cash profit of $2,620,875 at the expense 
of the company, of which $1,169,280 went to 
the president, in addition to his million-dollar 
salary, and the rest to the four vice-presidents, 
in addition to their half-million-dollar salaries. 

For purposes of comparison, the ninety-six 
senators of the United States get $10,000 a year 
each, or $960,000 in all, and they have docked 
themselves ten per cent, or $96,000. 

A stockholder sued to make the grafters dis- 
gorge. The case came to the United States Su- 
preme Court a couple of weeks ago, and was 
dismissed on technical grounds, Justice Stone, 
Brandeis and Cardozo dissenting, and claiming 
that the case should be decided on its merits. Now 
five stockholders are suing in the New Jersey 
state courts. 

Pirates? Henry Morgan is the only buccaneer 
in history who cheated his followers as shame- 
lessly as these corporation officials gypped their 
stockholders. L'Olonois and Blackbeard and Teach 
and Captain Kidd are entitled to more respect. 

Note: The employees of the American To- 
bacco Company are mostly non-union girls work- 
ing at very low wages. 



IF WE HAD ANOTHER WAR 



Suppose, for some reason, war was declared 
today between our country and an enemy. 

The government would at once take charge of 
the war. Industry would be told what to do and 
how to do it, with "Rush!" orders. Appeals 
would be made for men to enter the army and 
the navy. Congress would appropriate billions for 
munitions. If recruiting lagged, conscription 
would go into effect overnight. 

We would again start building ships, airplanes, 
guns, weapons of all sorts for defense against 
the enemy. No one would stop to count the cost. 
Everyone would say : "It may be costly, but 
our national welfare demands sacrifices. Our lib- 
erty is at stake !" 

As a matter of fact, we have a war in this 



country — a war between millions of our fellow 
men and poverty. Our enemy is Depression, 
Hard Times — whatever you want to call it. 

If you imagine this enemy is not as dangerous 
as a "foreign foe" you are badly mistaken. It is 
a great deal more dangerous. Against a foreign 
foe we should be united. Against our internal 
foe we seem badly disunited. 

Why is it that a government responds speedily 
and effectively with measures against an enemy 
from outside its borders, but does practically 
nothing to battle an enemy within its borders ? 

Why does our government insist on taking full 
charge of a shot-and-shell war, but refuse to do 
much, if anything, about a food-and-shelter war? 

Why is a blood-and-bullets war a community 
undertaking, but a fear-and-famine war some- 
thing to be fought by "individual initiative" ? 

How far would our nation get if it turned over 
a real knock-down-and-drag-out war to "private 
interests" ? The real reason government turns 
over our present war to "private enterprise" is 
that "private enterprise" wishes to make a profit 
out of suffering and distress. It seems that 
nothing — not even unemployment, hardship, 
the loss of homes, starvation itself — must be 
allowed to interfere with that sacred endeavor. 



The Seventy-second Congress adjourned on 
March 4 without acting upon any of the bills 
sponsored by the International Seamen's Union 
of America. According to President Furuseth, 
the bill to stop the smuggling of aliens will be 
promptly reintroduced by Senator King of Utah 
and Representative Dies of Texas. A special ses- 
sion of the Seventy-third Congress was called by 
President Roosevelt on four days' notice. In seven 
hours and fifty-one minutes after it opened, this 
special session sent President Roosevelt its ap- 
proval of H. R. 1491, "an act to provide relief in 
the existing national emergency banking" — the 
first thing he had asked for — the largest grant of 
power over the United States' pocketbook ever 
given to any President in peace time. 



"Destruction is not threatening civilization ; it 
is happening to civilization before our eyes. The 
ship of civilization is not going to sink in five 
years' time nor in fifty years. It is sinking now." 

— H. G. Wells. 



Beauty in conversation consists not in what we 
say, but how and when. 



58 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April. 1933 



CURRENT LEGAL NOTES 



Harbor Workers' Compensation. — Creation 
of a central bureau of shipping interests to 
handle compensation cases involving maritime 
employees, especially longshoremen and other 
workers on the piers, was taken under advisement 
recently at a meeting of shipping and insurance 
interests. The increased cost of compensation to 
the owners and insurance companies has necessi- 
tated action, it was declared in a statement issued 
by the Maritime Association of the Port of New 
York. Abuses are said to have developed which 
will be studied by a committee representing the 
various interests involved. It was agreed to name 
representatives of the steamship owners, contract- 
ing stevedores, railroads, insurance carriers, mari- 
time associations and the longshoremen, to con- 
sider the problem. The committee will confer 
with state and federal authorities, if necessary. 

Assumption of Risk. — The Supreme Court 
of the United States has decided that a man may 
take a job as track inspector without ''assuming 
the risk" of being run down by a train. Joseph 
Rocco. a track inspector on the Lehigh, rode a 
tricycle speeder on his trips. He was killed on 
duty by a train coming from behind a blind 
curve. His widow sued, pointing out that a high 
wind which washed the waters of a lake across 
the track made her husband's task of propelling 
the speeder more difficult, and claiming that the 
engineer had failed to sound short blasts as a 
warning. The Lehigh defended on the usual ''as- 
sumption of risk" doctrine. The jury awarded the 
widow $12,000. The Circuit Court of Appeals 
reversed the lower court. The Supreme Court, 
speaking through Justice Roberts, reversed the 
reversal, and held the road liable. Mrs. Rocco 
gets her money. 

Premature Abandonment. — An interesting 
case, involving the question of a shipper's general 
average proportion of salvage charges on a cargo 
of wheat, has been decided in the British courts. 
The vessel concerned was the Bulgaris Theo- 
dorus, then bound from Black Sea port> to Fal- 
mouth. In September, 1930, she encountered bad 
weather in the Bay of Biscay, during which her 
steering gear, both steam and hand, was badly 
smashed. In response to calls for assistance, the 
British Advocate appeared on the scene and took 
off the crew, the master having decided that his 



only course was to abandon the ship, which \va> 
thus left derelict. She was picked up later by the 
German steamer Livadia, and after the steering 
gear had been temporarily repaired she was 
brought into Brest Roads. The defendants. 
Messrs. Bunge and Company, of London, had to 
give an undertaking for £1,288, alleged to be 
due as their general average contribution to the 
salvage of the cargo. Against this they counter- 
claimed on the ground that the abandonment was 
premature or improper and that the subsequent 
salvage services were necessitated by that aban- 
donment; or that the amount of the award had 
been enhanced by reason of the fact that the ship 
was derelict when picked up. The owners, in their 
answer to the counterclaim, relied on exception- 
in the bill of lading and charter-party, that they 
should not be liable for loss or damage caused 
by negligence, default or error of judgment on 
the part of the master in the navigation and man- 
agement of the ship. Mr. Justice Mackinnon. in 
giving judgment, said the crux of the question 
was whether the defendants had a claim against 
the plaintiffs on the ground that they had differed 
damage by the increased amount of the salvage 
award by reason of the improper abandonment 
of the Bulgaris Theodorus. The question, he 
ruled, was one of fact, and having regard to the 
state of the weather and the disaster which had 
happened to the ship, he decided the action of the 
captain and crew was not a breach of the proper 
standard of duty or seamanship. With regard 
to the action of the German ship, he admitted it 
was an exceptionally courageous and skillful feat, 
but he had also to remember that on the previous 
day the master of the British Advocate couri- 
ered the risk of salvage too great to be under- 
taken. He, therefore, decided the plaintiffs were 
entitled to judgment with costs on the claim and 
counterclaim. 

PASSING THE NORTH STAR 
I By H. W. Hutton) 



The captain said to the man at the helm. 

See the North Star right ahead? 

Steer for it straight hoy and keep that course 

And I'll go below and t<> hed. 

The helmsman hold soon went fast asleep. 

The schooner turned round when he did, and 

When lie woke the North Star was over tfa 

Instead of dead ahead. 

So, he called down below to the skipper so true 

Captain, give me another star. 

We've gone along fast, just fairly flew 

And sailed past that North Star. 



Id 



April, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



59 



SHIPPING NEWS 



The shipbuilding firm of Swan, Hunter & 
Wigham Richardson of Newcastle on Tyne is 
reported to have decided to start construction of 
a new ship on "spec," for which they expect to 
find a market. The firm has already built two 
vessels in this way. The new ship is to be a 
large motor freighter. 

Both the American (Matson) and British ( Can- 
adian- Australiasian and Union) steamship lines 
running regular services from San Francisco 
and Vancouver to Australia and New Zealand 
have reduced their round trip fares to Auckland, 
Sydney and Melbourne by 23 per cent for the 
months of June, July and August. 

The foreign trade of the Soviet Union in 1932, 
comprised imports amounting to 2,300,000 metric 
tons, valued at 698,693,000 gold rubles (one gold 
ruble equals $0.5146), and exports of 17,547,000 
tons, valued at 563,884,000 rubles. An unfavor- 
able balance of 134,809,000 rubles is thus indi- 
cated, compared with an unfavorable balance of 
293,824,000 rubles for 1931. 

A net profit of 664,000 kr. is reported by the 
Swedish-American Line for the year just ended, 
compared with 663,000 kr. in the preceding twelve 
months. The figure was obtained after devoting 
a sum of 1,550,000 kr. to depreciation, against 
1,675,000 kr., and after repeating the dividend of 
three per cent, there is 403,000 kr. to carry for- 
ward to next year's accounts. 

President Roosevelt has named three former 
naval officers to the United States Shipping 
Board. The new Commissioners are : Captain 
Gatewood S. Lincoln, U. S. N., retired, of Cali- 
fornia; Captain David W. Todd, U. S. N., retired 
of New York, and Admiral Hutch I. Cone, 
U. S. N., retired of Florida, who is designated 
as chairman. 

United States imports of raw wool in 1932 
totaled 56,310,000 pounds, the lowest figure since 
1894, when 55,153,000 pounds were imported, 
and, with this exception, receipts were the smallest 
since 1881, when 55,964,000 pounds entered the 
country. Of the 1932 imports, carpet wool ac- 
counted for 40,935,000 pounds and clothing and 
combing wools for 15,375,000 pounds — decreases 



of 65 and 59 per cent, respectively, compared with 
1931 imports. 

Nearly 54,000,000 net register tons of ships 
used the Port of London in 1932, compared with 
slightly over 56,000,000 tons in 1931, and only 
seven per cent less than in the record year of 
1930. The decrease last year of little more than 
2,000,000 tons, or 3.8 per cent, was in respect of 
traffic between Empire and foreign ports. Coast- 
ing ships, at 15,901,444 net register tons, actually 
increased by nearly six per cent over 1931. 

The Osaka Shipping Exchange reports that 
forty-eight vessels, totaling 260,048 tons, were dis- 
mantled in Japan during 1932. Of these, twenty- 
eight with a tonnage of 197,630 were vessels im- 
ported for the purpose of scrapping, and twenty 
vessels of 62,417 tons were of Japanese registry. 
During 1931 there were dismantled forty-one im- 
ported vessels, with a tonnage of 215,273, and 
eleven Japanese vessels of 39,992 tons. 

Despite a year of extremely unfavorable busi- 
ness conditions throughout the world, the Port of 
Houston exported more cotton during 1932 than 
in any year of its history. This information is 
disclosed in the annual report of the director of 
the port which was just released. During the last 
year 2,392,927 bales were shipped overseas from 
Houston. The next highest total was reached at 
the close of 1931, when 2,373,335 bales were 
exported. 

The British Admiralty has turned to fuel oil 
extracted from British coal. Experiments com- 
pleted in December are held to have established the 
complete feasibility of the new fuel and to have 
justified the placing of a large contract. Coal is 
baked in retorts to yield a smokeless fuel oil and 
various by-products. Thorough tests were made 
on the destroyer Westminster. The new fuel 
leaves no sediment and requires no preheating — • 
and what a market it seems to open for neglected 
British coal. 

Puerto Rico learned that the ocean reaches its 
greatest known depth, about nine miles, just north 
of San Juan. Dr. Paul Bartsch, conducting an 
oceanographic expedition from the yacht Caroline, 
makes the sounding, which exceeds by nearly 
three miles the greatest depth plumbed in Nares 
Deep, about seventy-five miles away. Dr. Bartsch's 
measurement shows 44,000 feet. The cruiser lim- 
den once reported discovering a depth of 34,416 
feet in the Pacific while enroute from the Celebes 



II 



60 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April, 1933 



Islands to Nagasaki — still water runs deep and 
rough water deeper still. 

Confirmation of the contract to construct a 
lighthouse tender, with authority to proceed at 
once with the work, has been received by the 
Berg Shipbuilding Company of Seattle. The 
vessel must be completed within 285 days. The 
new tender will be a twin screw steel steamer, 
173 feet over all, with engines developing 1000 
horsepower. She will be named the Hemlock and 
will operate in Alaska, replacing the Fern, a 
smaller wooden vessel built in 1915. The Seattle 
firm's bid of $228,480 was the lowest submitted. 

The people of Seattle and King County, Wash., 
turned thumbs down on the proposed purchase 
by the Port of Seattle of Piers A, B and C of 
the Pacific Coast Company at the port election 
held March 13, and at the same time elected 
Horace P. Chapman a new port commissioner. 
Mr. Chapman defeated George B. Lamping, presi- 
dent of the port and who has been a port com- 
missioner for twelve years. Although the pier 
purchase deal was an issue on the ballot, Com- 
missioner-elect Chapman took to the stump, op- 
posing the purchase, while Commissioner Lamp- 
ing advocated the sale. Mr. Chapman won by 
1828 votes over Colonel Lamping and the pur- 
chase plan was defeated by a two-to-one major- 
ity. Commissioner Chapman will take office on 
June 5. 

Conversion of the China Merchants Steam 
Navigation Company into a state enterprise is 
reported by the United States Department of 
Commerce. The Chinese government will pur- 
chase all of the privately owned stock of the 
company at a price not yet determined. Realty 
holdings of the company will also be taken over 
by the government to insure a margin of profit, 
which will be applied to the liquidation of the 
present indebtedness as well as to furnish capital 
for new ships. China Merchants Steam Navi- 
gation Company, which is the largest Chinese 
shipping organization, owns twenty-four ships of 
about 53,000 tons gross. It has been operating 
at a loss for a long time and in March, 1928, the 
government assumed temporary supervision of 
the line but without success. Assets, including 
realty and ships, are valued at about 50,000,000 
yuan and liabilities to banks about 17,000,000 
yuan. Last year's losses were placed at about 
i, 500,000 yuan. 



LABOR NEWS 



The Australian Council of Trade Unions re- 
cently declared itself to 1>e in favor of a policy 
of a thirty-hour working week of five six-hour 
days, and a twenty-live per cent increase in wages. 
The organization also advocates the nationaliza- 
tion of banking and insurance. 

Chief Justice Taft, speaking from the supreme 
omrt bench, once said that labor unions had risen 
out of "the necessities of the case," because tin- 
individual worker was helpless in dealing with 
the powerful employer. That the statement was 
true when uttered, and that it is doubly true now, 
can not be denied. 

Viscountess Astor, American born member of 
the British parliament, in Boston, recently told 
newspaper men that "Capital must not threaten 
the health and well-being of workers by taking 
advantage of the current depression to inaugurate 
programs which mean only industrial slavery,'* 
and saw in the attempt to further reduce wages 
and lengthen hours of labor danger of "a revolt 
of tremendous effect." 

Rev. Hugh L. McMenamin, rector of the Im- 
maculate Conception Church, Denver, Colo., de- 
clared American capitalists are responsible for the 
appalling increase in broken homes. He said the 
demands of big business for large profits resulted 
in starvation wages for men, and when they lie- 
came unable to support their families the women 
and children were forced to obtain jobs to make 
up the deficit in the family budget. 

New Zealand is agitated over an influx of Jap- 
anese goods. It finds imports amounting to £409,- 
000, while exports to Japan are only £226,000. 
Cheap labor and depreciation of the yen give 
Japan its advantage, and Auckland asks the Gov- 
ernment to prevent the dumping. A New Zea- j 
land merchant visiting Japan finds factories allow- 
ing phenomenal activity. Rubber shoes sell at 
unprecedentedly low prices — one American order 
was for 1,000,000 dozen pairs. 

The United States of America got along with- 
out banks for a week. Thousands were happier 
with them closed. All were less inconvenienced | 
than they thought they would be. More important 
than that, the bank "holiday" forced upon the 
nation the truth that banking is not simply banker 



12 



April, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



61 



Jones' business — it is in reality everybody's busi- 
ness. It is up to everybody — the nation — to see 
that the banker is hereafter a public servant and 
not a private tyrant, using our money as a lever 
to take loot out of us. 

Korea, under the stimulus of Japan, goes after 
its Communists. More than 350 members of the 
Communist party and the Communist Youth or- 
ganization have their preliminary trials at Seoul. 
Of 271 previously held, 117 are acquitted. The 
Korean police release a report covering activities 
of the Communists in two years, indicating that 
they have been guilty of sedition, arson and 
murder, and that there was an organized Com- 
munist outbreak on May 30. Korean Communists 
are very bad, or else Korean police love to sling 
the pen — the report contains 50,000 pages. 

Hamburg, great port city, got an early taste of 
the new autocracy in Germany. Fascist storm 
troops invaded the Hamburg City Hall, hoisted 
the swastika flag and installed one of their mem- 
bers as Burgomaster. The Fascists hold only five 
of the twelve seats in the Hamburg Senate, but on 
order of the Reich Minister of the Interior, police 
control was turned over to them and the Burgo- 
master resigned. The Fascists began reforming 
many towns in line with the "new national con- 
sciousness" — a consciousness which the world 
hopes may set order and peace above personality. 

The employees of the Amoskeag Manufactur- 
ing Company of Manchester, New Hampshire, 
killed by a large vote the company union, 
which for a number of years has been the 
medium of arbitration and contact between mill 
officials and workers. It will be ninety days before 
the plan actually dies an official death, however, 
in accordance with the rules and regulations that 
have governed its use for the past ten years. There 
was a total vote cast of 5,942, with 4,288 voting 
"no" on the question of whether or not the plan 
should continue in operation, and 1,195 voting to 
retain the plan. 

Soviet Russia has again made wholesale arrests 
on charges of sabotage and finds itself in difficulty 
with the British Foreign Office. Of forty persons 
seized by the Ogpu, or secret police, for precipi- 
tating accidents in electric power stations and halt- 
ing work on state enterprises, six are Englishmen 
directing the work of the Metropolitan Vickers 
Company. Alan Monkhouse and Charles de Nord- 
wall, engineers, are released on parole. The 



British see the start of a wide antiforeign cam- 
paign with a deep-laid purpose. They charge the 
Soviet with trying to mask the failure of its huge 
industrial program. 

An era of "socialized capitalism" that will give 
a great opportunity to trust institutions for the 
management of employee pension, employment 
stabilization and similar funds, is foreseen by Gil- 
bert T. Stephenson, vice-president of the Equi- 
table Trust Company of Wilmington, Del., and 
former president of the trust division of the 
American Bankers' Association. In the new "so- 
cialized capitalism," Mr. Stephenson said in an 
address here, "capital will recognize its obligation 
to labor." Just how capital will recognize the 
obligation was not explained. Stephenson warned 
trust institutions against "extravagant claims" in 
approaching the public, saying "bragging" had 
proved to be unreliable in the last three years. 

The Telegraphers' National Bank of St. Louis, 
owned by the O. R. T., came through the financial 
"holiday" with flying colors. When the Roose- 
velt banking moratorium order was lifted the in- 
stitution was one of the first to receive a Federal 
license for the resumption of all normal business. 
The bank could have withstood any run, and if 
called upon to do so would have paid every de- 
positor in full and on demand. For several weeks 
a large sign has been on display in the bank 
lobby — "We Pay All Deposits Without Notice." 
During 1932 the bank increased its assets by 
$764,718. It does not owe a dollar to any other 
bank or to the Reconstruction Finance Corpora- 
tion. 

The New York state legislature appropriated 
$15,000,000 for unemployment relief, to be imme- 
diately available. In a letter to Colonel Green, 
Commissioner of Public Works, Governor Leh- 
man requested that all contracts for highway work 
during 1933 stipulate no person shall be em- 
ployed more than thirty hours per week, that the 
minimum hourly rate of wages for labor in the 
locality shall be stated in the contract and that 
contractors shall be required to pay not less than 
such rate, and that as far as possible all unskilled 
labor shall be citizens who have resided for a sub- 
stantial period of time in the immediate vicinity 
in which the work is to be done. Governor Leh- 
man said he desired the same policy to be applied 
throughout the state on highway maintenance 
work. 



13 



62 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April. 1933 



JAPAN'S INLAND SEA 



Surely no body of water in all the world can 
compare in beauty with the Inland Sea of Japan, 
that strip of water extending for over two hun- 
dred and forty miles between the main island of 
Japan and its smaller neighbor, Shikoku, to the 
south. It begins at Kobe on the east and con- 
tinues to Shimonoseki on the west, and it varies 
in width from a strait barely wide enough for 
ships to pass to a sea as much as twenty miles 
across. 

Travelers on the large transpacific boats, bound 
from Yokohoma or Kobe to Shanghai, are en- 
thusiastic over the beauty of this body of water, 
but to see and appreciate "Seto Uchi," as it is 
known by the Japanese, one should take one of 
the smaller boats of the Japanese lines which ply 
from Kobe to Shimonoseki or to Beppu ; for 
these boats go in and out between the smaller 
islands, into the picturesque little harbors and 
inlets, giving the passengers an unexcelled oppor- 
tunity to enjoy the scenery. 

Leaving Kobe in the early afternoon, one is 
fascinated with the shipping of this busy port, 
and with the picturesque junks which so plenti- 
fully dot the waters. But soon one enters the 
Akashi Channel, with the pine-clad shores and 
sandy beaches of Suma. About sunset one comes 
in sight of the precipitous rocks of Kanakei, and 
after that one passes by rocky pine-clad islands. 
The sunset is exquisite, with a crimson sky against 
which lavender tipped islands and small boats 
with silver sails pass by in rapid succession. About 
nine the boat makes a brief stop at Takamatsu; 
and, almost as you leave the moon rises behind 
you, changing the black, mysterious, forbidding 
shapes of islands, punctuated here and there by 
sparkling lights, into a landscape of silver and 
bluish gray. As the moon rises higher, each 
conical island becomes tipped with silver, each 
terraced rice field a little square of light, while 
on the shore every temple roof is likewise lined 
with silver, and behind the boat a broad path 
marks the way to the moon. And so on through 
the night moves the little boat, each scene more 
lovely than the one before — fantastically shaped 
islands, draped with' even more fantastically 
shaped pine trees, little clusters of lights marking 
the location of villages, occasionally a passing 
boat, but hardly a sound save the lapping of 
water. The most beautiful part of the Inland 



Sea is passed about midnight, and if one can, 
it is well to retire late. 

Early next morning, an entirely new view 
greets you — a sky of pale amber against which 
mountainous islands of dull bluish gray appear, 
while on all sides rock white-sailed fishing boats. 
And, as the sun rises, the islands begin to take 
definite shapes, and jade green rice fields are seen 
in terraces, interspersed here and there by darker 
green pine forests. On the shore sleepy little vil- 
lages nestle among the white beaches, and tiny 
wisps of smoke rise almost vertically from the 
houses, showing the beginnings of activity among 
the residents. 

As the sun rises higher, shapes become definite, 
some of the mystery deserts the landscape, and, 
almost before you know it, the boat is tied up 
alongside the wharf at Beppu. In addition to 
your baggage, you take away something precious 
from the ship — a crowding company of beauti- 
ful memories. 



The kingdom of Roumania has decided to re- 
turn to fundamentals and consented to permit 
some of its debtors to pay their obligations in 
kind. For example, the peasants of Bessarabia, 
who were compelled to buy grain for food and 
seed from the state on credit, are now permitted 
to return this debt in kind, bushel for bushel. 
Both parties to the transaction are pleased, since 
the state gets needed food for the army and the 
villagers are glad to be freed from interest- 
bearing debts. Why can't American fanners use 
produce for payment of taxes? Why can't unem- 
ployed American workers who have acquired a 
little home pay their financial obligations to the 
state and city bv their own labor? 



It" it is mind, if it is knowledge, that makes 

man the lord of creation, there can be no such 
thing as harmless error, still less venerable and 
holy error. And for the consolation of those who 
in any way and at any time may have devoted 
strength and life to the noble and hard battle 
against error, I cannot refrain from adding that, 
as long as truth is absent, error will have free 
play, as owls and bats in the night. — Schopen- 
hauer. 

It is much easier to be critical than to be cor- 
rect. — Disraeli. 



No one reaches a high position without daring. 
— Cyrus. 



14 



April, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



63 



Professional Cards 



Attorney for the Sailors' Union of the 
Pacific since its organization 

H. W. Hutton 

431 Pacific BWg., Fourth and Market Sts. 

SAN FRANCISCO 

PHONE DOUGLAS 0315 



Albert Michelson 

ATTORNEY-AT-LAW 

Attorney for 

Marine Firemen and Watertenders' 
Union of Pacific 
Marine D-iesel and Gasoline Engi- 
neers' Association No. 49 
611 Russ Bldg. Tel. SUtter 3866 

San Francisco, California 



ANDERSON & LAMB 

Attorney s-at-Law 

1226 Engineers Bank Building 

CLEVELAND, OHIO 

Personal Injury Attorneys for Seamen on 
the Great Lakes 



Frank Orwitz 



ATTORNEY-AT-LAW 



Room No. 630, Hearst Building 
Market Street and Third 



SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 
Telephone GArfield 6353 



Father and son were enjoying an 
afternoon in the country. 

"Just fancy, Oscar," said the 
father, pointing around him, "at one 
time these fields were covered by 
the sea, and fish were swimming 
about on the very spot where we 
stand." 

"Yes, papa," said little Oscar, 
suddenly stooping. "Look, here's 
an empty salmon tin!"" 



Policeman (giving evidence) : "He 
was fighting his wife, your worship. 
when I arrested him, and " 

Prisoner (interrupting, ruefully) : 
"When you rescued me, if you don't 
mind." 



DENTIST 






Plates and 
Bridgework 

DR. G. S. FORD 

702 Market Street 

At Market-Geary-Kearny Sts. 

Phone EXbrook 0329 

Daily Office hours, 8:30 a. m. to 7 p. i 

Sunday hours, 9 a.m. till noon 

"One Patient Tells Another" 



JENSEN 8C NELSEN 

Gents' Furnishing Goods 

Saver's Oil Skin Clothing 
Uniforms, Caps, Hats, Shoes 



110 EAST STREET 
GArfield 9633 



NEAR MISSION 
San Francisco 



Police Inspector (to little Binks. 
who has reported that his wife is 
missing) : "So vou want us to find 
her?" 

Little Binks: "Er — no — thank 
you." 

Inspector: "Well, why do you 
come here?" 

Little Binks: "Because, if she 
came back and found I hadn't done 
anything about it, she'd half kill 



Electrician (to assistant): "Hi! 
Take hold of one of these wires." 

Assistant: "Right." 

Electrician: "Feel anything?" 

Assistant: "No." 

Electrician: "Good! I wasn't sure 
which was which. Don't touch the 
other, or you'll be electrocuted." 



Mistress: "Well, Jane, has every- 
thing gone on all right while weVe 
been out?" 

New Maid: "Yes'm — barrin' the 
man comin' for the taxes, and a dorg 
runnin' off with the meat, and the 
chimney bein' on fire, and the cat 
bavin' kittens — everythin' 'as been 
Okav." 



M. BROWN & SONS 

SAN PEDRO, CALIFORNIA 

Clothing and Furnishing Goods 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 

Exclusive Agents Florsheim Shoes and Hart Schaffner & Marx 

Clothing and the Best in Oil Clothing and Boots 

See Them at M, Brown & Sons 

109 SIXTH STREET, SAN PEDRO 



15 



SEATTLE, WASH. 



K. K. Tvete & Sons 

Established 1890 

MEN'S CLOTHING, SHOES, HATS, 
AND FURNISHING GOODS 

1300-1302 First Ave., cor. University 
SEATTLE, WASH. 



Westerman's 

UNION LABEL 

Clothier, Furnisher 8C Hatter 

Alaska Outfitter 

TWO BTG STORES 

Store No. 1 — Cor. Main and First 

Store No. 2 — Westlake and Pine 

SEATTLB 



Bonney- Watson Co. 

Funeral Directors 

Crematory and Columbarium 

1702 Broadway Seattle 



Jeweller: "What name do you 
want engraved on this ring?" 

Young Man: "'From Tom to 
Gwendoline.' " 

Jeweller: "Take my advice and 
simply have 'From Tom.' " 



Nurse: "Why aren't you eating 
your pudding, darling?" 

Tiny: "Cos I don't like it." 

Nurse: "Well, now let's pretend 
you do like it and eat it up quick. 
Come along." 

Tiny: "No, nurse; let's pretend I 
have eaten it." 



They were discussing the spoilt 
son of a mutual friend. 

"He has been ordered by the doc- 
tor to take some exercise," said 
Black. 

"And is he?" queried White. 

"Well, if jumping at conclusions 
and running up bills is exercise, 
yes." 



Mr. and Mrs. Smith were enter- 
taining a- few friends. Just before 
the arrival of the guests Smith car- 
ried the umbrellas upstairs and hid 
them. 

"Dearie, why do you hide the um- 
brellas like that? Are you afraid 
our friends will steal them?" asked 
his surprised wife. 

"No," replied the husband. "I 
am afraid they will recognize 
them!" 



Two young doctors met for the 
first time since they were at college 
together. 

"I'm specializing in nerve treat- 
ment," said one. 

"And have you had any success?" 
asked the other. 

"I should say so," was the reply. 
"Why, when I had finished with my 
last case the patient asked me to 
lend him ten pounds." 



64 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April, 1933 



Taylor's Nautical Academy 

FOR NAVIGATORS AND MARINE ENGINEERS 
Established 1888 

Consular Bldg., Corner Washington 
and Battery Sts., opp. New Custom 

House, San Francisco, Calif. 
THIS OLD AND NOTEWORTHY 
SCHOOL is under the direct and per- 
sonal supervision of CAPT. HENRY 
TAYLOR, and equipped with all mod- 
ern appliances to illustrate and teach 
any branch of Navigation. 

The class of teachers of Navigation 
in the past have been those having 
simply a knowledge of Navigation and 
Navigation only. Conditions have 
changed, and the American seamen 
demand a man as a teacher with 
higher attainments than one who has 
only the limited ability of a seaman. 
The Principal of this School, keeping 
this always in view, studied several 
years the Maritime Law, and is now, 
in addition to being a thorough teacher of Navigation and its kindred 
subjects, a regularly admitted Member of the Bar. 

There is no standard of education required of a pupil entering the 
School, for no matter how ignorant the seaman may be, even in the 
rudiments of common education, Captain Henry Taylor will teach and 
raise him from the depths of ignorance to the height of the average 
well informed man, and In a comparatively short interval of time. 




Phon* GARFIELD 2076 

DR. EDMOND J. BARRETT 

DENTIST 

Rooms 2429-30, 450 Sutter Building 

Hours: 9 A. M. to 5 P. M. and 

by Appointment 



Seamen's Furnishing Goods 

OTTO PAHL 

Shoes, Oilskins, Seaboots and Underwear 
Suits cleaned and pressed while you wait 

140 BMBARCADERO 
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 



Union-made Work Clothes and Shoes 

Uniform Caps, Oilskins and 

Seaboots, Belfast Cord 

and Buckles 



SAM'S 



Shore and Offshore Outfitting Store 
Formerly with Geo. A. Price 

4 Clay Street, San Francisco 

Phone GArfield 6784 



"And have you had many narrow- 
escapes ?" asked the old lady. 

"Yes, mum." replied the salt. "I 
was nearly drowned once." 

"Tell me about that." 

"I went to sleep in the bath and 
left the tap running." 



First Clubman: "Good heavens, 
old man, you look as though you 
have been sentenced to death." 

Second Clubman: "I have." 

"Great Scott! Why?" 

"You remember that second-hand 
car I bought last week? The sales- 
man told me it would last a life- 
time!'* 



-BOSS- 
union TAILOR 

"#45.00 Specials" 




1034 MARKET STREET 

SAN FRANCISCO 



INFORMATION WANTED 



Will anyone who knows the 
whereabouts of James Connors, a 
former wiper of the steamship 
Exkrook, who was placed in irons 
at Smyrna, Turkey, in September. 
1929, communicate with him and 
advise the undersigned or inform 
him to communicate with his at- 
tornev? 

LUC I EX V. A XT F.LI. . 

15 Moore Street, New York City. 



"I noticed that customer you just 
attended to didn't buy anything, yet 
he seemed very pleased," said the 
eagle-eyed shopwalker. "What did 
he want to see?" 

"Me at seven tonight." replied the 
pretty assistant with a blush. 



"Life is a see-saw business," ru- 
minated Jack Smith, jun. 

"What makes you think that?" 
asked his friend. 

"Well, ma had her face lifted at 
a parlor the other day, and when 
dad saw the bill his face fell, replied 
Smith, jun. 



16 



A Great Store 

Built Upon 

Successful 

Service to 

Millions 




HALE BROS. 

INC 

Market at Fifth 

SAN FRANCISCO 
SUTTER 8000 



THE 

James H. Barry Co. 

The Star Press 

Printing 



1122-1124 MISSION STREET 
SAN FRANCISCO 

We print "The Semmen's Journal" 



KODAKS 

Exchanged f Bought 
Sold 

Developing and Printing 

SAN FRANCISCO 
CAMERA EXCHANGE 

88 Third Street, at Mission 
SAN FRANCISCO CALIFORNIA 




A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, FOR SEAMEN 



Our Aim : The Brotherhood of the Sea 



Our Motto : Justice by Organization 



VOL. XLVII, No. 5 



SAN FRANCISCO, MAY 1, 1933 



WHOLE No. 2032 



ANALYSIS OF KING BILL 




HE following self-explanatory Petition 
and Memorandum, urging prompt action 
on the King Bill, has been written by 
President Furuseth of the International 
Seamen's Union of America : 
On behalf of seamen, native and naturalized, 
the undersigned respectfully petitions that this 
legislation (S. 868 and H. R. 3842, in re the 
deportation of certain alien seamen) be considered 
as an emergency measure and that it as such be 
given consideration and action as early in the fu- 
ture as may be, and as reasons for this petition, 
we respectfully submit the following : 

(a) When during the World War the United 
States found that its foreign trade practically 
stopped because foreign tonnage had been with- 
drawn — that we had neither vessels nor seamen 
needed — it was decided to create a condition under 
which we could develop an efficient sea personnel 
loyal to the United States. In order to accomplish 
this the seamen had to be made free and a strong 
and persistent protest came from the shipowners 
of this country directly and from the shipowners 
in other countries through their governments. The 
law was enacted. 

(b) When in 1917 we came to the conclusion 
that it was not wise to permit, without some sys- 
tem of selection, immigration into this country 
of men and women alien in blood and sentiments, 



and we proceeded to enact legislation which we 
deemed needed, we again were met by protests 
from practically all foreign countries. We again 
disregarded the protests and enacted the law under 
which seamen on foreign vessels are given land- 
ing privileges not to exceed sixty days in which to 
ship foreign again. 

(c) When the war was ended and general trade 
resumed, vessels promptly began to carry double 
or even triple crews to the United States in order 
to evade the system of selection in being landed, 
and thus began the system of smuggling immi- 
grants into this country as seamen. This racket 
has grown ever since in numbers and in profits to 
the smugglers. When the passing of the quota law 
of 1921 was enacted the numbers smuggled and 
the earnings of the smugglers kept growing until 
they reached to more than a thousand persons per 
week. This direct smuggling came as an addi- 
tion to the large number of seamen that had al- 
ways been landed from passenger vessels which 
had arrived with a full passenger list and left with 
a very much reduced one. 

( d ) These facts and the conditions arising from 
them were well understood when the Wilson ad- 
ministration went out of office. The facts and 
conditions were laid before the Secretary of Com- 
merce. The Department had the right to make 
rules which would stop it. A rule that vessels 



66 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, 1933 



should take away as many persons as seamen as 
they had brought was drafted but not issued be- 
cause of the coming change. 

(e) The present bill providing for the deporta- 
tion of certain alien seamen was drafted as an 
amendment to the Immigration Law of 1924, but 
failed to be included because of the opposition 
coming from the shipping interests, both domestic 
and foreign. These interests have been and were 
hostile to the policies and were using the one to 
destroy the other. The arguments used first were 
treaty violations. This was disposed of by Secre- 
tary of State Hughes who found no violation of 
treaties but suggested that certain facts might be 
an offense against comity. This was disposed of 
by an amendment. The Department of Commerce 
suggested a slight alteration which was made. The 
Department of Labor in substance endorsed the 
bill and later on opposed it because it was, so it 
was claimed, too harsh on the seamen. When that 
was disposed of by showing that nothing was or 
could under the bill be done to the seamen that 
was not every day done to citizens the opposition 
from the shipping interests was solely relied upon 
to defeat the bill. And it was defeated notwith- 
standing the fact that it was reported from the 
Senate Committee four times, that it passed the 
Senate twice, and that it was twice reported fa- 
vorably from the House Committee. 

(f) The seamen suffer under this condition. 
They have appealed to the Congress, to the De- 
partments, and have been given promises ; but there 
has been no performance and defeated hope makes 
them sick at heart. They see aliens employed while 
they are starving ; they see the shipowners draw- 
ing more money from the government for carry- 
ing the mail than will cover more than the total 
cost of operating the vessel while a few sacks of 
mail are on board ; they have seen the percentage 
of native Americans increase on our vessels from 
less than ten per cent prior to the war to more 
than 51 per cent in 1920, when the policies were 
respected and enforced to some extent; they have 
seen the natives reduced to about 35 per cent and 
the Chinese seamen, who are not included in the 
Exclusion Law, increased from about one thou- 
sand in 1920 to more than fourteen thousand since 
1921. They find themselves starving while the 
aliens are working and eating ; they are going 
away from the sea to tell their buddies that Amer- 
ican vessels are not for Americans, and they are 
growing from surprise to contempt and from con- 



tempt to scorn and hate and are drinking in com- 
munistic ideas until they have neither time nor 
patience for their own country's ideas. 

We respectfully represent that to meet such 
mental condition is of very high importance and 
that it to us seems to be a real emergency. 

On behalf of the seamen these facts, the condi- 
tions and our humble prayer for redress are most 
respectfully submitted by: 

ANDREW 1/l'kUSETH, 
Chairman, Legislative Committee. International 
Seamen's Union of America. 



END THE TWELVE-HOUR WORK DAY 



Though the United States Senate has approved 
a bill for a six-hour day. sailors on the Great 
Lakes still work twelve hours a day. In letters to 
President Roosevelt and U. S. Senators and Gov- 
ernors in States bordering on the Lakes, C. M. 
Goshorn, acting secretary of the Sailors' Union 
of the Great Lakes, directs attention to the long 
work-day on Lake cargo vessels and says: 

"The widespread public discussion of the neces- 
sity of a shorter work day in industry impels us 
to call your attention to a situation prevailing on 
the Great Lakes that calls for a 'new deal.' 

"During the past fifty years the whole trend 
of American industry has been toward an ever 
shorter work day and work week. Today the ne- 
cessity for a six-hour day and five-day week is 
rapidly being clearly understood by all interests. 

"How amazing then, to find on the Great Lakes, 
in the heart of free America, a powerful group of 
shipowners attempting to conduct industrial activi- 
ties under standards that existed at sea in the days 
of Columbus. 

"This particular group of vessel owners, operat- 
ing bulk freighters, still requires sailors to work 
twelve hours a day and eighty-four hours a week. 
The three-watch system or eight-hour day has 
been widely adopted by American vessel owners 
on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts in recent years. 
The United States Shipping Board operates under 
the three-watch system. Shipowners in the minor 
trades on the Great Lakes have used the three- 
watch system for many years. The bulk freight 
vessel owners on the Great Lakes are the last 
important group of shipowners clinging to the 
obsolete two-watch system or twelve-hour day. 
Up to the present they have rejected and ignored 
all suggestions that a change to the three-watch 



May, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



67 



system or eight-hour day was in order. 'All hope 
abandon, ye who enter here,' is apparently this 
group's answer to the sailors' hope for a decent 
and humane working day. 

"The bulk freight trade on the Great Lakes is 
of tremendous importance in the economic and 
industrial life of our nation. It is not an 'infant 
industry' struggling to exist. In normal times the 
movement of iron ore. coal, stone and grain ag- 
gregates more than 100 million tons annually. 
Highly efficient vessels, docks, etc., have been de- 
veloped in the past quarter century to handle this 
enormous commerce. 

"Five thousand Great Lakes sailors, both union 
and non-union, earnestly feel that the time has ar- 
rived for a 'new deal' in working hours on board 
bulk freight vessels. Exploitation of these sailors 
under the twelve hour day is a disgrace to Ameri- 
can industry and should be ended now. 

"The shipping season will soon open. May we 
urge you to do whatever you can to induce the 
shipowners named in the attached list to inaugu- 
rate the three-watch system or eight-hour day for 
sailors on their vessels." 

The letter gives the names and addresses of 22 
steamship companies which work their sailors 
twelve hours a day. 



DANISH MANNING SCALE 



Proposals for the introduction of a manning 
scale, a reform which Danish seamen have long 
asked for, came into force on January 15 for all 
ships except those not calling at a Danish port 
during 1933, in which cases they will come into 
force on January 1, 1934. 

The main provisions of these regulations are as 
follows : 

"Home trade" passenger ships (those plying 
east of a line from Lindesnaes to Texel Island) 
entitled to carry more than 500 passengers, and 
remaining at sea more than six hours, and all 
"home trade" passenger ships carrying over 800 
passengers, must carry at least two certificated 
deck officers. 

Ships over 2,000 tons gross trading beyond the 
above limits must carry at least three certificated 
deck officers. 

Steamships or motor ships (except the fishing 
craft) whose propelling machinery exceeds 200 
h. p., trading beyond European limits, which in- 



Able 


Ordinary- 






Seamen 


Seamen 


Boys 


Tot 


2 


2 


1 


5 


2 


2 


2 


6 


3 


2 


2 


7 


4 


2 


2 


8 


6 


2 


1 


9 


6 


3 


2 


11 



elude voyages to Iceland, and to non-European 
Mediterranean and Black Sea ports, must carry at 
least two certificated engineer officers, and one 
engineer apprentice who has passed the necessary 
examinations. 

Twin-screw steamships and motor ships whose 
propelling machinery exceeds 500 h. p. must carry 
a sufficient engine-room staff to ensure that each 
watch includes one engineer apprentice in addition 
to the engineer officer on watch. 

Steamships and motor ships over 500 tons gross 
trading beyond "home trade" limits must carry 
minimum deck crews as follows : 

Gross tonnage 

500 to 1,400 
1,400 to 2,000 
2,000 to 2,500 
2,500 to 3,500 
3,500 to 5,000 
5,000 to 6,500 

Boatswains and carpenters are treated, for the 
above purpose, as A. B.'s ; ships exceeding 6,500 
tons gross must carry one additional A. B. per 
1,500 tons. 

Wireless operators must be carried in accord- 
ance with the provisions of the Convention of 
1929 on Safety of Life at Sea. 

Foreign-going passenger liners must carry a 
sufficient number of certificated lifeboatmen to 
man the lifeboats, namely, two for lifeboats carry- 
ing less than 41, three for those carrying 41 to 
61, four for those carrying 62 to 85, and five for 
those carrying over 85 persons. 

On all steamships the engine-room staff must be 
sufficient to ensure the proper working of the 
vessel ; and on all foreign-going steamships the 
engine-room staff must be sufficient to organize 
work in three watches. 

The Minister is empowered to vary the above 
provisions in individual cases, and either to raise 
or lower the requirements as to manning. 



Once upon a time only the new countries, like 
the United States, Canada and Australia, insisted 
upon stringent immigration laws and deporta- 
tion penalties. The worldwide economic depres- 
sion has changed all that. In one of the oldest 
countries on earth, Rumania, all alien workers 
who were not settled there before 1923 are now 
required to leave the country within three months. 
Individuals may appeal to the Ministry of Labor 
against this general order. The Ministry esti- 
mates that 50,000 persons are covered by the order. 



68 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, 1933 



NEWS AND COMMENT 

Concerning Seamen the World Over 



We are informed that the Swedish seamen's 
strike was called off on April 1. on the basis 

of a four per cent wage reduction. We have no 

further information at the moment of writing. 

* * * 

According to a cable message from Sydney, the 
British-India liner Gharinda numbers among her 

complement a steward 83 years of age. His name 
is Abdul Aziz, and we trust it will be long before 

lie is spoken of as "Abdul Aswaz." 

* * * 

The British Board of Trade have awarded a 
piece of plate to Captain Giles Stedman, master 
of the United States ship American Merchant, in 
recognition of his services to the British steamer 
Exeter City, which was in distress in the North 
Atlantic Ocean on January 19, 1933. Captain Sted- 
man at that time successfully directed the rescue 

of the entire crew of the Exeter City. 

* * * 

According to the latest press report of the Inter- 
national Transportworkers' Federation, the Polish 

.Minister of Commerce decided, after consultation 
with the Minister for Social Affairs, to ask ship- 
owners to continue paying ships' officers wages at 
the old rates, and to extend the existing collective 

agreement until June 1. 

* * * 

The recent meeting of the Scandinavian Trans- 
port Workers' Federation dealt with the position 
of the Finnish seamen, who are not at presenl 
covered by a collective agreement. Wages arc- ex- 
tremely low, and the union is naturally pressing 
for an improvement, and above all for the con- 
clusion of a collective agreement. The meeting 
declared that in case of a conflict the Finnish sea- 
men could count on their full support. 

* * * 

The Dutch Rhine shipping strike, declared sev- 
eral months ago as a result of an employers' at- 
tack on wages and working conditions, has been 
called off. It has been carried on in extremely un- 
favorable circumstances, -nice- the employers have 
had no difficulty in securing blacklegs. The Dutch 
Central Transport Workers' Union has, therefore, 
been obliged to advise its members to return to 
work, which they have done. There is at present 
no collective agreement in force. 



Among interesting saltwater reminiscences, we 
like the story of the Gaiety actress rebuking a 
famous Cunard commander aboard his own ship. 
Shortly after the Titantic disaster, this actress and 
her company were crossing the Atlantic in the 
Mauretahia and one afternoon Captain Turner in- 
vited two nr three of them to take tea with him. ( )n 
ascending to his quarters, they discovered the "old 
man" playing patience with a pack of well-worn 
cards. Fixing him with an imperious eye, a haughty 
beauty in the parly protested: "So that is what 
you do up here, is it. instead of steering the ship? 
Xo wonder these dreadful accidents happen!" 

* * * 

Since the is-ue of the last announcement regard- 
ing ratifications of the International Load Line 
Convention, \ { KM), which came into operation on 
January 1, last, the governments of Iceland and 
Cuba have deposited their ratifications of the Con- 
vention. 'I'he Convention is now in force in Can- 
ada. Cuba. I)enmark. Finland, France, Iceland, 
Italy, Latvia, Netherlands. Xew Zealand, Norway, 
Portugal, Spain. Sweden. Russian, United King- 
dom and the United States. In tin- case of Ger- 
many, whose formal ratification of the Conven- 
tion has not yet been deposited, an order providing 
for the adoption of the Convention rules in Ger- 
many has been issued by that government, and 
came into force on January 1. last. In addition, the 
governments of Roumania and I [ungary have- noti- 
fied their accession to the Convention, and these 
accessions became effective during April. 

* * * 

In the crew's quarters of all Swedish ships there 
now has to be heating apparatus and electric light. 
together with a separate plug-contact for an elec- 
tric fan, and mosquito netting if the vessel is likely 
to trade in tropical waters, while every man must 
have a clothes locker, and there must be another 
locker, for eating utensils, between every two men. 
The decks above all living accommodation have 
to be wood-sheathed on top or insulated under- 
neath, and stringent rules are laid down regarding 
ventilation and natural lighting. Hospitals have 
also to be provided, with two berths if the crew 
numbers between 19 and 30. three berths if be- 
tween 31 and 45. and four berths if above that 
number, one berth in every case being balanced. 
As regards officers' accommodation, single-berth 
cabins for all ranks arc the rule, and separate 
mess-rooms must be provided for the navigating 
and engineer departments. 



May, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



69 



Current Australian labor papers advise that the 
General Secretary of the Australian Seamen's 
Union, Mr. W. Raeburn, has tendered his resigna- 
tion to the Federal management committee of the 
organization. Although Mr. Jacob Johnson was 
runner-up in the annual ballot, the question of a 
successor to Mr. Raeburn has not yet been of- 
ficially considered. The management committee, 
which comprises representatives from other 
States, has been in session for several days, and 
has been considering the question of a general re- 
organization of the union. Staff changes have al- 
ready been made, and, it is stated, others are con- 
templated. A general meeting of members is to 
be held shortly, when a complete report of the 
position facing the union will be presented by the 
management committee. 

The National Seamen's Union of India recently 
adopted a resolution urging the government to 
remove existing restrictions on the employment of 
Lascar deck crews on ships bound for countries in 
certain northern latitudes, subject to certain safe- 
guards. The government was also asked to urge 
shipping companies to engage Indian seamen, in 
preference to Malay and Chinese seamen, on such 
ships. Before taking any action in the matter, the 
government consulted the Bombay Chamber of 
Commerce with reference to this proposal. The 
Chamber, in their reply, state that Lascars might 
be permitted to serve in latitudes beyond the limits 
at present laid down provided they agreed to do 
so; and that the safeguards to be embodied in the 
special "Lascar agreements" should include stipu- 
lations for the adequate heating of crews' quarters 
and the provision of warm clothing, boots and 
extra foodstuffs. 

* * * 

In their report for 1932, the council of the Brit- 
ish Merchant Marine Officers' Federation suggest 
that if financial assistance is to be granted by the 
government to shipowners, it should take the form 
of payment of all or part of the salaries of masters 
and navigating and engineer officers. Six reasons 
are advanced in support of this proposal, viz., it 
would be a form of assistance to British shipping 
to which foreign competitiors could take no excep- 
tion on the grounds that it was discriminatory in 
character ; it would apply with equal fairness to 
owners of every type of ship; it would tend to 
bring what has always been in effect a national 
service of officers into closer contact with the gov- 



ernment ; it would justify the government taking- 
greater interest in the problem of the entry and 
training of future officers in the service ; it would 
be a form of relief to efficient shipping concerns 
and would not encourage new competition by in- 
efficient firms ; and it would ensure that only Brit- 
ish and certificated officers were employed in Brit- 
ish ships. 

The question of establishing a government in- 
stitution to supervise the work of seamen's em- 
ployment and registration officers was discussed at 
a recent joint meeting of the various Norwegian 
seamen's organizations, at which a resolution was 
adopted requesting the legislature to appoint a 
committee of inquiry with a view to making pro- 
posals. Previous resolutions on the subject were 
referred to, together with a proposal drawn up by 
the Board of Management of the public employ- 
ment exchanges in 1923, in which it was suggested 
that: (1) Placing and registration should be or- 
ganized by a government institution, under the 
control of the Ministry of Social Affairs, with 
offices in all Norwegian ports; (2) the Employ- 
ment Agencies Act should be amended, so as to 
make local employment exchanges exclusively re- 
sponsible for effecting engagements; (3) the ex- 
changes should be managed by boards consisting 
of a chairman and a vice-chairman and a limited 
number of shipowners and seamen ; (4) persons 
appointed as officials should have practical experi- 
ence of shipping. The Norwegian Shipowners' 
Federation maintains that this proposal would de- 
prive shipowners of freedom of choice in engaging- 
seamen, and would render competition with for- 
eign shipping more difficult. 



HOW BIG IS HAWAII? 



"Don't be fooled by your atlas about the size 
of Hawaii" is the caption of a diagram prepared 
by the Hawaii Legislative Commission showing 
that the land area of the islands is 6366 square 
miles, which is more than the combined areas of 
Connecticut and Rhode Island. 

The diagram shows that states slightly larger 
than Hawaii are Vermont, 9124 square miles; 
New Hampshire, 9031 square miles ; Massachu- 
setts, 8039 square miles, and New Jersey. 7514 
square miles. Smaller than Hawaii are Connecticut, 
4820 square miles; Delaware, 1965 square miles, 
and Rhode Island, 1067 square miles. 



70 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, 1933 



Seamen's Journal 

Established in 1887 
Published on the first day of each month at 525 
Market Street, San Francisco, by and under the di- 
rection of the International Seamen's Union of 
America. 

PAUL SCHAPvRENBERG, Editor 

® 

Entered at the San Francisco Postoffice as second- 
class matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate 
of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of Oc- 
tober 3, 1917, authorized September 7, 1918. 

Subscription price $1.00 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 



NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will be 
published, provided they are of general interest, 
brief, legible, written on one side only of the paper, 
and accompanied by the writer's own name and ad- 
dress. The JOURNAIj is not responsible for the ex- 
pressions of correspondents, nor for the return of 
manuscripts. 



May 1. 1933 



R( x ISEVELT MAKES GOOD 



Xot for generations has anything been seen in 
the United States like Mr. Roosevelt's amazing 
personal success. The country is united behind 
him to an almost incredible extent, and Congress 
is passing bill after bill almost solely on the 
ground that the President asks for it. 

Early in the past month, President Roosevelt 
signed the law creating a peace time army which 
will work on afforestation and similar projects as 
a measure of relief to unemployment. Two hun- 
dred thousand men or more will be enlisted for 
one year at the rate of one dollar a day and food 
and lodging. 

In the meantime, Frances Perkins, the new Sec- 
retary of Labor, held an important conference 
with American Federation of Labor and Railroad 
Brotherhood spokesmen and decided upon a 
"Charter for Labor" which should be embodied 
to a large extent in Federal legislation. Among 
the points agreed upon were: 

I 1 ) Shorter working hours. 

(2) Higher wages. 

(3) A hroad program of public works. 

(4) Relief for owners of mortgaged houses. 
( 5 ) Unemployment insurance. 

(6) Participation of Labor representatives in the ad- 
ministration of emergency relief. 

Without delay the President has used some of 

the vast powers recently granted him and reduced 

the pensions and other allowances to 1,400,000 

ex-servicemen by an aggregate total of $400,000,- 



000 annually or more. In so doing he took a step 
which spokesmen for the veterans had for ten 
years said that no political leader would have the 
courage to undertake. 

The next great economic problem with which 
the President is grappling is that of the railways, 
nearly all of which are perilously close to bank- 
ruptcy. The President will probably ask Congress 
for authority to appoint a Federal "coordinator" 
for all railways, who will have the powers virtu- 
ally of a dictator. He would direct the companies 
with the view of having them amalgamated ulti- 
mately in about seven regional systems. 

Meanwhile banking and security selling con- 
tinue to occupy much of the attention of Mr. 
Roosevelt and his advisers. There seems no doubt 
that Congress will accept the bill modeled upon 
British statutes for protecting the security of the 
buyer through the furnishing of full information. 

The American public learned how severe is this 
measure from the action taken under it in 1931 
against Lord Kylsant. Here was the controller of 
the world's largest fleet of ships and a man almost 
without equal in London in financial power. Vet 
he was arrested for an offense in connection with 
the information appearing in the prospectus of a 
new issue. The information did not contain a 
false statement. It contained a false inference. 
The steamship company headed by Lord Kylsant 
stated that dividends had been paid regularly over 
a term of years while conditions were adverse. 
The public might infer that payments came out of 
the current income. In fact, they came out of 
earnings accumulated in the war-time years of 
shipping prosperity. But the judge, in sending 
Lord Kylsant to prison, said that "half a truth 
is no better than a downright falsehood." The 
case caused a considerable stir in Wall Street, 
where it was frankly admitted that what appeared 
to be an offense in England was a common prac- 
tice in the United States, and had never been re- 
garded by promoters as dishonset, let alone illegal. 
< )f course it was always dishonest and, as part 
of the "new deal," may become illegal. 



VINDICATION FOR AXTELL 



Readers of the Journal will be glad to know 
that Silas B. Axtell, prominent admiralty attorney, 
was unconditionally reinstated by the Appellate 
Division of the New York State Supreme Court 
in a decision handed down on April 7. 



May, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



71 



Mr. Axtell, admitted to practice by the Appel- 
late Division on March 15, 1910, gained a reputa- 
tion in defending the claims of officers and sea- 
men in maritime cases. 

In February, 1929, he was one of seventy-four 
attorneys recommended by Supreme Court Jus- 
tice Wasservogel for disciplinary action as the 
result of the "ambulance chasing" inquiry con- 
ducted by Isidor J. Kressel during 1928. 

At the time of the investigation, Axtell charged 
that his name had been given to the investigators 
by the steamship companies which had been an- 
noyed at the damage verdicts he had won for in- 
jured seamen. 

Ever since Air. Axtell has firmly contended that 
his only offense was an error in judgment in be- 
lieving that the relationship existing between him 
and his union clients justified his communicating 
with the widows of union seamen to protect them 
from the maritime insurance adjusters when he 
was requested to do so by agents of the union. 
He also claimed that, where he had been retained 
by a foreign consul on behalf of a non-resident 
alien to prosecute a claim on behalf of a de- 
cedent seaman's estate, it was no offense against 
the canon of ethics to send a retainer form agree- 
ment to the dependent relative directly for sig- 
nature. 

Mr. Axtell, since his admission to the bar. has 
served as the attorney for the International Sea- 
men's Union of America and all its major 
branches. He became known as a friend of sea- 
men who had been injured while on duty and in 
his capacity as their attorney won scores of large 
judgments. Many of his victories were won in 
the higher Federal courts. 

The Journal congratulates Mr. Axtell and 
feels confident that the unjustifiable persecution, 
now happily ended, has not dimmed or lessened 
his old-time fighting spirit. As long as seamen are 
without a compensation law, so long must they 
employ lawyers to obtain reasonable damages 
for injuries sustained aboard ship. Silas B. Ax- 
tell has been the type of a lawyer who achieved 
fame for tenacity as well as sagacity — to obtain 
results. 

SAILORS FOR THE "CONSTITUTION" 



reopened in the editorial columns of the San 
Francisco Chronicle. 

Says the learned editor of the Chronicle : 

From time to time complaint arises because Old 
Ironsides is towed from port to port by a steam vessel. 
It is natural to ask why the grand old frigate does not 
spread her wings and plow the seas under sail as of 
yore, but when this becomes criticism it lacks acquaint- 
ance with the facts. 

When the Constitution's cruise was projected, the 
Navy, of course, wanted to take her around under sail. 
But a crew of American seamen who understand 
handling a square rigged sailing ship was unobtainable. 
The Navy itself has no such sailors or officers. Pos- 
sibly a crew might have been found in Finland or 
Scandinavia, but that would hardly have been ap- 
propriate. 

To put the Constitution under sail would have in- 
volved training an entire crew — from captain to cabin 
boy — from the ground up, a costly and entirely im- 
practicable proceeding. The Navy was left no choice 
but to take Old Ironsides around under tow. 

How utterly false and misleading are these 
assertions ! Nearly two years ago Secretary Olan- 
der of the International Seamen's Union of 
America officially communicated with the Secre- 
tary of the Navy, calling his attention to the fact 
that fully qualified American citizen seamen were 
available for that particular job — the manning of 
the Constitution ! The Secretary of the Navy 
chose to ignore that sincere offer of cooperation, 
but the record speaks for itself. Here are the ex- 
pressive closing paragraphs from Secretary 
Olander's letter advising the Secretary of the 
Navy where competent sailing-ship sailors could 
be found : 

While it is true that the United States has permitted 
its sea personnel to deteriorate to a dangerous degree, 
and that many thousands of skilled seamen have left 
the merchant marine because of unsatisfactory con- 
ditions, yet there are still in our sea service many who 
can do the skilled work involved in sailing the 
Constitution from port to port. 

Please do not make a mere tow barge out of the 
famous old ship by leaving her to the mercy of a tow 
line. Even the best of hawsers sometimes part during 
heavy weather. The loss of the ship under such con- 
ditions would be a national disgrace. Man her with 
a crew capable of handling her under sail. Tow her, 
if you must, to whatever extent you may deem neces- 
sary or expedient, but have a crew on board prepared 
for the inevitable emergency. It is true that the num- 
ber of men available for such a service is steadily 
diminishing, but they are still obtainable. 

And so, we repeat — the editor of the Chronicle 

to the contrary notwithstanding — the United 

States Navy does not have to look for men in 

Finland or Scandinavia. Not yet ! 



TOM MOONEY'S "FRIENDS" 



The old controversy about the nation's alleged 
inability to find real sailing-ship sailors for the 
rejuvenated U. S. Frigate Constitution has been 



Tom Mooney was to have a new opportunity 
to prove his innocence of complicity in the bomb- 
ing of the San Francisco Preparedness Day 



72 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, 1933 



Parade of 1916. lie had been granted a new trial 
on the one remaining murder indictment growing 
out of the bombing. Date for the new trial had 
been set for April 26. However. Mooney's 
"friends" have again spilled the beans! Because 
a howling mob of Mooney's red admirers made 
the usual noisy demonstration, virtually under the 
courtroom windows, Judge Ward of the Superior 
Court of San Francisco postponed the new trial 
for thirty days. It has always been that way with 
Mooney defense — as guided and directed by Tom 
himself. Tom would probably have been at liberty 
long ago if he could take sane advice. But that 
seems out of the question. Tom's idea of gaining 
his freedom is to raise a barrel of money (more 
than $80,000 during the last four years), and 
distribute this among those who can make the 
most noise. The mere fact that this method has 
proved ineffective does not seem to alter the case 
— Tom and his "friends*' keep right on howling 
and abusing all who are earnestly trying to 
help him. 



a high American standard of living they will get 
it when they join and help build up a strong 
Trade Union movement. 



SOMETHING ABOUT STANDARDS 



We hear much about the Gold Standard, the 
Silver Standard, and the Bimetal Standard in 
these times, with many alleged reasons why we 
should stick to the Gold Standard. 

The 13,000,000 unfortunate men and women 
out of work can't get any of the gold or its equiv- 
alent with which to buy food or any of the other 
trimmings' that go to sustain life and make it de- 
cently worth while. 

What the people of this country, or the masses, 
want is a chance to work and make a decent, 
honest living, regardless of monetary standards. 
They are justly entitled to this and must get it or 
there won't be much of any kind of old money 
standards to stand on. 

What the workers need most is a Trade Union 
Standard, to insure them a standing that will meas- 
ure up to the American high standard of living, 
which by the way has faded a bit in the last three 
years, especially as it applies to the workers. If 
you want to avoid a "dirty" look, or something 
worse, don't ask a man who is out of a job, and 
can't find one, and who is broke and hungry — 
don't ask him what the American high standard 
of living is like. 

If the masses want to secure, hold, and enjoy 



DANES < >WN GREENLAND 



By twelve votes to two the World Court of In- 
ternational Justice has given judgment in favor of 
Denmark in the territorial dispute with Norway 
over Greenland. The court held that Norway's 
declaration of occupation, and any steps which 
have been taken in pursuance of that declaration. 
constitute a violation of the existing legal situa- 
tion and are accordingly unlawful and invalid. 

The dispute, which is of some years' standing, 
came to a head in 1931 when a private Xorw 
expedition landed on the east coast of Greenland 
and hoisted the Norwegian flag. This action was 
later approved officially by the Norwegian gov- 
ernment. Denmark protested that Eastern Green- 
land was and always had been Danish. The Nor- 
wegians replied that they acknowledged Danish 
sovereignty over the rest of Greenland, but con- 
tended that the part on which the Norwegian ex- 
pedition landed had never been colonized and was, 
in fact, a "no man's land." 

The disputed territory, known as the Land of 
Eric the Red, comprises an area of 21,000 square 
miles free of ice. The entire continent of Green- 
land covers 800,000 square miles, of which 135,- 
000 square miles is ice-free country. 

Both countries agreed to accept the verdict of 
the Hague Court unreservedly, thus marking an 
important step forward in the history of inter- 
national arbitration. This was the first time a case 
involving the question of sovereignty had been 
brought before the court. 



JAPAN'S MANDATE 



Washington has learned something new with 
respect to Japan's position on the mandated Pa- 
cific Islands which once belonged to Germany. The 
spokesman of the Tokio Foreign Office has re- 
peatedly declared that despite its withdrawal from 
the League, Japan would retain these islands be- 
cause "mandate" meant merely "spoils of war." 
But Yosuke Matsuoka, late delegate to Geneva. 
before calling on President Roosevelt, told news- 
paper correspondents that the islands, not unlaw- 
fully fortified, are only mandated and that Japan, 
in or out of the League, can hold them as long 



8 



May, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



73 



as it obeys the terms of the mandate — and this 
admission seems to have lifted loads from the 
heavy brows of statesmen. 



factor which made it possible for the packers to 
operate this season. All the fishermen will be en 
route to Alaska during the month of May. 



HOW MUCH ARE YOU WORTH? 






A man when boiled down and extracted (as any 
other chemical compound in a laboratory) will 
yield : 

Fat enough for seven bars of soap. 

Iron — one nail. 

Sugar — to fill a sugar bowl. 

Lime — whitewash a chicken coop. 

Magnesium — one dose of magnesia. 

Phosphorus — 1,000 matches. 

Sulphur — rid a dog of fleas. 

This whole collection is worth $1.98. Your real 
worth is manifested by your willingness to co- 
operate and associate with your fellow workers 
so as to constantly improve conditions for all who 
toil. If you refuse to lend a hand in this noble 
endeavor, if you are a lone wolf in the industrial 
struggle then you are worth exactly $1.98 and no 
more! 

AMERICAN FLEETS 



The following tabulation, showing ownership 
of American fleets comprising 100,000 gross tons 
or over, was recently made public by the Bureau 
of Navigation and Steamboat Inspection Service : 

Owner and State of Incorporation No. Gross 

Pittsburgh Steamship Co. (W. Va.) 87 489,426 

Standard Shipping Co. (Del.) 70 384,523 

Standard-Vacuum Transp. Co. (Del.) 133 290,967 

Interlake Steamship Co. (Del.) 49 288,586 

Dollar Steamship Lines, Ltd. (Del.) 22 261,484 

Gulf Refining Co. (Tex.) 71 213,775 

Texas Co. (Del.) 58 177,694 

Isthmian Steamship Co. (Del.) 30 174,617 

Pan American Foreign Corp. (Del.) 26 172,618 

Luckenbach Steamship Co. (Del.) 22 168,452 

Export Steamship Corp. (N. Y.) 28 163,923 

American-Hawaiian Steamship Co. (N. J.).... 21 142,633 

Southern Pacific Co. (Ky.) 65 137,331 

Standard Oil Co. of Calif. (Del.) 35 137,109 

Matson Navigation Co. (Calif.) 24 134,026 

Oceanic & Oriental Nav. Co. (Del.) 21 129,382 

United States Lines Co. (Nev.) 10 128,975 

Munson Steamship Line (N. Y.) 27 120,578 

Pioneer Steamship Co. (Del.) 19 108,935 

Atlantic Refining Co. (Pa.) 28 108,518 

Cities Service Transp. Co. (Del.) 14 105,890 

United Fruit Steamship Corp. (Del.) 23 101,756 

Great Lakes Steamship Co. (Del.) 19 101,003 

Due to the heavy decline in the price of canned 
salmon the Alaska Fishermen's Union has ac- 
cepted a reduction in wages and percentages for 
the season of 1933. Economies of various other 
sorts have been effected by the salmon packers but 
the voluntary acceptance of lower operating costs 
by the organized fishermen was the principal 



Abandonment of the salvage of the ten remain- 
ing German warships which are still on the sea 
bed at Scapa Flow, in the Orkneys, was announced 
in England for the reason that the low prices 
prevailing for scrap metal makes it impossible for 
salvages to make expenses. E. F. Cox, salvage 
expert, has already achieved a remarkable feat in 
raising thirty-two ships of the sunken German 
fleet, which were towed to Rosyth in Scotland to 
be broken up. 



Man can ease the rolling of ships in a storm, but 
cannot equalize a crash of head seas. So says 
Chief Engineer Bassett Moore of the Sperry Gyro- 
scope Company, who has been studying the be- 
havior of the new Italian liner Conti di Savoia, 
first big ship to be fitted with gyroscope stabilizers, 
in all kinds of weather. At night in heavy storm 
the stabilizers would be shut off and the ship would 
roll from seven to thirty degrees ; the machinery 
would be applied and the roll would reduce to 
two to four degrees. But so far there is only one 
thing to do about a shivering head sea — you must 
accept it and try to go to sleep. 



Michigan, as the first American state to vote 
formally on the constitutional amendment repeal- 
ing Prohibition, has gone overwhelmingly "wet." 
Despite their overwhelming success in Michigan, 
the liberals are by no means sure of a national 
victory without a long and hard struggle, perhaps 
lasting many years. Any thirteen states can block 
repeal indefinitely, and there is still much "Dry" 
sentiment in spots — from Maine to Texas. 



Australia has been given control of 1,000,000 
square miles of Antarctica. The grant, which 
reached the Commonwealth through an English 
Order-in-Council, covers that part of the antarctic 
regions lying immediately south of Australia. The 
government will license whaling in the area and 
see what beneficial development is possible. 



Unemployment relief comes high in New 
Hampshire. The assistant attorney general has 
delivered the opinion that unemployed who re- 
ceive municipal aid lose their right to vote, this 
under a state law which denies the franchise to 
paupers and persons excused from paying taxes. 



74 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURN 



A L 



May, 1933 



NEW OIL-COAL FUEL 



"All expectations realized," is a statement is- 
sued by the Liverpool office of the Cunard Steam- 
ship Company, concerning the experiments which 
have been carried out with a new colloidal fuel, 
a combination of coal and oil. 

The fuel consists of 60 per cent oil and 40 per 
cent coal and is the result of research work by 
R. A. Adams, assistant superintendent engineer, 
F. C. Holmes, chemist and A. W. Perrins, com- 
bustion engineer, all members of the Cunard staff. 

The oil is mixed with very finely powered coal, 
and the new fuel can be handled and burned in 
existing oil fuel burning installations, provided 
that the boiler furnaces have already been adapted 
for the efficient combustion of pure oil. 

Naturally the heads of the Cunard concern are 
delighted with the result of the long experiments 
of their technical experts. 

"It opens up simply limitless possibilities," one 
shipping man said. "If the Cunard people have 
overcome the problem of stopping the powdered 
coal from sinking to the bottom of the storage 
tanks it means that prosperity is again in sight 
for us all." It is stated authoritatively that this 
difficulty has definitely been conquered. 

Not only will this new colloidal fuel help ship- 
ping by reducing running costs, but it will give 
a welcome impetus to coal mining, shipbuilding, 
and the iron and steel and engineering trades. 

At present the Cunard Company, who have 
not a single coal-burning vessel in their fleet, 
burn about a million tons of fuel oil a year. If 
the new colloidal fuel, which is composed of oil 
and pulverized coal in the proportion of six to 
four, is substituted throughout the fleet it will 
mean the consumption of at least 400,000 tons 
of coal per annum. 

It can readily be understood, therefore, that 
if colloidal fuel is generally adopted by British 
ships it will mean an added annual consumption 
of coal running into millions of tons. 

Further, plans for the pulverizing of the coal 
will be required, a possibility which will provide 
much needed opportunities for the iron, steel, and 
engineering trades. Further experiments are now 
being conducted in the Cunard laboratories, and 
it is possible that by using different qualities of 
oil and coal from those employed so far a pro- 
portion of coal even greater than the 40 per cent 
mav be introduced into the fuel. 



It is understood that the use of colloidal fuel 
does not involve the slightest alteration in the en- 
gines, boilers or burners of vessels at present 
employing ordinary oil fuel. 

The discovery of the three Cunard experts has 
been fully patented, but there is little doubt that 
the Cunard Company will put it at the disposal 
of the nation. The results of the tests, it is 
stated, are being closely watched by several gov- 
ernment departments and many large industrial 
interests. 

LEST WE FORGET 

(By I. A. Haarklau) 

I read with interest, in the April issue of the 
Seamen's Journal that the McCormick Steam- 
ship .Company are paying each of their twelve 
executives yearly salaries ranging from $5,000 to 
$16,000 a year ; the Los Angeles Steamship Com- 
pany are paying their executives from $5,000 to 
$19,000 a year; the Nelson Steamship Company 
are paying the vice-president of the company 
$15,000 a year. 

By way of comparison, it should be noted that 
the Nelson Steamship Company are now and have 
for quite some time back paid able seamen in the 
coastwise lumber schooners monthly wages of $45. 

While reflecting over this state of affairs, there 
came to my mind a statement made three years 
ago by James H. MacLafferty, vice-president, 
American Pacific Steamship Association and 
Shipowners' Association of the Pacific Coast, as 
follow^ : 

"There was a day when the American seaman 
needed protection. There was a day when he was 
abused. It may be that even today there are things 
that should be modified and changed in his interest. 
Not knowing what they are, I merely mention that 
point. But I want to say that I know the ship- 
owners of the Pacific Coast, and I do not know 
one of those shipowners that has not, from the 
bottom of his heart, the kindliest feeling toward 
the men that are employed aboard his ships. In 
fact, I know some of them that, like these lake 
carriers, have a great pride in the relationship 
that exists between them and their men." 

Munchaussen : Step back ! Give room ! Gang- 
way for Mr. MacLafferty! 



It is a great tragedy that humanity should be 
capable of rising to great heights for a destructive 
purpose, and that it is quite unable to do the same 
for a constructive object. — Arthur Ponsonby. 



10 



May. 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



75 



SHIPPING NEWS 



Litigation arising out of the loss of the Prin- 
cess Sophia with its passengers has finally been 
terminated. The United States Circuit Court of 
Appeals has affirmed the lower court decision 
granting limitation of liability and the United 
States Supreme Court has refused to grant per- 
mission to bring the case before it. The fund for 
distribution to all claimants amounted to only 
about $600, being the value of the vessel after 
the wreck. 

The financial reports of eight Danish shipping 
companies, which have just been published simul- 
taneously, show varying fortunes for the past year 
but it is noteworthy that only one of them has ex- 
perienced a direct loss. The Forenede Dampskibs- 
selskab, Copenhagen, announce a trading profit of 
7,897,775 kr., and after deducting management 
expenses, interest and pensions, the net profit, with 
the balance brought forward from last year, 
amounts to 2,057,776 kr. 

Colombia plans the immediate development of 
a merchant marine. In spite of the republic's diffi- 
culties, Manizales Chamber of Commerce and 
leading industrialists launch a plan for acquisi- 
tion of ships for both foreign and coastal com- 
merce. Capital is not easy to raise, but the low 
price of good ships makes the effort worth while. 
Colombia, second in coffee production, and high 
in gold, platinum and oil resources, is in a unique 
position — it is the only South American country 
fronting both Pacific and Atlantic. 

The Moldanger, the last of a trio of single- 
screw motorships built at the Amsterdam yard of 
the Netherland Shipbuilding Company for account 
of Messrs. Westfal-Larsen and Company, the Ber- 
gen owners, has just completed successful trials 
in the North Sea. Built to the highest class of 
Det Norske Veritas, the Moldanger is 486 feet in 
length, 61 feet moulded breadth and 39 feet six 
inches moulded depth to shelterdeck, while on a 
mean draught of 26 feet 10 inches, she has a dead- 
weight carrying capacity of 9,400 tons. 

Divers and sailors of the Baltimore salvage con- 
cern which started last year to locate and raise 
the gold supposed to be on board the British sloop 
De Braake, sunk off Cape Henlopen, are to renew 
the efforts as soon as weather conditions permit. 



According to C. A. Jackson, manager of the sal- 
vage company, bits of wreckage brought up from 
the hull located by the treasure hunters last fall 
prove conclusively that the British treasure sloop 
has been found. The gold on board has been esti- 
mated to be worth between $4,000,000 and $10,- 
000,000. 

An examination of the age of the Greek fleet 
is interesting. The number of vessels under five 
years is seven of 26,672 tons. There are four ag- 
gregating 16,137 tons which have seen from five 
to ten years' service, and forty-four of 152,809 
tons which have been running from 10 to 15 years. 
The number whose age is between 15 and 20 
years is 51, and their tonnage 181,093. No fewer 
than 73 of 244,157 tons have been in com- 
mission for 20 to 25 years, and the balance of 
the fleet, consisting of 372 ships totalling 849,196 
tons gross, have been ploughing the seas for 25 
years or more. Thus over half the Greek mer- 
chant marine has more than a quarter of a cen- 
tury's service. Another remarkable feature of 
Greek ocean-going shipping is that it includes 
neither fast nor motor-driven vessels. 

Replying to a question in parliament as to 
whether the British government would consider 
an international conference on the question of 
reduction of Suez Canal charges as a means of 
aiding trade recovery, Walter Runciman, presi- 
dent of the Board of Trade, said : "The question 
of the Suez Canal charges is a matter for the 
Suez Canal Company, which is a private company 
holding a concession from the Egyptian govern- 
ment. There are on the board of the company 
seven non-official British directors, representing 
British shipping and commercial interests, who 
have the question of charges continually under 
their consideration. The three official directors, 
nominated by His Majesty's Government, will be 
prepared to agree to any reasonable reduction in 
those charges." 

An analysis of the Bureau Veritas tables of 
marine losses due to fire during 1932, published 
in a recent issue of Lloyd's List, shows outbreaks 
in cargo the principal one of the known causes, 
while in the majority of cases the origin of the 
fire was unknown. For the sake of comparison it 
is recalled that the losses, due to fire, reported 
during 1931 included twelve steamers, of 12,797 
tons gross and four motor vessels of 4213 tons. 
The losses from all causes, reported in that year, 
included 199 steamers, of 247,116 tons, and 44 



76 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May. V>33 



motor vessels, of 27,746 tons. The unusually high 
figures for motorship losses last year are, it is 
stated, explained by the series of liner fires in- 
cluding those in Bermuda, 19,086 tons; Georges 
Philip par, 17,359 tons, and Peter Corneliszoon 
Hooft, 14,729 tons. Other large vessels reported 
lost through fire included the steamers Saragossa, 
6359 tons ,and Doris Kellogg, 5030 tons. 

Trade between Hawaii and continental United 
States suffered severely in 1932, due chiefly to 
poor demand for canned pineapples, the second 
most important product of the Territory. While 
the quantity shipped declined only 20 per cent, the 
value received was 42 per cent, or $15,000,000, 
less than in 1931. Although the price of unre- 
fined sugar continued low, the Territory was able 
to increase shipments slightly, but the total value 
received was seven per cent less than during the 
preceding year. The value of all shipments of ter- 
ritorial products to the mainland reached $80,494,- 
000, compared with $98.c882,000 for 1931. Owing 
to the loss of purchasing power occasioned by low 
commodity prices, poor demand for pineapples, 
low wages, unemployment, and failure of many 
companies to pay dividends, purchases from the 
mainland were curtailed greatly. The value of all 
purchases totaled $58,504,000, compared with 
$79,092,000 in 1931, or a reduction of 26 per cent. 

The list of salvage awards by the British Ad- 
miralty Court (hiring 1932, compiled by the Liver- 
pool Underwriters' Association, contains eleven 
items, the total sum involved being £34,975, com- 
pared with fourteen awards and £44,080 in 1931. 
The largest individual amount granted last year 
was £19,000 to the British tugs Lady Brassey, 
Lady Duncannon, Arcadia, Muria, Contest and 
Watereoek ; the Dutch tugs Noordzee and Oostzee 
and the German Seefalke and Hermes, which, 
after five attempts, refloated and towed to Dover 
the American steamer Hybert, which had stranded 
on the Goodwins in November of the previous 
year. She was a vessel of 6,501 tons gross and 
with her general cargo she was valued at £71,057. 
The only other large award was one of £11,500 
to the British steamer Oiisebridge for towing to 
St. Michaels the Swedish motor-tanker Castor, 
8,714 tons gross, which caught fire and was aban- 
doned 175 miles from the Azores in April, 1931. 
The Castor with her cargo of fuel oil was valued 
at £106,000, whilst the Oiisebridge was on her 
way from Nicolaiefr" to Baltimore with a cargo of 
iron ore valued at £66,670. 



LABOR NEWS 



There are 2,000,000 minor children working 
in the United States in places that should be oc- 
cupied by adults, according to recent statistics. 
This is a condition that should not be permitted 
to exist in a democracy. 

Estimate made by the A. F. of L. shows that 
the wage lo>s to American workers in 1932 was 
twenty-five billions of dollars, as compared with 
1929 figures. Removing this vast sum of money 
from circulation would seem to account largely 
for the present condition of busini 

Unemployment insurance legislation has failed 
to pass in New York and some other States where 
it was being considered. But it will win in the 
end. As President Roosevelt says in his new book, 

"Looking Forward": "We shall come to unem- 
ployment insurance in this country just as 
tainly as we have come to workmen's compensa- 
tion for industrial injury." 

British labor is planning to hold a great May 
Day demonstration in London on May 7. which it 
is hoped will be a landmark in the history of labor 
and will eclipse the tremendous demonstration 
held on February 5 to protest against the govern- 
ment's unemployment policy. The rally, the Trades 
Union Congress general council -ays, "will pro- 
vide a first-class warning t<> Fascists, war-mongers 
and anti-working class reactionaries of every shade 
and section." 

Financiers connected with the copper industry 
predict an immediate shut-down of the copper 
mines in the L'nited States. It was said the mines 
would probably be closed for at least six. months. 
Overproduction and inability to sell copper at a 
profit were given as the reasons for closing the 
mines. Copper stocks now total about 650,000 tons, 
with a consumption of around 20,000 tons a month. 
A six months' shut down would still leave 530,- 
000 tons on hand. 

There is no doubt that sentiment for govern- 
ment banking is increasing. The feeling is re- 
flected in the action of the Chicago Federation 
of Labor in going on record for government 
guarantee of bank deposits and a policy leading 
to government ownership of all banks. Confidence 
in government banking is shown by soaring postal 
savings deposits, which passed the billion-dollar 






12 



May, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



77 



mark in February, an increase of $63,032,370 
during- the month.. 

Sigmund Odenheimer, capitalist and operator 
of the Lane Cotton Mills, told the Lions Club 
at New Orleans that all the people in the United 
States working twenty-five to thirty hours a week 
could produce all the commodities needed. His 
plan is : Overproduction, less hours a week, un- 
derproduction, more hours. When people, he said, 
are assured of work the year around they will feel 
safe and spend their money. A law to imprison 
employers who fail to live up to the plan should 
be enacted, he said. 

The United States Senate investigating commit- 
tee brought out remarkable facts concerning Wall 
Street banking. Charles E. Mitchell, board chair- 
man, and Gordon S. Rentschler, president of the 
National City Bank, testified that the bank loaned 
its officers without interest $2,400,000 to cover 
commitments after the 1929 market collapse, while 
selling out customers whose collateral did not 
cover. The "management fund" bonus paid Mr. 
Mitchell was $3,500,000 in three years. The huge 
loans "sustained the officers' morale." Asked if the 
employees' morale was similarly sustained, the an- 
swer was — No ! 

Union-hating employers, who take advantage 
of the depression to attack labor, received a mili- 
tant answer from the International Typograph- 
ical Union, which recently voted by 30,025 to 16,- 
336 for a special defense assessment upon mem- 
bers. By voting the defense fund, the I. T. U. 
has made it possible to put up an effective fight 
against efforts of employers to lower wage and 
working standards. As President Charles P. How- 
ard of the I. T. U. writes in the Typographical 
Journal: "In the face of conditions as they are 
the action of the union is an inspiring example for 
organized labor to follow and is a definite assur- 
ance that we will see to it that the International 
Typographical Union has not grown old with its 
years." 

The return of legalized beer has provided em- 
ployment for at least 300,000 persons, said Rep- 
resentative Thomas H. Cullen of New York, au- 
thor of the beer bill. Cullen added that eventually 
the number given jobs will be much larger, re- 
calling that Matthew Woll, vice-president of the 
American Federation of Labor and chairman of 
Labor's National Committee for Modification of 
the Volstead Act, had predicted that legalized 
beer would afford employment directly and in- 



directly for 1,000,000 persons. Cullen was one of 
the three speakers who discussed the effects of the 
beer bill. Thomas D. Green, president of the 
American Hotel Association of the United States 
and Canada, estimated that the brewing industry 
would produce 40,000,000 barrels yearly, provid- 
ing new jobs for 500,000. 

Roumania is one of those countries which are 
eminent for the number of international treaties 
affecting labor they have ratified. How things are 
in reality is shown in a report in the Volkswille 
of Temesvar, in which it is declared that the re- 
duction of working hours to forty per week comes 
too late and is, moreover, insufficient. It goes on : 
"But in our country they have not yet got to 
thinking about the eight-hour day (although Rou- 
mania has ratified the Washington Convention ). 
Only recently in all parts of the country acts have 
been committed which are acts of despair, because 
Roumanian workers hate being treated like coolies. 
Working hours in Roumania are still 12-18 per 
day, and even in Temesvar, where in 1914 the 
trade unions secured a nine-hour day, although a 
twelve-hour day was in force at the time, 10-18 
hours a day are worked in most factories in spite 
of dreadful unemployment." 

The regulated distribution of profits among 
those who own and control industry, the managers 
and the employees, is proposed by Samuel Fels, 
president of Fels & Company, soap manufac- 
turers of Philadelphia, in an article in the 
Survey Graphic. The distribution would be ef- 
fected by a "Federal trade system." Under ma- 
chine production "the workman's output is aug- 
mented," Mr. Fels says, "but the machine he 
works with is not his and his change for work, 
and consequently his chance for pay, his capacity 
to buy, becomes uncertain. The uncertainty ex- 
tends to the businesses that would sell to him and 
the callings that would serve him. No enduring 
solution will be found for our industrial ills," Mr. 
Fels concludes, "until we recognize that for the 
general good, of producers as well as everybody 
else, the earnings of our modern world should be 
distributed so as to enlarge and reinforce the 
purchasing power of the workers. Like all root 
changes, this will take time, but we shall find that 
the push of this truth upon business, if business is 
to progress or even function, may bring far 
quicker results than those ideas of reform which 
have led hitherto to improvement in industrial 
conditions." 



13 



78 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNA 



May, 1933 



International Seamens' Union of America 

Affiliated with the American Federation of Labor 
and the International Seafarers' Federation 

EXECUTIVE BOARD 
President: ANDREW PURUSETH, 59 Clay St., 
San Francisco, Calif. Vice-Presidents: PATRICK 
FLYNN, 58 Commercial St., San Francisco, Calif.; 
P. B. GILL,, 84 Seneca St., Seattle, Wash.: PERC1 
J. PRYOR, 1% Lewis St.. Boston, Mass.; OSCAR 
CARLSON, 70 South St.. New York, N. Y. ; PAT- 
RICK O'BRIEN, 71 Main St., Buffalo, N. Y. ; PETER 
E. OLSEN, 41' Clay St.. San Francisco, Calif; [VAN 
HUNTER, 1038 Third St., Detroit. Mich. Editor: 
PAUL SCHARRENBERG, 525 Market St., San 
Francisco, Calif. Secretary-Treasurer: VICTOR A. 
OLANDER, 666 Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, 111. 



DISTRICT UNIONS AND BRANCHES 
ATLANTIC DISTRICT 

EASTERN AND GULF SAILORS' ASSOCIATION 
Headquarters 

BOSTON, Mass PERCY J. PRYOR, Secretary 

1% Lewis Street. Phone Capitol 5178 
Branches 

NEW YORK, N. Y ADOLF KILE, Agent 

70 South Street. Phone John 4-1637 

BALTIMORE, Md E. C. ANDREWS, Agent 

715 S. Broadway. Phone Weir.. 5910 

NORFOLK, Va FRED SORENSEN, Agent 

54 Commercial Place. Phone 23868 Norfolk 

MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, AND WATERTENDERS' 

UNION OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters 

NEW YORK. N. Y OSCAR CARLSON, Secretary 

70 South Street, Telephone John 0H75 
Branches 

BOSTON, Mass JOHN FITZGERALD, Agent 

6 Long Wharf 

BALTIMORE, Md JOHN BLEY, Agent 

723 S. Broadway. Phone Wolfe 5630 

NORFOLK, Va FRED SORENSEN, Acting Agent 

54 Commercial Place. 23868 Norfolk. 

MARINE COOKS AND STEWARDS' UNION OF THE 

ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters 

NEW YORK, N. Y D. E. GRANGE, Secretary 

61 Whitehall Street. Phone Bowling Green 1297 

Branches 

NEW YORK (West Side Branch)— JAMES ALLEN, Agent 

61 Whitehall St. Phone Bowling Green 1297 

BOSTON, Mass JOHN MARTIN, Agent 

288 State Street 

BALTIMORE, Md FRANK STOCKL, Agent 

1230 North Decker Avenue 

NORFOLK, Va FRED SORENSEN, Acting Agenl 

54 Commercial Place. 23868 Norfolk 



FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE ATLANTIC 

BOSTON, Mass PERCY J. PRYOR, Secretary 

J. M. NICKERSON, A Rent 
iy 2 Lewis Street. Phone Richmond 0827 



HARBOR BOATMEN'S UNION OF CAMDEN, 
PHILADELPHIA AND VICINITY 

PHILADELPHIA. Pa. J. T. MORRIS, Secretary 

303A Marine Bldg., Delaware Ave. and South St. 

FRANKLIN COUNTY BOATMEN'S UNION 

APALACHICOLA, Pla. R. T. MARSHALL, President 

P. O. Box 213 

GREAT LAKES DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 
Headquarters 

CHICAGO, Til victor A. OLANDER, Secretary 

CLAUDE M. CM >SHORN, Treasurer 

sl0'/> North ("lark St. Phone Superior 5175 

Branches 

BUFFALO, N. Y JOHN W. ELLISON, Agent 

71 Main S 
CLEVELAND, Ohio E. J. SLLLIVAN, Agent 

1426 West Third Street. Phone Main 1842 

MILWAUKEE, Wis.. ('HAS. BRADHERING. Agent 

234 South Second Street. Phone Daily 0489 

DETROIT, Mich IVAN HUNTER, Agent 

1038 Third Street 

MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, WATERTENDERS AND 

COAL PASSERS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters 

DETROIT, Mi.-h [VAN HUNTER, Secretary 

JAS. HAYMAN, Treasurer 
1038 Third Street. Phone Cadillac 8170 



Branches 

BUFFALO, N. Y FOHN W. ELLISON, Agent 

71 Main Street. Phone Cleveland 7391 

CLEVELAND, Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN. Agent 

Rm. 211, Blaekstone Bldg., 1426 W. 3rd St. Ph. Main 1842 

MILWAUKEE, Wis ERNEST ELLIS, Agent 

234 South Second Street. Phone Daily 0489 

CHICAGO, 111 JOHN McGINN, Agent 

156 W. Grand Ave. Phone Superior 2152 



MARINE COOKS AND STEWARDS' UNION 

Headquarters 

BUFFALO, N. v _ I. M. SECORD. Secretary 

i ! Main Str. . t 
Branches 

CHICAGO. Ill O. EDWARDS 

64 West Illinois Street. Phone Delaware 1031 
CLEVELAND, Ohio.. B. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

Room 211, Blaekstone Bldg., 142C W. 3rd St. Ph. Main 1842 

MILWAUKEE, Wis. OTTO EDWARDS, Igen 

234 South Second Street. Phone Broa.lw.i 

DETROIT, Mich 410 Shelby Street 

Phone Randolph 0044 



PACIFIC DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters 
s.\.\ FRANCISCO, Cal... GEORGE LARSON, A 
59 Clay Street. Telephone Kearny 

Branches 

SEATTLE. Wash I' B HILL. Agent 

86 Seneca St., p. O. Box 85. Phone Elliot 6752 

PORTLAND, Ore JOHN a KETDJE, Agent 

242 Flanders Street. Telephone Beacon 4836 

SAN PEDRO, Cal I. A. HAARKLAU. Agenl 

430 South Pal. is Verdea Stre< t. P. <> Box 68. Phone 2491J 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS. AND WATERTENDERS' 
UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters 
SAN FRANCISCO. Cal, PATRICK FLTN2 

58 Commercial Street. Telephone Kearny 

MARINE COOKS AND STEWARDS' ASSOCIATION 

OF THE PACIFIC COAST 

Headquarters 

SAX FRANCISCO, Cal EUGENE BURKE, S< 

86 Commercial Street. Phone Kearnj 
Branch 

SEATTLE, Wash 1. L. NORKGAUER 

Room 203, Grand Trunk Dock. Phone Main 21 



ALASKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 
Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 4:< <"| , •. 

PETER E. OLSEN, Secretary. Phone Butter 6452 
Branches 

SEATTLE, Wash CHARLES F. HAMMA.RIN, 

86 Seneca St., P. O. Box 42. Phone Elliot 3425 

PORTLAND, Ore PAUL GERHARD'!' Agent 

242 Flanders Street 

UNITED FISHERMEN'S UNION OF SO. CALIFORNIA 

san DIEGO, Calif .IAS. FALLON, Secretary, Box 7 s 

EUREKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 

EUREKA, Calif G. A. SVENSON, Secretary 

P. O. Box 541. Phone 8-R-5 



COLUMBIA RIVER FISHERMEN'S PROTECTIVE 

UNION 

ASTORIA, Ore ARVID .MATTSON, Sec'y, P. O. Bos 881 

COQUILLE RIVER FISHERMEN'S UNION 
BANDON, Ore F. REIMANN, S.-.retary 



TILLAMOOK COUNTY FISHERMEN'S UNION 

BAY city. Ore. .... EARL BLANCHARD, Secretary 

ROGUE RIVER FISHERMEN'S UNION 
GOLD BEACH, Ore;. WARREN H. HoSKlNS. Bec'y-Tr. 

DEEP SEA FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters 

SEATTLE, Wash I', B. GILL, Secretary 

86 Seneca St., P. O. Box 65. Phone Elliot 6752 

Branch 

KETCHIKAN, Alaska ...GUST OLSEN, Agt., P. O. Box A17 

FISHERMEN'S UNION OF PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND 

AND VICINITY 
CORDOVA, Alaska....N. SWANSON, Sec'y, P. O. Box 597 

FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal C \y DEAL S< 

Room "B," Ferry Building; Phone Douglas 8664 



FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION OF PUGET SOUND 

SEATTLE, Wash JOHN m. FOX, Secretary 

220 Maritime Bldg. 



14 



May, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



79 



Professional Cards 



Attorney for the Sailors' Union of the 
Pacific since its organization 

H. W. Hutton 

431 Pacific Bldgr., Fourth and Market Sts. 

SAN FRANCISCO 

PHONE DOUGLAS 0315 



Albert Michelson 

ATTORNEY-AT-LAW 

Attorney for 

Marine Firemen and Watertenders' 
Union of Pacific 
Marine Diesel and Gasoline Engi- 
neers' Association No. 49 
611 Russ Bldg. Tel. SUtter 3866 

San Francisco, California 



ANDERSON & LAMB 

Attorney s-at-Law 

1226 Engineers Bank Building 

CLEVELAND, OHIO 

Personal Injury Attorneys for Seamen on 
the Great Lakes 



Frank Orwitz 

ATTORNEY-AT-LAW 

Room No. 630, Hearst Building 
Market Street and Third 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 

Telephone GArfield 6353 



Polite Wayfarer: "I am sorry to 
trouble you, sir, but do you happen 
to have seen a policeman in the 
neighborhood?" 

Hiker: "No, I can't say I have." 
Wayfarer: "Then hand over your 
watch and wallet." 



"Above all," said the mistress to 
the new maid, "I want obedience 
and truthfulness." 

"Yes, madam," replied the maid. 
"And if anybody calls when you are 
in, and you say you are out, which 
shall come first — obedience or truth- 
fulness?" 



Rafferty bored ten feet into a min- 
ing claim, and then abandoned it. 
Another took it up, and at eleven 
feet struck gold. When Rafferty 
heard the news he exclaimed: 

"I'l never leave another claim un- 
til I've gone a foot further!" 



"It was grand of you to dive from 
that height, fully clothed, to save 
the young woman," an onlooker ex- 
claimed, as the hero was dragged 
ashore with his burden. 

"That's all very well," snarled the 
hero. "But what I want to know 
is — who pushed me in?" 



DENTIST 




Plates and 
Bridgework 

DR. C. S. FORD 

702 Market Street 

At Market-Geary-Kearny Sts. 
Phone EXbrook 0329 

Daily Office hours, 8:30 a. m. to 7 p. m. 
Sunday hours, 9 a.m. till noon 
"One Patient Tells Another" 



JENSEN 8c NELSEN 

Gents' Furnishing Goods 

Saver's Oil Skin Clothing 
Uniforms, Caps, Hats, Shoes 



10 EAST STREET 
GArfield 9633 



NEAR MISSION 
San Francisco 



Smith looked angry. "I've been 
diddled," he growled. "I answered 
an advertisement which said 'Send 
two shillings for an ingenious instru- 
ment which will halve all your 
household bills.' I sent on the two 
bob!" 

Brown showed interest. 

"And what did they send you?" 
he asked. 

"A pair of scissors!" hissed 
Smith. 



Magistrate: "You have already 
been sentenced eleven times for vag- 
rancy, violent assault, embezzlement, 
theft and so on." 

Prisoner: "Would you mind not 
speaking so loud, your worship? My 
intended father-in-law is in court, 
and you might damage my pros- 
pects." 



Teacher: "Your history was bad, 
and you had to write it out twenty 
times, but you have only done it 
seventeen times." 

Boy: "Yes, sir; my arithmetic is 
bad also." 



Dentist (to small boy who has 
had some teeth extracted) : "Never 
mind, Bobby; they'll soon grow in 
again." 

Bobby (eagerly): "Will they be 
up in time for dinner?"" 



"In your sermon last Sunday," 
said the stout woman to the min- 
ister, "you said that constant drip- 
ping would wear away a stone." 

"Quite right," said the minister. 

"Well, I've eaten it with every 
meal since and I've put on more 
weight than ever." 



SEATTLE, WASH. 
K. K. Tvete & Sons 

Established 1890 

MEN'S CLOTHING, SHOES, HATS, 
AND FURNISHING GOODS 

1300-1302 First Ave., cor. University 
SEATTLE, WASH. 



Wester man's 

UNION LABEL 

Clothier, Furnisher 8c Hatter 

Alaska Outfitter 

TWO BIG STORES 

Store No. 1 — Cor. Main and First 

Store No. 2 — Westlake and Pine 

SEATTLE 



Bonney-Watson Co. 

Funeral Directors 

Crematory and Columbarium 

1702 Broadway Seattle 



"I say," cried the bright young 
thing as she dashed into the village 
store, "Father is being chased l>v a 
bull!" 

"Good heavens! What shall I do, 
miss?" said the shopkeeper. 

"Give me a roll of film for my 
pocket camera, quickly," she replied. 



Two barristers were engaged in a 
heated argument. Finally, one ex- 
claimed: "Is there any case so low, 
so utterly shameful and crooked that 
you'd refuse it?" 

"I don't know," said the other, 
pleasantly. "What have you been 
doing now?" 



The Landlady: "It pains me to 
speak about your board bill." 

The Boarder: "Then don't do it, 
my good woman. I can't bear to 
see anyone suffer." 



Mother: "If you don't behave, 
Tommy, I'll send for a policeman." 

Tommy: "Righto! And I'll tell 
him we haven't got a wireless li- 



Bill: "Hullo, Jack! What's the 
matter? Broken your arm?" 

Jack: "Yes. The doctor told me 
to go for a tramp every day, but I 
found the last chap too much of a 
handful." 



Kate: "He must have a soft spot 
in his heart for me." 

Annie: "Why?" 

Kate: "He "says he is always 
thinking of me." 

Annie: "But a man doesn't think 
with his heart. The soft place must 
be in his head." 



Wally: "See that man over there. 
Well, he's in the 'hold-up' business." 
Willie: "A bandit, eh?" 
Wally: "No. A brace-maker." 



80 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May. 1933 



Taylor's Nautical Academy 

FOR NAVIGATORS AND MARINE ENGINEERS 
Established 1888 

Consular Bldg., Corner Washington 
and Battery Sts., opp. New Custom 

House, San Francisco, Calif. 
THIS OLD AND NOTEWORTHY 
SCHOOL is under the direct and per- 
sonal supervision of CAPT. HENRY 
TAYLOR, and equipped with all mod- 
ern appliances to illustrate and teach 
any branch of Navigation. 

The class of teachers of Navigation 
in the past have been those having 
simply a knowledge of Navigation and 
Navigation only. Conditions have 
changed, and the American seamen 
demand a man as a teacher with 
higher attainments than one who has 
only the limited ability of a seaman. 
The Principal of this School, keeping 
this always in view, studied several 
years the Maritime Law. and is now, 
in addition to being a thorough teacher of Navigation and its kindred 
subjects, a regularly admitted Member of the Bar. 

There is no standard of education required of a pupil entering the 
School, for no matter how ignorant the seaman may be, even in the 
rudiments of common education. Captain Henry Taylor will teach and 
raise him from the depths of ignorance to the height of the average 
well informed man, and In a comparatively short interval of time. 




Phone GARFIELD 2076 

DR. EDMOND J. BARRETT 

DENTIST 

Rooms 2429-30, 450 Sutter Building 
Hours: 9 A. If. to 5 P. M. and 

by Appointment 



Seamen's Furnishing Goods 

OTTO PAHL 

Shoes, Oilskins, Seaboots and Underwear 
Suits cleaned and pressed while you wait 

140 EMBARCADERO 
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 



Union-made Work Clothes and Shoes 

Uniform Caps, Oilskins and 

Seaboots, Belfast Cord 

and Buckles 



SAM'S 



Shore and Offshore Outfitting Store 
Formerly with Geo. A. Price 

4 Clay Street, San Francisco 

Phone GArfield 6784 



INFORMATION WANTED 
A Filipino, by the name of Jose 
Momel or Nomel, or Monate of 
Iloilo. Philippine Islands, was an 
eye witness to the death of Robert 
J. Curry, who was killed in an acci- 
dent on the steampship Sagebrush 
on March 15, 1931. When last heard 
of this man was known at a hoard- 
ing house of Mr. Murphv at IWV2 
Weller Street, Seattle, Wash. He 
was thought to have gone to Alaska 
for salmon fishing. If anyone knows 
this Filipino's whereabouts, he should 
communicate with either the widow 
or attorney, and request him to 
communicate at once. Mr-. Curry. 



Now in Our New Location 

»624 MARKET* 

Opposite Palace Hotel 




-BOSS- 

YOUR UNION TAILOR 



the widow, is a cripple, and was 
solely dependent upon her husband 
for support. Her address is 2316 31st 
Avenue, South. Seattle. Washington. 
Attorney Silas B. Axtell or Lucien 

V. Axtell. 80 Broad Street. New 

York City. 



INFORMATION WANTED 
Any seamen. but particularly 
Henry White. J. Gladstone, and 
P. W. Newman, who were on the 
steamship Algic in November, 1929, 
when Harry J. Bloom. A. B., was 
injured as a result of slipping on 
some oil, please communicate with 
Harr\ J. Bloom, at General De- 
livery, Soldiers' Home Branch, 
Johnson City, Tennessee, or his at- 
torney, Lucien V. Axtell, 30th Floor 
80 Broad Street, New York City. 



"Grandpa, when are you going to 

play football?"' asked Teddy. 

"Football! Why, I finished with 
that game years ago, my boy. What 
makes you ask " 

"Well," replied Teddy, "I heard 
daddy tell mummy that when you 
kicked off we should be able to af- 
ford a car." 



A Great Store 

Built Upon 

Successful 

Service to 

Millions 




HALE BROS. 

INC 

Market at Fifth 

SAN FRANCISCO 
SUTTER 8000 



THE 

James H. Barry Co. 

The Star Press 

Printing 



1122-1124 MISSION STREET 
SAN FRANCISCO 



We print "The Seamen's Journal" 



KODAKS 

Exchanged * Bought 
Sold 

Developing and Printing 

SAN FRANCISCO 
CAMERA EXCHANGE 

88 Third Street, at Mission 
SAN FRANCISCO CALIFORNIA 



16 




A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, FOR SEAMEN 



Our Aim : The Brotherhood of the Sea 



Our Motto : Justice by Organization 



VOL. XLVII, No. 6 



SAN FRANCISCO, JUNE 1, 1933 



WHOLE No. 2033 



UNIONISM WILL CONQUER! 







GENERATION ago, the pioneers on the 
great American plains brought back 
thrilling accounts of stampeding buffalo. 
Frightened because of some trifling inci- 
dent, a few buffalo would begin to run. 
Other buffaloes with no knowledge of the cause, 
joined with the few in their mad rush, and soon 
the plains were black with thousands of crazed 
buffalo rushing away from something they did not 
understand, madly galloping in a direction which 
led them nowhere. 

In their panicky fear they stopped railroad 
trains, they hurled themselves over bluffs and 
perished by thousands in the river below. Finally 
completely exhausted, what was left of the herd 
stopped, looked around and began feeding once 
more. Their stampede resulted in nothing more 
than moving them from one place to another, but 
at a terrific cost, and the death of a large number 
and the injury to many more. They had no in- 
telligent leadership in the beginning, and were 
without leadership, purpose or organization when 
their panicky fear had subsided. 

Sometimes men are the victims of the same 
panicky fear. Without informing themselves of 
the facts, or the character and substance of the 
dangers which menace them; without intelligent 
leadership ; without organization and definite pur- 
pose, they stampede in some direction without 



accomplishing more for their welfare than losing 
their common sense and their sense of direction. 

When conditions menace, men who place their 
faith in organized effort first study the character 
of the threatening conditions. They gather the 
facts, they examine them carefully and thoroughly. 
Instead of stampeding in a panic, they adopt a 
policy to govern them so that in the largest meas- 
ure possible they can protect themselves. The 
trade-union movement was not born as the result 
of panicky fear. Panic stricken men may form 
mobs, but they can not create organization. Work- 
men, in the beginning, organized trade-unions 
because they suffered from many injustices and 
believed that they could. overcome these through 
collective action. Once organized they began to 
carefully study the conditions affecting them which 
had developed so much injustice. They began to 
search for the facts. As the trade union move- 
ment grew, the members began to more clearly 
grasp the economic facts which affected them. 
They were taught collective bargaining, the eco- 
nomics of the shorter workday, the economics of 
higher wages. They received a practical under- 
standing of the part which the workman played as 
a producer and as a consumer. 

The strength of the trade union movement 
would have been no more than the mass of a mob 
unless there had been knowledge in the first place, 



82 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1933 



and then organization which enabled trade-union- 
ists to give practical effect to their understanding. 
Men can act no more wisely when they are under 
the influence of panicky fear than they can think 
deliberately and sanely when they are under the 
influence of flaming anger or some other strong 
emotion. 

There never has been a time in the history of 
modern civilization when it was more necessary 
that the wage earners should think clearly and 
without trace of panic, or should more carefully 
and intelligently make use of their organization. 
No economic magician by the wave of a wand will 
take the world out of its present disastrous eco- 
nomic situation. Neither can any dictator accom- 
plish this, for dictatorship wipes out the ability 
of organized individuals to function except as the 
dictator permits. 

Desperate as the industrial situation is in the 
United States, there still remains an intelligently 
directed trade-union movement, a trade-union 
movement which so far has most successfully pre- 
vented panicky fear from converting its members 
into a panic-stricken body. The trade-union 
understanding of economics is thoroughly sound. 

To permit panicky fear to influence us today 
would be as suicidal as for the officers and crew 
of a ship to become panic stricken when a great 
storm overtook them at sea. The officers of a ship, 
from the captain down to the men in the stoke- 
hold, know how the ship is constructed and what 
it can do. They know that the ship, if manned by 
real seamen, can weather any storm. If, however, 
the ship is manned by an incompetent crew, or by 
inexperienced men likely to become panic-stricken, 
then the very safety of the ship itself is definitely 
jeopardized. 

And so it is with our trade-union ship. Trade- 
unionists know what it is, they understand how 
it is constructed, they are familiar with its navi- 
gation charts, and so long as organization is main- 
tained no matter how desperate the storm may be- 
come, the ship can be safely navigated. 

The trade-union ship was not constructed in 
fair weather. It was not built for fair weather 
voyages only. It has not been manned by fair 
weather sailors. For these reasons it will safely 
weather the storm, and its crew will acquire 
greater confidence in its seaworthy qualities than 
ever before. — By John P. Frey, Secretary-Treas- 
urer, Metal Trades Department, American Fed- 
eration of Labor. 



CHAMPIONS OF COOLIE LABOR 



Congressmen John F. Dockweiler, and J. H. 
Hoeppel, Democrats, and Ralph R. Eltse, Repub- 
lican, all from California, vigorously defended, 
before the Immigration Committee of the House 
of Representatives, the employment of cheap Chi- 
nese coolie labor by American shipowners in the 
operation of their vessels. 

Their defense of coolie labor was made in con- 
nection with the hearings held by the Immigra- 
tion Committee on the bill introduced by Con- 
gressman Dies of Texas to prevent the wholesale 
smuggling of aliens into the United States by 
means of loopholes in Federal legislation which 
permits them to be hired as "seamen" in foreign 
ports and dumped into American ports as "sea- 
men" when if they were not so labeled they 
would be excluded under the immigration law. 

All three of the recently elected California 
representatives opposed the Dies bill. 

Mr. Dockweiler not only wanted the maximum 
number possible of Chinese coolies in the Ameri- 
can-owned merchant marine, but declared that 
right now the state of California needs 100,000 
low- wage Chinese to help solve what he called 
the "servant problem." 

By the "servant problem" Congressman Dock- 
weiler evidently meant the difficulties experienced 
by well-to-do Calif ornians in finding enough low- 
wage Americans, or even naturalized aliens, whose 
economic conditions are bad enough to compel 
them to become servants for the indecently low 
wages paid this class of workers. 

Therefore, according to Mr. Dockweiler, the 
one thing needed to bring supreme happiness for 
wealthy Californians is to import for their use 
100,000 low- wage Chinese coolies. 

The Dies bill (a companion bill to Senator 
King's bill) makes the government inspection of 
alleged alien seamen more rigid and provides that 
ships coming into American ports manned with 
crews the majority of which were taken on at 
foreign ports shall, when leaving the United 
States ports, carry a crew at least equal in num- 
ber to the crew taken on at the foreign ports. 

Andrew Furuseth, legislative representative of 
the International Seamen's Union of America, 
told the committee that the Dies bill is primarily 
a measure to protect American seamen by provid- 
ing opportunities for their employment on Ann r- 



June, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



83 



ican ships. ''The American seamen," he said, 
"see the American shipowners drawing more 
money from the government for carrying the 
mails than it costs to operate their vessels. 

"The American seamen find themselves starv- 
ing while the aliens are working and eating. They 
are going away from the sea to tell their buddies 
that American vessels are not for Americans. 

"They are drifting from surprise to contempt, 
and from contempt to scorn and hate, and are 
drinking in communistic ideas until they have 
neither time nor patience for their own country's 
ideas. 

"We respectfully represent that this condition 
— the smuggling and the unjust employment of 
aliens when citizens are starving — is of very high 
importance and that to us it seems to be a real 
emergency." 

W. C. Hushing, legislative representative of the 
American Federation of Labor ; A. F. Stout, rep- 
resenting all of the railroad brotherhoods, and 
James H. Patton, representing the Immigration 
Restriction League, the Junior Order of the 
United American Mechanics of the state of New 
York, and the Fraternal Patriotic Americans of 
the state of Pennsylvania, supported Mr. Furu- 
seth in favoring the enactment of the Dies bill. 

In addition to the coolie-loving Congressman 
from California, the Dies bill was opposed by 
Joseph Mayper, representing the Transatlantic 
Steamship Conferences ; Ira L. Ewers, represent- 
ing the American Steamship Owners' Association 
and the New York Maritime Exchange, and Cap- 
tain W. J. Peterson, representing the Pacific- 
American Steamship Owners' Association. 

The representatives of the shipping interests all 
emphasized the fact that low wages paid their 
alien seamen increased the profits of the ship- 
owners. Therefore, they opposed any additional 
restrictions on either the number of alien seamen 
permitted or the wholesale smuggling of seamen 
into the United States under present legislation. 

A. Dana Hodgdon, representing the State De- 
partment, opposed the bill principally because for- 
eign governments had expressed their opposition. 

T. H. Madigan, legislative counsel of the United 
States Shipping Board, also opposed the bill. 



'GANDHI, WILSON OR LENIN?' 



The World Economic Conference is to open in 
London on June 12. 



A living dog is better than a dead lion. 



A professor at Columbia University said not 
long ago that when the future historian comes to 
deal with our times he will primarily concern 
himself with three figures — Gandhi, Woodrow 
Wilson and Lenin. 

These are the three outstanding apostles of 
world reconstruction that emerged out of the 
cataclysm of war. They have largely dominated 
the thought of our times. Each visualized the 
world as a unit. Each, like the dominating men 
of all ages, excited opposing extremes of emotion. 

Woodrow Wilson dreamed a great dream — the 
League of Nations. The greatness of his dream 
is not diminished by the fact that his principles 
were perverted and ideals sabotaged at Versailles. 

While Wilson's plan presupposes a continuation 
of civilization on its present basis, Lenin flatly 
and completely rejects all the implied premises 
and postulates of western civilization. The Rus- 
sian experiment is something new under the sun 
— it has no parallel in the entire gamut of human 
history. Every prior civilization has rested on 
certain assumptions : that economics and ethics 
are separate sciences, for example, and that the 
poor are always with us. Russia seeks to unify 
economics and ethics. And Russia says "no" — 
the poor shall not and should not be with us. She 
says she will build a new social order, a society 
with no poor and nc rich — and the rub comes 
with the elimination of the rich. Russia would 
give the necessaries of life to every man, woman 
and child ; and excessive luxuries to none. Never 
before has a civilization abolished God, but Rus- 
sia says "no — we shall abolish God." And Russia 
abolishes religion also. Lenin's plan abolishes both 
the freedom of the individual and the sanctity of 
person — the state is God. Gandhi's principles re- 
ject the postulates of both western civilization and 
the Bolshevik Utopia. He has no use for organ- 
ized militarism or profiteering commercialism, and 
these are the bedrocks of western civilization. 

Both Russia and western civilization rest on 
force. Gandhi claims force is the weapon of the 
weak. Western civilization and Lenin agree on 
the supremacy of the state. Gandhi gives the 
primacy to the individual. He does not believe in 
state regulation ; he favors moral suasion. He 
begins by building up the instincts of honor and 
good will and by discarding the base passions. 
(Continued on Page 94) 



84 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1933 



NEWS AND COMMENT 

Concerning Seamen the World Over 



The United Africa Company's Ethiopian has 
been sold to shipbreakers, and, unlike other Ethio- 
pians, who cannot change their skins,, hers will 
in due course be converted to steel scrap. 

From an article by Sidney Webb in Current 
History, we learn that there is a steadily increas- 
ing number of women sailors, engineers and wire- 
less operators on board the Soviet Merchant Ma- 
rine. According to Mr. Webb, these women are 
usually dressed as men. 

* * * 

Following lengthy negotiations a proposal for 
merging the Norwegian Sailors' and Firemen's 
Union and the Norwegian Stewards' Union has 
been accepted. It has already been approved by 
the National Federation of Trade Unions, and is 
now being submitted to a ballot of the member- 
ships concerned. It is proposed to name the new 
organization the Norwegian Seamen's Union. 

* * * 

Taking advantage of the economic crisis and 
the favorable political situation, the Finnish ship- 
owners made a substantial attack on wages. The 
already low rates were cut by 15 to 18 per cent 
and even more, and the collective agreement 
simply set aside. Awaiting its opportunity, the 
Seamen's Union has now given the signal for 
action, following a referendum in which nine- 
tenths of the membership declared in favor of a 
strike if the shipowners refused to enter into 
negotiations. 

* * * 

At a stop-work meeting of members of the 
Australian Seamen's Union, held at Sydney re- 
cently, it was decided that all seamen after serv- 
ing six months on a ship must vacate their posi- 
tions at their home ports and take a vacation for 
a month before becoming eligible to seek re- 
employment. This, it was stated, would apply to 
all seamen on coastal vessels and oversea steam- 
ers, including the Aorangi and Xiagara. The 
object is to distribute work to a greater extent. 
Before the new rule is practiced it will be sub- 
mitted to branches of the Union throughout Aus- 
tralia for consideration and acceptance. 



The governing body of the International Labor 
Office held its sixty-second session in Geneva re- 
cently. Among the main points in the proceed- 
ings as summarized in Industrial and Labor In- 
formation is an item to the effect that the director 
was authorized to call a meeting of the Joint 
Maritime Commission before the end of this year. 
The representative of the Japanese government 
announced that it would continue to collaborate 
with the organization, in spite of its notice of 
withdrawal from the League. The International 
Labor chairman expressed the general satisfaction. 

* * * 

In Rumania, a special Seamen's Section, under 
the management of a committee of two shipown- 
ers and two seamen, has recently been established 
by the public employment exchange at Braila, in 
addition to the one already existing at Constanza. 
Its services, which are entirely free, are open to 
all seafarers and to the crews of vessels engaged 
in inland navigation. Freedom of choice for sea- 
men in choosing their ships, and for shipowners 
in selecting their crews, is ensured in accordance 
with the provisions of the convention relating to 
seamen's employment facilities, which was ratified 
by Rumania in 1930. 

* * * 

Members of the Victorian Branch of the Aus- 
tralian Seamen's Union decided recently that an 
application should be made to the Federal Arbi- 
tration Court for restoration of the central pick- 
ing-up place, or such other order as the court 
may decide, and that, pending the result of such 
application, members seeking employment should 
do so on board ship, at the ship's side or at the 
mercantile marine office. It was also decided that 
no member of the Union should accept employ- 
ment on vessels engaged in the Eastern trade un- 
less he was paid Australian rates of pay and con- 
ditions, and the vessel is manned according to 
the Australian manning scale. 

* * * 

The arrest of a ship for debt is not in itself an 
uncommon occurrence, but the circumstances sur- 
rounding the attachment of a steamer at Rouen 
a few days ago are somewhat out of the ordinary. 
This vessel, the Silva, owned by a German firm 
but registered under the Panama Hag, arrived at 
the French port with a cargo of timber from 
Danzig. When discharge was completed, the cap- 
tain wired his owners for orders, but none were 



June, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



85 



forthcoming. He therefore remained where he 
was and secured fuel and food for himself and 
crew on credit from a local shipchandler. When 
the latter's bill reached about 6,000 fr., he asked 
the captain for something on account, but the 
reply he received was to the effect that the own- 
ers had disappeared and all attempts to find them 
had proved fruitless. The shipchandler thereupon 
took his case to the local Tribunal de Commerce, 
and in due course the ship was arrested and will 
doubtless be sold. Meanwhile, the unfortunate 
captain and his crew are, presumably, still look- 
ing for the elusive owners. 

* * * 

Buddhist priests wearing splendid brocade capes 
and chanting prayers amid the burning of incense 
saluted the spirits of a dead Englishman and his 
Japanese wife on the 313th anniversary of the 
death of William Adams, a sailor, born in Gilling- 
ham, Kent, who was the first Englishman to visit 
Japan, arriving there in 1607, and being detained 
as shipbuilding adviser to the country's feudal 
ruler. His remains are buried beneath a hill over- 
looking the Bay of- Yedo, a site chosen by him- 
self. There is a street in Tokyo named after him. 
The governor of the province read a long oration, 
praising Adams and Great Britain, and laid offer- 
ings at the altar erected before the sailor's tomb- 
stone. 

* * * 

According to Swedish newspaper reports, the 
recent Seamen's strike was marked by dissensions 
between the Communist and Social-Democratic 
sections of the new Seamen's Union, which in- 
cludes deck, engine room and catering service. 
The Union finally concluded an agreement with 
the Swedish Shipowners' Association, based on 
the proposals of the State Conciliation Board, to 
which the dispute was referred before the strike 
broke out. The average wage reduction is four 
per cent, but boys and those employed in the 
Steward's Department are to have the old or 
slightly better rates of pay. The general clauses 
of the agreement provide for certain improve- 
ments in conditions. 

* * * 

The report of the Seafarer's Education Service 
for 1932 (London) states that at the beginning of 
the year 394 ships and six shore establishments 
were being supplied, while at the close the figures 
were 420 (27 yet to be installed) and seven re- 
spectively. In 1931 the Service was instructed to 



fit out ten libraries for use in the ships of the 
China Steam Navigation Company and it has now 
been authorized to fit out a further fifty libraries 
for use in these ships. A library of 100 volumes 
was authorized by the British Shipping Federa- 
tion for the use of the Gravesend Sea School and 
has now been installed. Exchanges have been car- 
ried out at Hong Kong and Singapore during 
1932, and thirty-two ships have interchanged li- 
braries while in foreign ports. The stock of books 
stands at 73,062, and the records show that 152,- 
305 issues to readers were made during the year. 
* * * 

The Norwegian seamen's organizations recently 
addressed a joint petition to parliament for the 
amendment of the Sickness Insurance Act so as to 
enable seamen on foreign-going ships to join sick- 
ness funds, which at present are only open to sea- 
men on "home trade" vessels. The shipowners 
allege that this would impose additional burdens 
on employers which it would be impossible to as- 
sume during the present trade depression. They 
suggest that the question be examined in detail 
when business improves, with a view to ascertain- 
ing whether these obligations could be assumed. 
The seamen also urged the need for amending the 
Seaworthiness Act so as to require all persons em- 
ployed on board ship to produce a certificate at- 
testing that they are not suffering from any in- 
fectious disease or from tuberculosis. The latter 
proposal is regarded by the employers as reason- 
able and likely to benefit shipowners. The rela- 
tively small expenditure it entails would be out- 
weighed by the advantages of ensuring that only 
fit and healthy seamen are employed on board ; it 
would also involve a saving in repatriation ex- 
penses. The last two requests were examined by 
parliament on February 27, 1933, and it was de- 
cided to refer the former (sickness insurance) to 
the government, and the latter (amendment of 
the Seaworthiness Act) to the Social Affairs Com- 
mittee of Parliament. 



There were 24,786 documented merchant ves- 
sels of 15,084,682 gross tons in the United States 
on March 31, 1933, according to a compilation by 
Arthur J. Tyrer, assistant director of the Com- 
merce Department's Bureau of Navigation and 
Steamboat Inspection. This is a decrease of 127 
vessels of 35,776 gross for the first three months 
of the calendar year, which is considerably less 
than one-half of one per cent. 



86 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1933 



Seamen's Journal 

Established in 1887 
Published on the first day of each month at 525 
Market Street, San Francisco, by and under the di- 
rection of the International Seamen's Union of 
America. 

PAUL SCHARRENBERG, Editor 

© 



Entered at the San Francisco Postoffice as second- 
class matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate 
of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of Oc- 
tober 3, 1917, authorized September 7, 1918. 

Subscription price $1.00 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 



NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will he 
published, provided they are of general interest, 
brief, legible, written on one side only of the paper, 
and accompanied by the writer's own name and ad- 
dress. The JOURNAL, is not responsible for the ex- 
pressions of correspondents, nor for the return of 
manuscripts. 



une 1. 1933 



STAL1X-MUSSOLINI-HITLER 



The aftermath of the war "to make the world 
safe for democracy" is still writing bloody chap- 
ters in the suppression of free speech and a free 
press. Russia, with Mr. Stalin, led the march. 
Italy, with Mr. Mussolini, followed. Now, we 
behold Germany, the land of "Freiheit und Gleich- 
heit" with Mr. Hitler as the executioner of free- 
dom and equality ! 

Mr. Hitler and his followers have certainly 
tackled a big job in attempting to strangle the 
German labor movement and to destroy the Ger- 
man Social-Democratic party which is the political 
expression of trade-unionism. German Socialism, 
represented by the Social-Democratic party, has 
weathered many a storm, both from without and 
within, and is still flourishing. A movement that 
survived the persecutions of the Bismarck regime 
under the old Hohenzollern-Junker rule will prob- 
ably not vanish into thin air under the attacks 
of an upstart like Hitler. 

The unprovoked seizure of the German trade- 
unions marks a further stage in the efforts of the 
Hitlerites to crush the existing influential organ- 
ized labor movement. It seems apropos, however, 
to point out that this suppression of the right of 
freedom of association is contrary to the terms of 
the Peace Treaty under which the International 
Labor Office was established, the basis of these 
terms being the recognition of the freedom of 



association. The reason for the suddenness of 
the attack on the unions was, of course, to gather 
in their funds, and to break the trade-union con- 
nection with Social Democracy, and thereby to 
batter down the workers' powers of resistance. 
For a time this method may appear to be success- 
ful, but the same tactics have been tried before, 
and in the long run have proved to be a failure. 
What is happening in Germany should be an ob- 
ject lesson to us here and every effort should be 
made to strengthen our unions and our democratic 
institutions, in which alone our safety lies. 

It is gratifying to note that President Green of 
the American Federation of Labor has promptly 
and vigorously condemned the tactics of the Hitler 
regime. Said Mr. Green : 

The last semblance of voluntary, free, independent 
trade-unionism in Germany has been brutally wiped 
out. 

The people of the United States can better under- 
stand what this action means when it is explained and 
understood that the free, independent trade-unions of 
Germany, which were organized many years ago and 
which have functioned uninterruptedly both under the 
Imperial government and the Republic, are similar in 
character, in activity, and in their functioning proc- 
esses to the American Federation of Labor and to the 
national and international unions affiliated with it. 

Intense feeling has been aroused among the work- 
ing people of the United States against the action of 
the Hitler government toward the trade-union move- 
ment of Germany. A very close bond of fraternity and 
of sympathy exists between the officers and members 
of the trade-union organizations in Germany and the 
officers and members of the American Federation of 
Labor. 

The Hitler government has aroused a feeling of an- 
tagonism among the masses of the people of the 
United States. The American Federation of Labor will 
register its protest with the American government 
against the destructive, dictatorial and indefensible acts 
of the Hitler government toward the working men 
and women identified with the trade-union movement 
of Germany. 

A man is usually judged not only by his own 
actions but by the company he keeps. An Ameri- 
can, well acquainted with both men and affairs in 
Germany, in a recent pamphlet, gives some signi- 
ficant information as to the intimate associates of 
Adolph Hitler. These include: 

Herman William Goering, war aviator, committed 
to an insane asylum in Stockholm in 1925 and again 
in 1927. 

Gottfried Feder, once close associate of General Von 
Ludendorff, in his fantastic campaign of hate against 
Jews, Masons and Catholics. 

Dr. Wilhelm Frick, former Minister of the Interior 
in Thuringia, sponsor of a special chair at University 
of Jena, to preach the doctrine of the German-Nordic 
superman. 

Dr. Joseph Goebbels, a club-foot, unsuccessful dram- 
atist, but described as a master of "insult and vi- 
tuperation." 

Alfred Rosenberg, a soldier in the Russian army 
during the war and author of the notorious Nazi 



Time, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



87 



slogan, "that on every telegraph pole from Munich to 
Berlin, the head of a prominent Jew must be stuck." 
Count Ernest Reventlow, notoriously reactionary 
spokesman of the old nobility. 

These are the immediate associates of the new 

dictator of Germany. May the Lord have mercy 

upon that unhappy land! 



THE LESSON OF THE DEPRESSION 



MR. MORGAN'S FRIENDS 



J. P. Morgan, in his testimony before the sen- 
ate committee, revealed that stock in the Alle- 
gheny corporation, which was selling in the open 
market for $37 a share, was placed at the dis- 
posal of a list of "friends" of his banking com- 
pany for $20 a share. Into the record was read a 
letter, which said in part : 

We have kept some of the common stock at a cost 
of $20 a share. We are asking some of our close friends 
would they like some of this stock. 

I believe that the stock is selling in the market 
around $35 to §37 a share. We are reserving 1,000 
shares if you would like to have it. 

There are no strings tied to it, so you can sell it 
whenever you wish. 

The last paragraph is significant. It says in so 
many words that 1,000 shares of this stock could 
be purchased at $20,000 and sold immediately in 
the market for $37,000, a nice profit even in the 
days of the Coolidge era of prosperity. 

But, please note, only the "close friends" of 
J. P. Morgan & Company were "let in" on this 
proposition. It was a privilege and an oppor- 
tunity denied to all unprivileged American citizens. 

But Big Business has its own effective way its 
favors to bestow. 



Marilyn King, feature writer in San Francisco 
Shopping News, has just given a glowing write-up 
to the Grace Line's Santa ships. After alluring 
tales of unsurpassable cooking, Miss King lets 
us in on a secret, namely — "Last, but far from 
least, you are served by trim waitresses who look 
as though they might break into a dance routine 
at any moment." And if that choice bit of infor- 
mation does not clinch the bargain with the pros- 
pective passenger, then, let him listen to this in- 
teresting sidelight on the Grace employment situa- 
tion. Says Miss King: "The exceptional types 
noticed throughout the entire personnel of men 
and women brought to light the fact that a large 
percentage were college graduates. This travel bug 
is virulent!" From which we infer that a large 
percentage of the Grace company's crews are not 
interested in wages. They are after free trips to 
satisfy that travel bug. 



Just as every cloud has its silver lining, so our 
current man-made depression has its good points. 

Unquestionably, the Tightness and power of fair 
wages has become more generally recognized. In 
fact, the day seems not far distant when the 
monkey- wrench-in-the-machinery place of the low- 
wage payer in the history of economics will be 
generally seen and suitably appraised. 

Other important reforms are necessary but it 
is only watering the branches of the economic 
tree, rather than the roots, if correct wages 
throughout business in general are not forthcom- 
ing as a certain policy of the near future. 

There has been entirely too little attention paid 
to this all-important issue. It is high time the 
low-wage payer were exposed thoroughly, and his 
harmful practices brought home positively to the 
world consciousness. There should be no spar- 
ing, no quarter given, in this direction. Then 
minimum-wage standards may become a reality, 
and constant pressure may be brought to bear on 
the low-wage payer not only from the trade- 
unions but also from the fair element in busi- 
ness as well as the general public. 

Conversely, the acts of the fair-wage payer, 
the true business man, cannot be lauded too highly. 
It is patently unfair for the progressive employer 
to suffer for the mistakes of his erring con- 
temporary, but such seems to be the case. 

The proportion of genuine prosperity can be 
only in the proportion to fair dealing in busi- 
ness. And fair wages throughout would unleash 
an active buying power so tremendous as to 
stagger thought on the subject — undreamed of 
new business, plenty of which is even now only 
awaiting the necessary buying power. 



It is a pleasure to announce that the Nova 
Scotia Seamen's Union, with offices at 66 North 
Street, Halifax, N. S., has been granted a charter 
by the International Seamen's Union of America. 
The officers of the newly affiliated union are: 
Walter Johnson, president; Joseph Johnson, first 
vice-president ; Marlow Falawn, second vice-presi- 
dent ; Samuel C. Connell, secretary-treasurer. 



The wise are instructed by reason, ordinary 
minds by experience, the stupid by necessity, and 
brutes by instinct. — Cicero. 



88 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1933 



LM MIGRANTS BECOME EMIGRANTS 



A NEEDED INVESTIGATION 



Only 35,576 immigrants were admitted for 
permanent settlement in the United States during 
the last fiscal year. During the same period 
103,295 aliens were recorded as leaving the United 
States for permanent residences in other coun- 
tries. 

These figures seem to prove that the immigra- 
tion problem no longer exists, but it reveals 
something more than that. It shows that America 
is ceasing to be the land of opportunity which 
for centuries lured and held the daring from 
every other land. 

The reason aliens are leaving the United States 
is because they feel they would be better off 
at home. That may be desirable, considering the 
number of idle men among us, but does not speak 
well for political and economic conditions in the 
richest country on earth. 

Of course, it was obvious that the economic 
depression, which has partly paralyzed every coun- 
try in the world, must everywhere slacken the 
pace of migration. But it appears, in virtually 
every nation, the effect of the crisis has been even 
greater in this respect than was anticipated. For 
instance, the figures for 1931 show that while 
34,310 people left British shores for non-Euro- 
pean countries, more than double that number 
(71,382) gave up residence abroad to return to 
the United Kingdom. The figures for Australia 
show how rapidly and regularly emigration has 
declined in the last five years. In 1927 Australia 
received 40,991 of Britain's surplus population. 
Every year since then has seen a big decline in 
the figure, till last year it had dwindled to 4,459. 
There can be no doubt that in Europe as a whole, 
in China, and in Japan this damming of the natu- 
ral movements of population from country to 
country must have incalculable political and eco- 
nomic results. 



The general council of the International Fed- 
eration of Trade Unions met in Zurich recently 
and unanimously decided to transfer the head- 
quarters of the Federation to Paris without delay, 
on the ground that the present conditions in Ger- 
many made it impossible to carry on the activities 
of the Federation in Berlin in the manner re- 
quired by the pressing interests of the international 
working class. 

It is a bad plan that admits of no modification. 



The United States naval airship Akron, the 
world's biggest airship, crashed twenty miles out 
to sea off the New Jersey coast recently. Of 
the seventy-six persons on board only one offi- 
cer and three men (one of whom died later) were 
rescued. 

Statements made by the International Labor 
News Service charging structural weakness in the 
Akron have been borne nut to the limit by testi- 
munv taken by Navy investigators. 

But there has been no getting to the bottom of 
the business of structural weakness and the cause 
therefor. No Navy board is likely to dig into that. 
It is a job for a properly chosen and sufficiently 
courageous Congressional Committee. 

Trade-unionists first brought forth evidence of 
structural weakness. Trade-unionists forced a 
Navy investigation at that time, though it got no- 
where. That line of inquiry should now be pushed 
to the very limit. And the investigation should go 
back to the work as it was done- in the ( ioodyear- 
Zeppelin Corporation plant at Akron, Ohio. This 
company has been actively hostile to trade-union 
organization. It was indifferent to the employment 
of American mechanics. So far as selecting work- 
men was concerned, it did not have an employment 
policy of Americans only. EtS labor policy did not 
provide for the best workmanship. 

Some of the construction work was on a piece- 
work basis, and piece-work never has called for 
the best, for the best under a piece-work system 
is only work which will pass the inspector. There 
is a wide difference in workmanship between the 
best which skilled workmen can do. and work per- 
formed which will just pass the inspector. Every 
stroke of work which piece-workers do can not 
be thoroughly inspected. That is a physical im- 
possibility. 

There were rumors long before the Akron was 
launched that all was not well with its construc- 
tion. Xo serious questions were raised as to the 
design, but doubts had been expressed as to the 
quality of the fabrication. Other Zeppelins have 
met with disaster, but nothing like the loss of the 
. Ikron has occurred. 

In the final analysis it becomes more and more 
certain that private profit must be eliminated in the 
manufacture of naval, air and water vessels and 
other naval and army equipment. 

In the last World War (sec Senate Document 



8 



June, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



89 



No. 259, 65th Congress) one steel company in 
1916 made a net income of $197 and in 1917 
$338 on each dollar invested ! Profits of the 
U. S. Steel Corporation, leader in the recent 
Hoover wage-cutting offensive, rose from $130,- 
351,000 in 1915 to $333,574,000 the following- 
year. This corporation made a profit of more than 
50 per cent on its war-time contracts. Out of the 
blood of the last war, thousands of profiteers be- 
came millionaires. 

These exorbitant profits were paid for out of 
the proceeds of Liberty bonds, and the American 
people are still paying millions of dollars every 
year for interest on those bonds ! The retirement 
of the principal seems to be a problem for future 
generations. 



COMMENT ON "DIVINE JUSTICE" 



Dr. John Grier Hibben, president emeritus of 
Princeton, was killed the other day when his auto- 
mobile was struck by a beer truck. In his death, 
the country lost a man of blameless private life 
and long and unusually able service in the field of 
education. But Mrs. Henry W. Peabody, chair- 
man of the National Committee on Law Enforce- 
ment, a dry organization, observed in this fatality 
"mute evidence of divine justice," adding: 

By his ardent support of the wet cause, President 
Hibben was one of the leaders who helped put those 
trucks on the road. Then suddenly the court of divine 
justice inflicted the penalty. 

Two things are apparent in that statement — in 
addition to its heartless cruelty. The first is reiter- 
ated prohibitionist assumption of intimate knowl- 
edge with the doings of God Almighty ; and sec- 
ond, the identification of their own pet hobby 
with the plans and purposes of the Ruler of the 
Universe. Both ideas are idiotic. If Dr. Hibben 
was thus subjected to sudden and violent death 
for advocating modification of the prohibition 
regime — which he honestly believed to be a fail- 
ure — what shall be said for the Creator of the 
Universe, who permits grapes to grow and hops 
to brew ? 



From the sailors and the firemen on the Lakes 
comes the information that an agreement has been 
reached with the D. & C. Company and the White 
Star Line to pay a scale of $82.50 for sailors, 
firemen, oilers and watertenders and $60 to ordi- 
nary seamen and coal passers. 






EXPRESSION OF DISCONTENT 



In nearly all countries where authorities and 
capitalists have fought against and stifled the for- 
mation and growth of trade-unions and trade- 
union philosophy, principles, and practice, the 
communists, Fascists, and state Socialists are 
gaining followers, and government by a dictator 
is growing rapidly. Any change to escape oppres- 
sion is preferable. 

Discontent of the masses against injustice, op- 
pression, and a denial of the workers' right to 
organize in trade-unions is bound to find expres- 
sion in some form involving a change. The natural 
feeling and slogan is — "It can't be any worse 
than the present intolerable conditions." A fa- 
vorite call of the Socialists is, "Workers of the 
world arise, you have nothing but chains to lose.'" 

In times of great distress, as in the present 
depression, unemployed, hungry, homeless work- 
ers do not stop to analyze theories. They know 
that through no fault of their own they are out of 
work, and they fully understand that they are 
destitute, hungry, and homeless. Their bottled-up 
discontent must find vent. 

The sure, safe means to resist oppression is 
association in our trade-unions. Organize! 



The newest queen of the American merchant 
marine came to dock at New York early in May, 
in readiness for her first transatlantic trip. The 
Washington, which satisfactorily completed her 
fast trial runs off the Virginia Capes, is a sister 
ship to the Manhattan. She sailed on her maiden 
trip May 10 for Cobh, Plymouth, Havre and 
Hamburg. The 24,000-ton passenger liner cost 
$10,500,000, nearly $9,000,000 of which went for 
wages in shipyards and factories. She and the 
Manhattan are the first Atlantic liners to be built 
in the United States in thirty-five years. Capt. 
George Fried, who is in command, has an ambi- 
tion — he will try to prove the Washington the 
most popular cabin liner afloat. 



You knock a man into the ditch, and then you 
tell him to remain content in the "position in 
which Providence has placed him." — Ruskin. 



The snake which cannot change its skin per- 
ishes. So the mind which is hindered from chang- 
ing its opinion ceases to be a mind. — Nietzsche. 



90 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1933 



BOOK REVIEW 



TOM MOONEY'S SECOND TRIAL 



THE AMERICAN TRANSPORTATION PROB- 
LEM. By Harold G. Moulton and Associates. 
Brookings Institute, Washington, D. C. Price §3. 

The American people seem to be on the move 
along the road toward ultimate public ownership, 
government subsidy or even government compul- 
sion of industry in the interests of the nation, 
instead of in the interests of the few. 

American transportation shows this tendency 
more than any other industry. Since the Trans- 
portation Act of 1920, which was designed to give 
us a system of transporation developed along na- 
tional lines, the Interstate Commerce Commission 
has exercised this regulatory power more and 
more, until now, consolidation is the talk of the 
hour and the immediate problem is not one of 
petty railroad regulation, but of unified operation 
and control of lines, terminals, airports, water- 
fronts and ports — in other words, urban and city 
planning coordinated and raised to a national 
basis. 

In this book the lirookings Institute has 
given us another one of its clear and interesting 
analyses of a problem that touches every man, 
woman and child in the nation. With the announce- 
ment by President Roosevelt of the appointment 
of a Federal Coordinator of the Railroads, the 
transportation problem is moving on toward ulti- 
mate solution. Whether we have government own- 
ership or government regulation and coordination. 
is immaterial. The main point is that the various 
forms of transportation must be placed upon the 
basis of economic parity in a well regulated sys- 
tem for the public interest. A system where "86 per 
cent of the time of freight car movements is 
chargeable to terminal operations and only 14 per 
cent to line haul," according to figures cited, is 
certainly headed for destruction unless drastically 
revised. 

According to statements made in this interest- 
ing book, what we need is a single national sys- 
tem under public control, with sub-divisions small 
enough for efficient administration, but practicing 
economies on a national basis. 

The public seems to be getting tired of expen- 
sive receiverships, litigations and reorganizations, 
with the ultimate taking over by the government 
of overcapitalized non-paying industries, after 
private business has skimmed off the cream ! Books 
like this one, will teach us how to hasten the day. 
Surely we are progressing as a nation ! — Ekel. 



A second trial of Thomas J. Mooney has just 
been concluded in Department 1 1 of the Superior 
Court at San Francisco. 

Mooney was tried on an unused indictment 
growing out of the death of one of the victims 
of the San Francisco Preparedness Day parade 
bombing of 1916, for which Mooney is serving a 
life sentence in San Quentin prison. 

Pleading his own case, Mooney made an in- 
effectual attempt to induce Judge Ward to permit 
him to present evidence of his innocence. The 
district attorney presented no evidence and Judge 
Ward declared that Mooney had been ill-advised 
or had used bad judgment in insisting on going to 
trial when he knew no case would be put in by 
the State. 

A jury verdict of "not guilty" rendered on in- 
structions from Judge Ward was the result of the 
two-day court proceedings. Ten minutes after the 
verdict had been rendered, Mooney was hurried 
back to his cell, and inside of two hours he had 
resumed his routine tasks. 

Frank P. Walsh and Leo Gallagher, his attor- 
neys, declared immediately after the hearing that 
the United States Supreme Court will be asked 
to free Mooney, because in two separate trials 
Mooney has been found both "guilty" and "not 
guilty" of participation in the Preparedness Day 
bomb outrage. 



IVAR KREUGER'S SPREE 



Ivar Kreuger, the Swedish match king, who 
shot himself in Paris, personally spent more than 
£24,000,000 during the period of more than four- 
teen years covered by his frauds. 

This disclosure is made in the final report of 
Messrs. Price, Waterhouse and Company, the 
London auditors, on the affairs of the Kreuger 
and Toll Company. 

The report states that falsifications began in 
1917, and the balance sheets from then till 1931 
showed income overstated by £55,500,000, rep- 
resented by fictitious credits. 

Nobody in Sweden is aware how Ivar Kreuger 
dissipated such a vast fortune as £24,000,000, al- 
though it was known that he had luxurious man- 
sions in New York and in Paris, and that he spent 
huge sums on his women friends, of whom he had 
many in various parts of the world. 



10 



June, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



91 



SHIPPING NEWS 



The California Legislature has failed to appro- 
priate the funds necessary to keep the new nauti- 
cal training ship in commission during the ensuing 
two years. 

The annual report of the International Mercan- 
tile Marine Company shows a net loss of $1,507,- 
187 for 1932, compared with a loss of $1,278,000 
for 1931. In his communication to stockholders, 
P. A. S. Franklin, president of the company, is 
pessimistic as to the outlook for 1933. 

Rate increases of from 5 to 40 cents per hun- 
dred pounds on various commodities have been 
agreed upon by the member lines of the United 
States Intercoastal Conference at their general 
meeting in New York, according to reports. These 
increases will be incorporated in the new tariff, 
which becomes effective June 1 when the lines 
are placed under the jurisdiction of the United 
States Shipping Board by the provisions of the 
Copeland Act. After June 1 it will be necessary 
for the lines to file specific rates with the board 
and no changes can be made without thirty days' 
notice. 

The medical officer of health for Newport 
(England) reports that in 1932 only 9.6 per cent 
of the 1,888 British vessels inspected had sanitary 
defects with respect to crews' quarters, as com- 
pared with ten per cent of the foreign vessels. 
Every ship under the Panama flag was found to 
be defective, and the percentages in the cases of 
other nationalities were Spanish 40.4, Latvian 
33.2, Greek 22.2, Portuguese 22.2, Belgian 18.2, 
Italian 14.3, Japanese 3.3, French 3.2, Dutch 2.7, 
and Norwegian 2.2. It is interesting to note that 
in the last three years the percentage of insanitary 
British ships inspected at Newport has declined 
from 26.3 to 19 and now 9.5. 

Reconstruction of the Canadian National steam 
ship Prince David by the Halifax Shipyards, Ltd., 
is held to be the largest ship repair contract ever 
undertaken in Canada. The contract for her re- 
building, which has made her practically a new 
ship, was won by the Halifax yards after com- 
petitive bidding with British and American com- 
panies. The ship went ashore on a coral reef in 
the Bermudas last spring. It was at first believed 



she would prove a total loss. She was finally sal- 
vaged, however, and has been virtually rebuilt 
below the water line. Her engines and boilers 
were removed, most of her woodwork renewed and 
the furnishings in her staterooms and public rooms 
replaced. Most of her electrical equipment, in- 
cluding refrigerators, telephone and electric light 
systems, has also been replaced. 

The second of the two motor vessels ordered 
by the Hamburg-American line from Messrs. 
Blohm and Voss, Hamburg, has now been put into 
the water. The Cordillera, as she is called, is in 
most respects similar to her sister-ship the Caribia, 
which has just completed her maiden voyage to 
the West Indies. Her main dimensions are 528 
feet length, 67 feet breadth and 40 feet depth, 
while the gross measurement is 12,000 tons. She 
will be equipped with two sets of eight-cylinder 
M. A. N. Diesel engines, developing a total of 11,- 
000 h. p. on twin screws, and giving the vessel a 
service speed of 17 knots. Accommodation will be 
provided for 170 first-class, 103 second-class and 
110 tourist-class passengers, while the spacious 
and luxuriously equipped public rooms are to be 
specially designed for tropical conditions. 

The port of Belfast saw the last of the liner 
Bermuda recently, when her hull was towed from 
the Lagan en route to Rosyth to be broken up, but 
as we go to press we hear that this unfortunate 
ship has run ashore on Badcall Islands, Eddra- 
chilles Bay. It will be recalled that some time ago 
the remains of the ship, after two outbreaks of 
fire, were purchased by Metal Industries Ltd., 
from Messrs. Workman, Clark (1928), Ltd., for, 
we understand, about £18,000. The Bermuda 
has been lying in Belfast Harbor since July, 1931. 
Her. reconditioning after the fire at Hamilton was 
well advanced when she was destroyed by another 
outbreak in November, 1931, and ever since she 
has been lying derelict. The machinery, however, 
has been salved and is in quite good condition in 
Messrs. Workman, Clark's possession, and it will 
probably be eventually used, either in units or 
completely, in other ships. 

The Colombian Steamship Line has announced 
that effective with the sailing of the steamship 
Baracoa from New York on June 6, it will inaug- 
urate a new direct freight service to Chicago, with 
regular fortnightly sailings thereafter. C. H. C. 
Pearsal, vice-president and general manager of 
the Colombian Line, said that the Baracoa and 
Bolivar would alternate in maintaining fortnightly 



11 



92 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1933 



sailings from New York and would make the run 
to Chicago in about ten days. The two sister ships 
will follow the outside route up the Atlantic Coast 
thence down the St. Lawrence river to the Great 
Lakes and Chicago. The two vessels will handle 
general cargo, and their new service is expected 
to appeal to shippers interested in moving freight 
between the Atlantic seaboard and the Middle 
West. Not only will the new service provide a 
direct link by water between New York and Chi- 
cago, but it will also give to the Colombian Line 
direct control of through shipments of freight 
from the West Indies to the Middle West with 
transshipment at New York. 

The official report on the examinations of can- 
didates for certificates of competency as masters 
and mates in the British merchant marine during 
1932, shows that the number who qualified as ex- 
tra master was twelve, master 305, first mate 399, 
and second mate 826. In the home trade the 
numbers were master 37 and mate 50. The cer- 
tificates issued thus totaled 1,629, which compares 
favorably with the 1,363 granted in the previous 
year, but is a long way behind the 1930 figure 
of 3,233. The disparity is no doubt accounted for 
by the fewer candidates presenting themselves 
owing to increased unemployment among navi- 
gational staffs and the raising of the standard of 
examination. The number of engineer candidates 
examined was 2,024, of whom 1,423 were success- 
ful, against 1,773 in 1931 and 1,833 in 1930. 

The Los Angeles, California, Harbor Depart- 
ment has revealed plans for transfer to the Navy, 
for use as a fleet shore base, of a 110-acre site in 
the Outer Harbor west channel, according to the 
Times. Transfer of the city-owned seventy-acre 
south portion of the area would be subject to 
approval by the Los Angeles electorate. The inner 
forty acres, now a part of the Fort MacArthur 
lower reservation, would be transferred by the 
War Department to the Navy Department. Nego- 
tiations for consummation of this plan have been 
in progress for several weeks. The proposed base 
site, at present almost entirely tideland, would be 
filled to grade largely from material secured from 
dredging the harbor fairway to a depth of forty 
feet, from Breakwater Light to and including 
channel of Pier One. 



LABOR NEWS 



Wherever there is war, there must be in- 
justice on one side or the other, or on both. 
■ — Ruskin. 



Workers in the silk textile industry are turning 
to organized labor as the only road out of the 
depths to which they have been pushed by greedy 
employers during the depression. At Shamokiu, 
Pa., 1,400 employees of the Eagle Mills staged a 
100 per cent strike and succeeded in gaining a 
number of concessions, in addition to almost com- 
pletely unionizing the plant. 

Seventy-nine per cent of the female industrial 
workers of Chicago are earning less than 25 cents 
an hour. Twenty-four per cent earn less than ten 
cents an hour. These startling figures, showing the 
extent to which women workers have been ex- 
ploited during the depression, were made public by 
the Illinois Joint Committee on Industrial Stand- 
ards, which has completed a survey covering 219 
firms employing great numbers of women worker-. 

Railroad workers tell the government that it 
cannot at the present time assume the respon- 
sibility for depriving workers of employment with- 
out assuming at the same time the responsibility 
for their future support. Reason and logic sup- 
port the stand of the railroad workers, who art- 
very properly opposing consolidation proposals 
that will throw railroad men out of employment. 
Nothing should be done at this critical period to 
increase the already great host of unemployed. 
Any proposal that means more unemployment is 
dangerous and leads toward national disaster and 
destruction. 

The greed of Big Business brought about the 
depression and forced the government close to 
bankruptcy. So declared Senator David I. Walsh 
(Dem., Mass.) in a speech at Philadelphia, de- 
nouncing the "wild, criminal methods of bush • 
leaders." He. continued : "They took all our sav- 
ings and gambled with them. As a consequence, 
millions have been sent to the street begging for 
crumbs in the richest country in the world." Sena- 
tor Walsh was less explicit in his remedy for this 
situation, saying, "We are trying one medicine 
after another, in the hope that something will be 
found that will attack the disease." 

The spontaneous and vigorous protests againsl 
the suggestion made by Governor Rolph of Cali- 
fornia to reduce old-age pensions by making the 
eligible age 75 instead of 70 has caused the cessa- 



12 



June, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



93 



tion of official talk of such action. The California 
Department of Social Welfare reports that on 
April 1 the number of persons assisted under 
the old-age security law was 13,024, an increase of 
187 over the previous month. Of the 420 cases 
acted upon in March, 398 were placed on the 
pension roll and only twenty-two denied. The 
average allowance for the month was $21.92, and 
the State's share of the pension expenses amounted 
to $142,732. 

In 1932 the Swedish national trade-union center 
continued to make good progress. The member- 
ship increased by 49,417, or 8.4 per cent, being 
at the end of the year 638,593, against 589,176 at 
the end of the previous year. The national center 
now comprises forty-one unions with 5,783 local 
branches. Two new accessions during the year 
were the Textile Workers' Union, with a mem- 
bership of 30,130, and the Union of Hotel and 
Restaurant workers with 10,778 members. The 
number of affiliated unions has, however, only 
been decreased by one, as the two seamen's unions 
have amalgamated to form the new Swedish Sea- 
men's Union. 

Juvenile delinquency in New York City has in- 
creased fifty per cent in the last year, according 
to a report of the Boy Scout Foundation. Fifty- 
five per cent of the crimes in one borough in 
that period were committed by boys under twenty. 
"The increase of crime among our boys is appall- 
ing," declared District Attorney James T. Halli- 
nan of Queens. "I believe it is due to economic 
conditions which divert parents' attention from 
the activities of the boys. The parents have their 
own pressing problems and the boys naturally join 
street gangs." Mr. Hallinan's explanation is the 
right one ; but he might have gone further. When 
a boy's family is on or near the breadline, when 
his father is discouraged, his mother in tears, and 
not a dime can be spared for amusements, what 
can he join except a street gang? 

Mabel E. Kinney, chief of the Industrial Wel- 
fare Commission of California, announces that the 
Commission has refused to lower the existing rate 
of sixteen dollars as the weekly minimum wage 
for experienced women and minors employed in 
industry in California. The Commission made this 
decision after receiving studies and cost of living 
reports from 191 organizations which include re- 
ports of workers employed in the hotel and rest- 
aurant, manufacturing, laundry, mercantile, and 



miscellaneous industries; Mills College, United 
States Free Junior Employment Service, Young 
Men's Christian Association and Young Women's 
Christian Association, Heller Foundation, em- 
ployers' organizations, labor unions, civic organi- 
zations, and from the careful extensive study 
made by the staff of the Commission. 

The dispute which had been in progress in New 
Zealand ports since February, 1932, ended re- 
cently with the conclusion of an agreement be- 
tween the Employers' Association and the New 
Zealand Waterside Workers' Federation (affili- 
ated to the I. T. F.). The employers originally 
proposed that wages (which, together with those 
of all other New Zealand workers, had shortly 
before been cut by ten per cent ) should be re- 
duced from two shillings one pence to one shilling 
eleven pence an hour, and further wished to lower 
the rates for special work. After long negotiations 
the employers offered an hourly rate of two shil- 
lings and no reductions in special rates. These 
terms were submitted to a ballot of the members 
of the Federation. As a majority was returned in 
favor of acceptance, the Executive Committee 
signed an agreement on the basis of two shillings 
an hour. The agreement is to remain in force for 
one year. 

President Roosevelt appointed Senator Wag- 
ner of New York, Senator Walsh of Massachu- 
setts, Secretary of Labor Perkins, Assistant Sec- 
retary of Commerce Dickinson, Hugh Johnson, 
chief of Bernard Baruch's research staff, and 
Donald Richberg, counsel for the rail brother- 
hoods, on a committee to formulate industrial con- 
trol proposals to be included in the public works 
bill, said to call for an appropriation of $3,300,- 
000,000. The appointments were made after a 
conference of cabinet officers, Senate and House 
leaders and representatives of industry and labor 
at the White House. Senator Walsh, chairman of 
the Senate Labor Committee, said that in general 
the plan will be for the various industrial units 
to enter into agreements on work hours, wages 
and prices with the approval of a government 
board. This board would have authority to en- 
force agreements upon any minorities which might 
attempt price cutting or should pay starvation 
wages. The bill, it is understood, will provide 
for collective bargaining by labor through its own 
representatives and for agreements by industry 
and labor on was;e scales. 



13 



94 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1933 



"GANDHI, WILSON OR LENIN?" 

(Continued from Page 83) 



Then he would add the other attributes of civil- 
ization. Neither happiness nor peace has in fact 
been achieved by western civilization. The issue 
between capitalism and communism is whether 
profits shall be private or state. Gandhi favors 
neither one nor the other. Like many others of 
the east, he is not addicted to the slogans or 
catch phrases that have such an influence on the 
western mind. 

Gandhi's ideals are not academic. He lives up 
to them. They may sound Utopian, but on a real- 
istic basis, an entire nation has mobilized itself to 
those ideas. Gandhi is a prophet honored in his 
own country. 

Three Utopias are held before your gaze. Take 
your choice ! — Summary of address by Syud Hos- 
sain, Indian editor and lecturer before the Com- 
monwealth Club of California. 



THE NEW INDUSTRIAL ORDER 

(By Chester M. Wright) 



Labor awaits the American industrial revolu- 
tion, generally wondering under what precise 
orders it will go to work when the Industrial Re- 
covery bill becomes law. With labor's endorse- 
ment and with the endorsement of organized 
employers, the bill is marching rapidly toward 
final enactment. 

Labor has proposed an amendment to the bill. 
introduced by Senator Wagner, to clarify labor's 
right to organize. The bill as first drafted would 
actually have made it a crime to insist upon a 
union shop. If the precise language of labor's 
amendment is not adopted, at least a compromise 
is expected. But even under the amendment then- 
are many, including both lawyers and labor men. 
who believe strikes will be absolutely outlawed 
under the new legislation. Labor is accepting the 
drastic provisions of the bill, undoubtedly, as a 
means of escape from the control of bankers and 
in the belief that the dictatorial power of the 
Presidency is the only power strong enough to 
grapple with Wall Street and throw aside the tre- 
mendous interlocking directorate that heads tip in 
the great banks of the Grand Canyon of Finance. 
The Connery bill, with its proposal to control in- 
dustry through democratic methods has been 
abandoned on the main ground that it could not 
be enacted with administration opposition. 



The Presidential control will continue for two 
years, under the terms of the Wagner bill, but 
there is no lack of those who more or less laugh 
at the two-year limitation, on the theory that 
such a machine as must result from the Wagner 
bill is not going to suddenly cease to exist at the 
end of a stated time. 

Meanwhile wonderment as to just what will 
happen when the measure becomes law continues, 
with a rising tide of interest as the magnitude of 
the proposals soaks in generally. There is plenty 
in the bill to make it clear that the trade associa- 
tion is to be the unit of operation among em- 
ployers. There is no assurance of any kind that 
the trade-union will become the unit of Operation 
among workers. Under labor's proposed amend- 
ment the right to organize will be clearly stated, 
if the amendment is adopted, but it is fully real- 
ized that there is still a long road to complete 
organization of workers in all industries and col- 
lective bargaining throughout the field. 

Perhaps an inkling of what may be coming, 
causing many labor men much worry at the outset. 
is the announcement that a number of trade asso- 
ciations are ready for the new law, with codes of 
practice and wage agreements ready to file with 
the President or his administrator. Among the 
industries announcing this preparedness i> the 
steel industry ! If the steel industry is ready to file 
wage agreements with its employees, then surely 
unions are not in the picture to any appreciable I 
degree. 

One of the best direction-p<»inter> just now is 
found in the utterances of persons close to 
the President. These hold that the President is 
fired with "a new sense of duty" as the result of 
which he holds that the state has a responsibility 
to see to it that all things run properly. This con- 
ception is undoubtedly expressed in the Wagner 
bill, soon to become law. Under its terms the 
"old order" passes completely from the stage. The 
era born with the coming of the automatic ma- 
chine is at this hour in its death pangs. The 
change will amount to revolution. 



At the annual meeting of the Lake Carriers' 
Association, Newton D. Baker, general counsel, 
warned the members that they must be prepared 
to defend the present two-watch system (the 
twelve-hour work day) on the basis of both "social 
fairness and economics." 



14 



June, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



95 



Professional Cards 



Attorney for the Sailors' Union of the 
Pacific since its organization 

H. W. Hutton 

431 Pacific Bldg., Fourth and Market Sts. 

SAN FRANCISCO 

PHONE DOUGLAS 0315 



Albert Michelson 

ATTORNEY-AT-LAW 

Attorney for 

Marine Firemen and Watertenders' 
Union of Pacific 
Marine Diesel and Gasoline Engi- 
neers' Association No. 49 
611 Russ Bldg. Tel. SUtter 3866 

San Francisco, California 



ANDERSON 8C LAMB 

Attorney s-at-Law 

1226 Engineers Bank Building 

CLEVELAND, OHIO 

Personal Injury Attorneys for Seamen on 
the Great Lakes 



Frank Orwitz 



ATTORNEY-AT-LAW 



Room No. 630, Hearst Building 
Market Street and Third 



SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 
Telephone GArfield 6353 



The patient angler sat in silence 
watching his float. 

"Ah!" said the affahle stranger, 
"and how are the fish today?" 

"I've dropped them a line, but so 
far I've had no reply," was the 
crushing answer. 



Patient: "Doctor, I have bad 
stomach pains every morning. What 
do you recommend?" 

Doctor: "Drink a glass of warm 
water every morning." 

Patient: "I do that now, doctor, 
but they call it tea." 



Teacher: "Why were you not at 
school yesterday, Johnny?" 

Johnny: "Please, miss, I was con- 
valescing." 

"Convalescing! From what!" 

"Three apple dumplings and one 
of father's cigars." 



ifetv 



this 



Customer: 
match?" 

Shopkeeper: "Yes; it always goes 
out before three cigarettes can be 
lighted from it." 



Manager of Insurance Firm: 
"Take a week's notice!" 

Office Boy: "Lucky I'm insured 
with the Head Office against getting 
sacked!" 




Plates and 
Bridgework 

DR. C. S. FORD 

702 Market Street 

At Market-Geary-Kearny Sts. 

Phone EXbrook 0329 

Daily Office hours, 8:30 a. m. to 7 p. m. 
Sunday hours, 9 a.m. till noon 
"One Patient Tells Another" 



JENSEN 8C NELSEN 

Gents' Furnishing Goods 

Sayer's Oil Skin Clothing 
Uniforms, Caps, Hats, Shoes 



110 EAST STREET 
GArficld 9633 



NEAR MISSION 
San Francisco 



"I know a girl who thinks her 
husband is simply wonderful," re- 
marked the man. 

"Ah," murmured his companion, 
"so you've just come from a wed- 
ding?" 



Second (to defeated boxer) : 
"Well, cheer up — your trouble's 
over." 

Boxer: "Over, be hanged! My 
wife bet five pounds on me!" 



Mabel (studying geography) : 
"Nurse, I'm so glad Mummy only 
got us three children." 

Nurse: "Why, dear?" 

Mabel: "Because it says here that 
every fourth child born in the world 
is Chinese." 



A STAR GAZER 



It is a truly sublime spectacle 
when in the stillness of the night, 
in an unclouded sky, the stars, like 
the world's choir, rise and set, and, 
as it were, divide existence into two 
portions — the one, belonging to the 
earthly, is silent in the perfect still- 
ness of night; whilst the other alone 
comes forth in sublimity, pomp, and 
majesty. Viewed in this light, the 
starry Heavens truly exercise a 
moral influence over us; and who 
can readily stray into the paths of 
immorality if he has been ac- 
customed to live amidst such 
thoughts and teelings, and fre- 
quently to dwell upon them? How 
are we entranced by the simple 
splendors of this wonderful drama 
of nature! — Wilhelm von Humbolt. 

15 



SEATTLE, WASH. 



K. K. Tvete & Sons 

Established 1890 

MEN'S CLOTHING, SHOES, HATS, 
AND FURNISHING GOODS 

1300-1302 First Ave., cor. University 
SEATTLE, WASH. 



Westerman's 

UNION LABEL. 

Clothier, Furnisher &. Hatter 

Alaska Outfitter 

TWO BIG STORES 

Store No. 1 — Cor. Main and First 

Store No. 2 — Westlake and Pine 

SEATTLE 



Bonney-Watson Co. 

Funeral Directors 

Crematory and Columbarium 

1702 Broadway Seattle 



THE SLAVE 



I have broken my hands on your 
granite. 
I have broken my strength on 
your steel, 
1 have sweated through years for 
your pleasure, 
I have worked like a slave for 
your weal. 
And what is the wage you have 
paid me, 
You masters and drivers of men? 
Enough so I come in my hunger 

To beg for more labor again. 
I have given my gladness and youth; 
I have suffered the tortures of 
pain. 
You have used me and spent me 
and crushed me, 
And thrown me aside without 
ruth; 
You have shut my eyes off fromi 
the sunlight, 
My lungs from the untainted air;. 
You have housed, me in horrible 
places, 
Surrounded by squalor and care. 
I have built the world in its beauty, 
I have brought you the glory and 
spoil; 
You have blighted my sons and my 

daughters. 
You have scourged me again at my 

toil; 
Yet I suffer it all in my patience. 

For somehow I dimly have known 
That some day the Worker will 
conquer 
In a world that was meant for 
his own. — Berton Braley. 



Mother (to Joan and Joyce) : "I'm 
so glad you are sitting quietly and 
not disturbing daddy while he has 
a nap." 

Joan: "Yes, mummy dear; we're 
watching the cigarette burn down to 
his fingers." 



96 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1933 



Taylor's Nautical Academy 

FOR NAVIGATORS AND MARINE ENGINEERS 
Established 1888 

Consular Bldg., Corner Washington 
and Battery Sts., opp. New Custom 

House, San Francisco, Calif. 
THIS OL.D AND NOTEWORTHY 
SCHOOL is under the direct and per- 
sonal supervision of CAPT. HENRY 
TAYLOR, and equipped with all mod- 
ern appliances to illustrate and teach 
any branch of Navigation. 

The class of teachers of Navigation 
in the past have been those having 
simply a knowledge of Navigation and 
Navigation only. Conditions have 
changed, and the American seamen 
demand a man as a teacher with 
higher attainments than one who has 
only the limited ability of a seaman. 
The Principal of this School, keeping 
this always in view, studied several 
years the Maritime Law. and Is now, 
in addition to being a thorough teacher of Navigation and its kindred 
subjects, a regularly admitted Member of the Bar. 

There is no standard of education required of a pupil entering the 
School, for no matter how ignorant the seaman may be, even in the 
rudiments of common education, Captain Henry Taylor will teach and 
raise him from the depths of ignorance to the height of the average 
well informed man, and in a comparatively short interval of time. 




Phont GARFIELD 2076 

DR. EDMOND J. BARRETT 

DENTIST 

Rooms 2429-30, 450 Sutter Building 

Hours: 9 A. M. to 5 P. M. and 

by Appointment 



Seamen's Furnishing Goods 

OTTO PAHL 

Shoes, Oilskins, Seaboots and Underwear 
Suits cleaned and pressed while you wait 

140 EMBARCADERO 
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 



Union-made Work Clothes and Shoes 

Uniform Caps, Oilskins and 

Seaboots, Belfast Cord 

and Buckles 



SAM'S 



Shore and Offshore Outfitting Store 
Formerly with Geo. A. Price 

4 Clay Street, San Francisco 

Phone GArfield 6784 



INFORMATION WANTED 

A Filipino, by the name of Jose 
Momel or Xomel, or Monate of 
Iloilo, Philippine Islands, was an 
eye witness to the death of Robert 
J. Curry, who was killed in an acci- 
dent on the steampship Sagebrush 
on March 15, 1931. When last heard 
of this man was known at a board- 
ing house of Mr. Murphv at 711^2 
Weller Street, Seattle, Wash. He 
was thought to have gone to Alaska 
for salmon fishing. If anyone knows 
this Filipino's whereabouts, heshould 
communicate with either the widow 
or attorney, and request him to 
communicate at once. Mrs. Curry, 



Now in Our New Location 

"624 MARKET* 

Opposite Palace Hotel 




-BOSS- 

YOUR UNION TAILOR 



the widow, is a cripple, and was 
solely dependent upon her husband 
for support. Her address is 23 16 31s1 
Avenue, South, Seattle, Washington. 
Attorney Silas B. Axtell or Lucien 
V. Axtell. 80 Broad Street. New 
York City. 



INFORMATION WANTED 

Any seamen, but particularly 
Henry White, J. Gladstone, and 
P. W. Newman, who were on the 
steamship Algic in November, 1929, 
when Harry J. Bloom, A. B., was 
injured as a result of slipping on 
some oil, please communicate with 
Harry J. Bloom, at General De- 
livery, Soldiers' Home Branch, 
Johnson City, Tennessee, or his at- 
torney, Lucien V. Axtell, 30th Floor 
80 Broad Street, New York City. 



Bill: "Isn't it surprising how a 
simple word will cause trouble?" 

Jack: "How's that?" 

Bill: "Last night my wife was 
working out a crossword puzzle, and 
she asked me: 'What is a female 
sheep.' I replied 'Ewe.' Then the 
trouble commenced." 



A Great Store 

Built Upon 

Successful 

Service to 

Millions 




HALE BROS. 

INC. 

Market at Fifth 

SAN FRANCISCO 
SUTTER 8000 



THE 

James H. Barry Go, 

The Star Press 

Printing 



122-1124 MISSION STREET 
SAN FRANCISCO 



We print "The Seamen's Journal' 



KODAKS 

Exchanged ' Bought 
Sold 

Developing and Printing 

SAN FRANCISCO 
CAMERA EXCHANGE 

88 Third Street, at Mission 
SAN FRANCISCO CALIFORNIA 



16 




A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, FOR SEAMEN 



Our Aim : The Brotherhood of the Sea 



Our Motto : Justice by Organization 



VOL. XLVII, No. 7 



SAN FRANCISCO, JULY 1, 1933 



WHOLE No. 2034 



THE INDUSTRIAL RECOVERY ACT 




HERE is hope ahead. The National In- 
dustrial Recovery Act gives to seamen 
and, in fact, to all American workers, 
the right to organize. The responsibility 
rests on us to organize our industry fully 
so that we shall be able to bargain with ship- 
owners on an equal footing. Equipped with the 
legal right to organize, let us make ready to 
cooperate with industry under Presidential leader- 
ship. Seamen everywhere must be organized it 
we expect to be adequately represented in the 
decisions of industrial codes. 

Organization is our immediate and continuing 
responsibility. 

The American Federation of Labor is advising 
the workers of the nation of their rights under 
the Industrial Recovery Act. Along with this 
information, labor of all kinds and of all charac- 
ter, organized and unorganized, is being requested 
to cooperate with those clothed with authority to 
administer the Act. and to strive earnestly and 
sincerely to make the measure a complete success. 
The primary purposes of the Act, as sum- 
marized by the American Federation of Labor, 
are to provide jobs for the jobless, increase buy- 
ing power and to enable industries to carry out 
their functions. These things will be done by 
( 1 ) expenditures for public works and construc- 
tion undertakings that will stimulate industry 






both by orders for materials and by the purchases 
of workers to whom new jobs are given ; (2) lift- 
ing industries by higher wages to those employed 
with more jobs resulting from shortening the 
days per week or the work-day and the elimina- 
tion of sweat-shop price competition; (3) higher 
national income will result from raising the in- 
comes of those dependent on industry through 
the Industrial Recovery Act and those dependent 
on agriculture through the Farm Adjustment Act. 
The Administration has provided a coordi- 
nated plan covering the whole economic field with 
the various trades or industries working out plans 
to raise values and the consuming power of those 
attached to them. This Act provides that group 
representatives of industries shall get together 
under government leadership to adopt standards 
and rules for each industry. These agreements 
must be approved and enforced by the President. 
They fit into an economic structure which con- 
forms to a definite purpose. Power is delegated to 
make industry live up to agreements. The Presi- 
dent, who is responsible, may delegate his duties to 
an administrator. 

CODES OF FAIR COMPETITION 

To restore standards in industry so that com- 
petition may be upon a legitimate plane, trade or 
industrial associations or groups may submit 
codes of fair competition for the approval of the 



98 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July, 1933 



President. These codes are to be mutual agree- 
ments between organized industry and organ- 
ized employees — but the conditions of agreement 
shall not be monopolistic in design nor operate 
against consumers' interests. As condition of ap- 
proval the President may require reports and 
cost accounting. 

When codes have been approved, any violation 
of standards in any transaction in or affecting 
interstate or foreign commerce shall be deemed 
an unfair method of competition to which the 
Federal Trade Commission Act shall apply. The 
United States District Courts shall have author- 
ity to institute equity proceedings to prevent or 
restrain such violations. 

Where codes of fair competition are not volun- 
tarily developed by the industry and its em- 
ployees, the President may prescribe a limited 
code. 

Either upon complaint or upon his own initia- 
tive the President may have the Tariff Com- 
mission investigate foreign commodities or mate- 
rials which interfere with fair competition within 
the United States, for the purpose of excluding 
them if advisable. 

Enforcement. — Violation of codes of fair com- 
petition will be a misdemeanor carrying a fine 
of $500 for each offense — each day of violation 
constituting a separate offense. 

Licenses. — Whenever wage or price cutting 
threatens conditions of fair competition, the 
President may license the industry and suspend 
or revoke the license of any business enterprise 
that violates the conditions of the code. This 
licensing authority shall be for the first year of 
the operation of the Act. 

LEGAL PRINCIPLES 

Part I, dealing with industrial recovery, ex- 
tends the application of the principle "public 
interest" to all products or materials transported 
in interstate commerce or affecting interstate com- 
merce. This is recognition of the obvious fact 
that our business structure consists of many inter- 
dependent undertakings which are controlled as 
units but are affected by what happens in many 
other enterprises. The principle of public interest 
has been recognized as applying to railways and 
utilities, but we now recognize that what we have- 
long called private business is of greater concern 
to society because it affects the living of all more 
vitally. The Act is intended to give to voluntary 



groups effective machinery for planning and con- 
trolling the more general policies which affect 
and condition each integral unit. 

To provide for group effectiveness, the anti- 
trust laws are amended to permit trade associ- 
ations to function while still prohibiting domina- 
tion by a monopoly. The amendments are an 
extension of the fundamental purpose of anti- 
trust law, utilizing the Federal Trade Commission 
and legal machinery customary in protecting pub- 
lic welfare. While agreements may be made which 
will fix policies for whole industries, the Presi- 
dent is given adequate power to prevent these 
agreements from becoming conspiracies against 
general welfare by investigation, equity pro- 
cedure, fines, and licensing. 

The President is given power to fix and enforce 
minimum wages and maximum hours of work 
for the production of articles affecting interstate 
and foreign commerce so as to raise competition 
to a fair basis and to advance the interests of 
wage-earners as producers and consumers and 
to provide purchasing power necessary to sustain 
otir producing and service industries. 

LABOR PROCEDURE UNDER Till-: ACT 

Economic planning and control, as proposed 
under the Recovery Act, rely upon organized 
management and organized producers as the ma- 
chinery for the development and execution of 
o.<lr-> of fair competition. The administrator to 
win mi the President will delegate duties con- 
ferred by this Act will have a labor adviser and 
an industrial adviser. Labor and management 
will be asked to hearings that will determine the 
code of the industry concerned. Representative 
spokesmen for each group will probably be desig- 
nated. A government representative will serve as 
arbiter or mediator for organized industry and 
organized labor. 

< Obviously workers must be organized to ob- 
tain their rights under the Act. The law guar- 
antees workers the right to belong to unions 
through which to plan and control their wages, 
hours, and other conditions of employment — that 
is a voice in their own industries. It is a viola- 
tion of the Act for employers to organize em- 
ployees into company unions. 

A conference of international and national 
representatives met in Washington on June 6 
and 7. 1933, and adopted the following principles 
for guidance of unions as well as a series of con- 



July, 1933 



crete suggestions as to what should be covered 
in labor provisions of codes of fair competition : 

ADMINISTRATIVE PRINCIPLES 

1. The agencies through which the labor provisions 
of the codes of fair competition should be negotiated, 
put into operation and regulated are trade associations 
tor employers and national trade unions for employees. 

2. Where national trade unions and trade associa- 
tions are not immediately available to function nation- 
tionally by industries on behalf of the employees and 
the employers concerned, existing national trade 
unions and trade associations should be afforded every 
opportunity to bring suitable national organizations 
into being. 

3. In the case of partially organized industries and 
in the interim pending adequate organization of em- 
ployees and employers, existing national trade unions 
and national trade associations concerned shall be rec- 
ognized and accepted by the administrator as repre- 
sentative respectively of the employees and employers 
of those industries for the purpose of quickly estab- 
lishing the labor provisions of the codes of fair com- 
petition. 

4. The administrator in the event of undue delay 
shall fix a time and place by major industries or groups 
of industries for representatives of trade associations 
and representatives of the trade union or unions con- 
cerned to meet for the purpose of arriving at mutual 
agreement establishing the labor provisions of the 
codes of fair competition. 

5. To expedite and facilitate the process of estab- 
lishing the labor provisions of the codes of fair com- 
petition, joint labor code boards, equally representa- 
tive of labor and employers and under the supervision 
of the administrator shall be set up for this purpose 
by major industries or groups of industries. The 
members of these joint labor code boards shall consist 
of properly chosen representatives of the national 
trade unions concerned and representatives designated 
by the trade association concerned. 

6. In the event that any industry fails to set up a 
properly constituted labor code board as contemplated 
in Item 5 within a reasonable length of time, then the 
administrator shall, with the advice and counsel of a 
board of three individuals, one representative of the 
industry, one representative of labor, and one repre- 
sentative of the public, prescribe a limited code of fair 
competition. 

7. For the purpose of adjusting grievances and dis- 
putes, as between employers and employees, growing 
out of the labor provisions of the codes of fair compe- 
tion, national and regional joint industrial adjustment 
boards shall be set up. 

8. In those industries in which the administrator 
finds it necessary to set up a limited code, the adminis- 
trator shall provide Federal adjustors for the purpose 
of supervising the proper enforcement of the codes. 

9. Labor standards which have been established in 
any industry through genuine collective bargaining 
between employers or groups of employers and the 
national trade union or unions of such an industry shall 
be accepted by the joint labor code boards and the 
administrator, as a basis for determining the labor 
provisions of codes of fair competition. 

10. In furtherance of the purpose of the National 
Recovery Act to provide more jobs and increase buying 
power, hours of labor should be fixed so as to absorb 
the greatest possible number of workers, and wages 
should be fixed in the light of the fact that they con- 
stitute the major consuming power. 

As industry begins to operate near capacity the pro- 
gressive shortening of hours of labor is essential to 
absorb workers displaced by technological improve- 
ments. 

So far as practicable at present no employee should 
be permitted to work longer than thirty hours per 
week. 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



99 



All employees should receive an annual income 
ample to keep them and their families in health, effi- 
ciency, and to enable them to share the comforts pro- 
vided by technical and social progress. 

Consumption must balance with production to main- 
tain continuity and stability of employment. 

LABOR SECTIONS OF CODES 

Workers' Rights. — Section 7 (a) of the Industrial Re- 
covery Act shall be made an integral part of the labor 
provisions of every code of fair competition and every 
limited code. 

"Sec. 7 (a) — Every code of fair competition, agree- 
ment, and license approved, prescribed, or issued under 
this title shall contain the following conditions: 
(1) That employees shall have the right to organize 
and bargain collectively through representatives of 
their own choosing, and shall be free from the interfer- 
ence, restraint, or coercion of employers of labor, or 
their agents, in the designation of such representatives 
or in self-organization or in other concerted activities 
for the purpose of collective bargaining or other 
mutual aid or protection; (2) that no employee and 
no one seeking employment shall be required as a con- 
dition of employment to join any company union or to 
refrain from joining, organizing, or assisting a labor 
organization of his own choosing; and (3) that em- 
ployers shall comply with the maximum hours of 
labor, minimum rates of pay and other conditions 
of employment approved or prescribed by the Presi- 
dent." 

Classification. — Rules governing classification of 
work and employees: 

A, Hours. — 1. Rule covering maximum hours per 
day. 2. Rule covering number of days per week. 
3. Rule covering shifts in continuous industries — start- 
ing and stopping time. 4. Rule covering overtime. 

B, Wages. — 1. Minimum wage for unskilled labor. 
2. Prevailing or standard wage rates for all others ac- 
cording to trades, experience and locality. 3. Methods 
for adjusting piece rates, where this method is accept- 
able, and fixing machine limits. 4. Guaranteed mini- 
mum for all piece workers. 5. No less than time and 
one-half for overtime. 

C, Security. — 1. Methods for adjusting hours and 
work forces. 2. Payroll reserves should be set up to 
assure continuous income for workers on an annual 
basis. 3. Dismissal wage. 

D, Working Conditions. — Rules covering: 1. Safety 
and health provisions. 2. Night work for women and 
minors. 3. Prohibition of employment of minors un- 
der 16 years of age. 4. Vacancies, transfers, promo- 
tions. 5. Administration of discipline. 6. Fixing holi- 
days and vacations with pay. 7. Definite provision for 
local employee committees. 

E, Administration. — 1. Machinery for conferences be- 
tween labor and management. 2. Machinery for ad- 
justing dispute cases growing out of labor provisions 
of codes. 3. Right of review in case of discharge. 

F, Revision of Code. — Thirty-day notice clause for 
change of any provision of labor codes. 

OIL REGULATION AND CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS 

Agricultural problems and oil regulation are 
dealt with in Sections 8 and 9 of the Act. The 
second part of the Industrial Recovery Act creates 
a Federal Emergency Administration of Public 
Works. This agency shall prepare a public works 
program including construction and repair of 
highways and parks, public buildings, conserva- 
tion and development of natural resources, etc. 
Three billion three hundred million dollars is ap- 
propriated for this purpose. 



3 



100 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July, 1933 



NEWS AND COMMENT 

Concerning Seamen the World Over 



At the recent quarterly meeting of the Govern- 
ing Hody of the British Royal Seamen's Pension 
Fund, pensions were awarded to 142 seamen and 
sixty-nine fishermen. The total number of mas- 
ters, seamen and fishermen now in receipt of pen- 
sions from the Fund is 7,768. 

* * * 

The New Zealand Seamen's strike terminated 
on May 5, when the Union accepted the terms 
submitted as the result of negotiations between 
representatives of the shipowners ami the sea- 
men. The shipowners' original proposals of a re- 
duction of five per cent and certain alterations in 
the conditions of employment were withdrawn, 
and. in place of these, were submitted a reduction 
of two and one-half per cent in wages and no 
alterations in the conditions of employment. The 
seamen were also safeguarded by an agreement 
on the part of the owners that all the crews would 
be reengaged without any victimization. These 
terms were accepted by the Union. 

* * * 

The "good old days" for the stowaway are fin- 
ished. Jail and disastrously heavy fines await the 
man, and woman too, who steals a ride by stow- 
awaying aboard Pacific liners to Hawaii, accord- 
ing to an act just passed by the Hawaiian legis- 
lature. "... Any person convicted of said offense 
shall be punished by a fine of not more than one 
thousand dollars or by imprisonment for a term 
not exceeding one year or by both such fine and 
imprisonment." It is customary to transfer such 
stowaways at sea for return to point of departure, 
but the new Hawaiian law, enacted primarily to 
prevent the influx of undesirables to the Island 
Paradise, will prove a boon to American shipping 

interests as well. 

* ■■:■■ * 

About a year ago the Communist elements in 
the Danish Seamen's Union succeeded in getting 
the union to withdraw from the International 
Transport Workers' Federation and the Scandi- 
navian Transport Workers' Alliance, two interna- 
tional organizations to which all other seamen's and 
dockers' organizations in the northern countries 
belong. The union subsequently joined the Com- 
munist International Seamen's and Harbor Work- 



ers' Federation. Recently, however, a general bal- 
lot was taken of the members of the union on a 
proposal submitted by the executive to withdraw 
from the Communist International Federation and 
to rejoin the International Transport Workers' 
federation and the Scandinavian Transport Work- 
ers' Alliance. The result of the ballot was the 
adoption of the proposal by a two-thirds majority 
and the union has already withdrawn from the 
Communist International Seamen's and Harbor 
Workers' Federation. 

* * * 

< )ur esteemed contemporary. The Seamen of 
London, reports with the deepest regret the death 
of an old friend, Mr. Daniel Radcliffe, LL. I ).. 
J. P., of Cardiff, who passed away at Hath. .Mr. 
Radcliffe and his late brother Henry will live for- 
ever in the memories of the British seamen on 
account of their associations with the Limpsfield 
Home for aged .seamen. Mr. and Mrs. Henry 
Radcliffe, as is well known, gave to the British 
Seamen's Union the building and site at Limps- 
field, and Mr. Dan Radcliffe gave the Seamen's 
War Memorial Society one thousand guineas to 
assist in the upkeep of the Home. The editor of 
The Seaman extends to the late Mr. Radcliffe's 
relatives "deepest sympathy in the loss they and 
the British Mercantile Marine have sustained in 
the death of a celebrated friend and relative." 



When the steamers U'estralia. Zealamlia and 
Time arrived at Sydney recently the crews were 
ordered to hand in their notices in conformity 
with the resolution recently carried by the Sydney 
Branch of the Australian Seamen's Union that 
employed seamen should leave their ships for one 
month after six months' continuous service so 
as to give employment to jobless seamen. Accord- 
ing to Australian labor papers, only about a do/en 
men responded, and that the majority flatly de- 
clined to obey the rule. Shipowners intimated that 
they did not propose to cooperate with the Sea- 
men's Union in the enforcement of the rule, re- 
garding it as an attempt to interfere with the right 
of free selection granted by the award of the Fed- 
eral Arbitration Court. Subsequently, at a special 
meeting of the Union, it was decided to modify 
the rationing rule under which every member was 
compelled to lay off after six months' employ- 
ment. A resolution was adopted that members 
would have the right to remain on the ship until 



July, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



101 



the articles expired, even though they had been 
working continuously for six months. It was ex- 
plained that the object of the decision was to 
allow the men to claim certain privileges to which 
they were entitled under their agreement when 
they were paid off at the expiration of the articles. 

* * * 

The National Seamen's Union of India, which 
was formed by the amalgamation in 1931 of the 
Bombay Seamen's Union and the Indian Seamen's 
Union of Bombay, recently issued its first annual 
report, covering the period 1931-1932. At the date 
of amalgamation, the total membership was 28,301, 
of whom 6,072 belonged to the deck department, 
6,173 to engine-room staff, and 16,056 to the cater- 
ing department. On March 31, 1932, it had in- 
creased to 30,487 ; but the dues collected during the 
year only amounted to 35,900 rupees, equivalent to 
a paying membership of 9,335. Unemployment 
among Indian seamen has been acute, and it is 
estimated that as many as 800 ships, usually en- 
gaging Lascar crews, were laid up in European 
ports during 1932. Nevertheless, thanks to the ro- 
tation system introduced by the Union, in co- 
operation with the leading steamship companies, it 
has been possible to find employment for 267 petty 
officers and 4,761 other ratings on lines other than 
the P. & O. and Clan lines, with which the Union 
has no agreement. 

* * * 

The German barque Priwatt arrived at Barry 
on May 4, being the first of the sailing ships 
carrying this season's Australian grain to reach 
port. She left Port Victoria on January 18, and 
has thus taken 106 days for the voyage. For a 
sailing ship she is a relatively modern vessel, hav- 
ing been built at Hamburg just after the war. She 
is not one of the usual fleet of sailing ships en- 
gaged in the Australian grain trade. She is owned 
by Reederei F. Laeisz, Hamburg, and is of 3,185 
tons gross. Her cargo this voyage comprises 4,620 
tons of bagged wheat. She carries a complement 
of sixty-four, which is a double crew for train- 
ing purposes. In an interview on his arrival, Capt. 
R. Clauss, who had made his first voyage in 
charge of a sailing vessel, said that there were 
eight barks in Port Victoria when he left and two 
had sailed before him. He had not sighted the 
two vessels during his voyage. The voyage was 
uneventful except that he encountered ice in the 
South Pacific and when rounding Cape Horn in 
a heavy gale he lost four upper topsails and in 



the North Atlantic lost a lower topsail. His best 
day's sailing was 307 miles. 






The Italian National (Fascists) Associations 
of merchant marine officers and seamen held their 
respective annual Congresses recently. Ugo Barni, 
president of the National Fascist Confederation 
of Seamen and Airmen, presided. Questions of 
occupational importance were discussed, full re- 
ports having been submitted by the secretaries of 
the two organizations, Giorgio Ricci and Andrea 
Cilento. According to these reports, the employ- 
ment rotation scheme, based on agreements with 
the Shipowners' Confederation, which has been 
in force since February, 1931, has had a very 
satisfactory effect on unemployment figures, 
though its administration may no doubt be im- 
proved; measures with this object in view have 
been studied. Further, relief amounting to be- 
tween 50 and 100 lire a month has been given 
to unemployed seamen who have already drawn 
the maximum benefit allowed by the unemploy- 
ment insurance funds. Steps have also been taken 
to prevent an increase in the number of unem- 
ployed seamen by securing legislation to prevent 
applicants who are unable or do not seriously in- 
tend to adopt the occupation of seamen perma- 
nently, or who are above a certain age from being 
entered on the seamen's registers and on the 
books of the employment exchanges ; moreover, 
persons desiring to be so entered will have to 
specify the branch of the occupation in which 
they wish to engage. The question of the grad- 
ing and the regulation of the careers of petty 
officers by official action was then discussed ; it 
was decided that the former duty should be 
undertaken by the maritime authorities and that 
the remuneration of petty officers, like that of 
officers, should be fixed in accordance with the 
tonnage of the vessel on which they sail. Opinions 
were also expressed on the organization of sea- 
men on board sailing vessels, a branch of the 
occupation in which the Association took a par- 
ticular interest, on vocational training in general, 
and in particular on the establishment of a school 
for seamen in the merchant marine. On this last 
point a report drawn up by the secretary and 
resolutions passed by the Congress were trans- 
mitted to the government. 



Your union button is an emblem of freedom 
wear it in plain view. 



102 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July, 1933 



Seamen's Journal 

Established in 1887 
Published on the first day of each month at 525 
Market Street, San Francisco, by and under the di- 
rection of the International Seamen's Union of 
America. 

PAUL SCHARRENBERG, Editor 

© 

Entered at the San Francisco Postofflce as second- 
class matter. Acceptance for mailing- at special rate 
of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of Oc- 
tober 3, 1917, authorized September 7, 1918. 

Subscription price $1.00 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 



NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will be 
published, provided they are of general interest, 
brief, legible, written on one side only of the paper, 
and accompanied by the writer's own name and ad- 
dress. The JOURNAL is not responsible for the ex- 
pressions of correspondents, nor for the return of 
manuscripts. 



July 1, 1933 



LAUNCHING OF THE NEW DEAL 



Although the Seamen's legislative program 
did not score any advance at the special ses- 
sion of Congress, just adjourned, a mere sum- 
mary of the legislation passed at President Roose- 
velt's request would fill two full issues of the 
Journal. 

To begin with, there is the all important Indus- 
trial Recovery Act to which virtually all avail- 
able space of this issue is dedicated. Perhaps 
next in importance is the agricultural law with 
its sweeping possibilities and an inflation rider 
which permits the President to devalue the dol- 
lar, issue paper money and manipulate the price 
level in various other ways. 

Then there is the epoch making Muscle Shoals 
development of publicly owned hydro-electric 
power production together with industrial re- 
gional planning. 

The Federal set-up of civilian conservation 
camps has put 275,000 young men at work in na- 
tional forests and thus reduced unemployment by 
that number. 

The railroads have been placed under the juris- 
diction of a Federal Coordinator who can initiate 
economies which the roads could not carry through 
single handed. 

Five hundred million dollars has been set aside 
for relief of the unemployed through munici- 
palities, counties and states, many of which are 



practically bankrupt. Additional millions are made 
available to rescue mortgaged farms and indi- 
vidual homes. 

A new securities law has been passed to give 
the investor at least a much better chance to re- 
cover his principal than he ever had in the past. 
At the same time Congress, without coaxing by 
the President, passed the Glass-Steagall banking 
bill to give greater security to bank depositors. 

Finally, the President was authorized, in the 
general efTort to balance the budget, to reduce 
veterans' pensions by about three hundred mil- 
lion dollars. And, last but not least, the Federal 
payroll was cut approximately one hundred 
twenty-five millions. 

The foregoing is a very sketchy outline of 
Congressional performances. It is sufficient, how- 
ever, to show that the President has been given 
authority and responsibility never before con- 
ferred upon any man by the people of the United 
States. Whether or not the present emergency 
warrants such far-reaching grant of power will 
always remain a debatable question. At any rate. 
the American people seem to believe President 
Roosevelt is equal to the occasion. We share those 
views and wish him unbounded success ! His 
courage, his fearlessness, his willingness to ex- 
periment, to do and to dare, furnish a happy and 
striking contrast to the panicky attitude of so 
many men in public life — past and present. So, 
again, we say, our President fully deserves the 
support and the confidence of the American peo- 
ple in general and the working people in par- 
ticular. Anyone can drift with the tide — let us 
rally in support of the brave soul who refuses to 
drift but who strikes out boldly toward a better 
system, a brighter world for all! 



The Labor Advisory Board of the National In- 
dustrial Recovery Administration at its first meet- 
ing reached the definite conclusion that agree- 
ments in industry concerning maximum hours, 
minimum wages, and other work conditions 
should be determined by collective bargaining and 
that organized labor should be consulted before 
industry presents proposed agreements to the 
Recovery Administration. The evident intention 
of certain employers' associations to draw up the 
fair competition codes prescribed by the National 
Industrial Recovery Law made it necessary for 
the Labor Advisory Board to take prompt action. 



July, 1933 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 103 

SENATOR WAGNER'S VICTORY "MERELY AN OVERSIGHT" 



Times certainly have changed. Three years ago 
President Hoover vetoed and denounced as vicious 
and subversive Senator Wagner's bill providing 
for a nation-wide system of free employment of- 
fices. And he did so to a chorus of praise from 
the National Association of Manufacturers and 
other such organizations. 

The other day President Roosevelt signed pre- 
cisely the same bill, and there was not a peep out 
of anybody. Indeed, the news of the signing 
hardly made the front pages. It was merely rou- 
tine stuff. 

Nevertheless, the occasion marked the end of a 
long and heroic fight on the part of Senator Wag- 
ner, who is entitled to great credit for his per- 
sistence and vision, and the measure itself is of 
no small importance. 

It carries an appropriation of $4,000,000 a year, 
of which $3,000,000 will be used to maintain em- 
ployment offices in such states as are willing to 
match the Federal contribution. 

The offices themselves will be operated by the 
states under Federal supervision. They will save 
the unemployed from being mulcted by private 
employment agencies. They will help the employer 
by sifting and classifying labor. And they will 
provide for the first time in our history an effec- 
tive means of clearing workers and jobs across 
state lines. 

In the great task of reconstruction through re- 
employment these agencies are bound to play an 
important part. The only sad feature of the pic- 
ture is the fact that there is no respectable reason 
why they should not have been playing this part 
for the past three years. 

To the everlasting credit of Senator Wagner, 
who came to America in his childhood, it must 
be recorded that he not only stuck to his guns in 
fighting for this particular bill, but also for sev- 
eral other of the most important measures passed 
by the recent Congress. 



It used to be "join the navy and see the world." 
Now it looks as if the most popular slogan would 
be "join the army and get five-cent beer." At any 
rate, soldiers at the Presidio in San Francisco 
now may purchase eight ounces of the amber 
fluid for a nickel at the new post taproom, and 
the rush is said to be terrific. 



Testifying at the trial of Charles E. Mitchell, 
former head of the National City Bank in New 
York, one Edward Barrett, a vice-president of 
that institution, told the court that $3,000,000 had 
been dropped out of the record of stock trans- 
actions because of a clerical error. 

A certain block of National City stock appeared 
on the record as having been sold by Mitchell to 
his wife for $879,600. Actually, it brought $3,- 
879,600. "It was an oversight on the part of my 
secretary," testified Barrett. 

Well, in the palmy days of the New Economic 
Era a mere $3,000,000 was nothing between 
friends on the inside. But for all that the omis- 
sion in this case does seem like considerable of 
an oversight. Perhaps it would be too harsh treat- 
ment if the secretary were fired. But he or she 
might at least have been reprimanded. 



A COMMENDABLE RESOLUTION 



At a meeting of the Central Council of the 
Wellington (New Zealand) Unemployed Ex- 
Servicemen's League held during the recent Sea- 
men's strike, the following resolution was carried 
unanimously, which arose out of discussion re a 
press report to the effect that several unem- 
ployed ex-servicemen had shipped in the Maun- 
ganui : 

Resolved, That the League support the seamen in 
the action they have taken and instruct all members 
of the League not to accept work on ships and that 
this resolution be sent to the Seamen's Union. 

This commendable action on the part of New 

Zealand ex-servicemen is in striking contrast to 

the usual attitude of American ex-servicemen — 

who seem to think that their correct behavior in 

industrial disputes is neutrality! 



When the drys lost Iowa at the special election 
on June 20, they took a long step toward the final 
interment of prohibition. For Iowa is predomi- 
nantly a rural state. In 1919, her legislature ap- 
proved the eighteenth amendment by a vote of 
forty-two to seven in the state senate and eighty- 
six to thirteen in the house. And it had state 
prohibition before national prohibition became ef- 
fective. With Indiana and Iowa in the wet col- 
umn, the hunt for the "thirteen" dry states to save 
the "noble experiment" becomes ever more hope- 
less. 



104 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July, 1933 



THE VALUE ( >!• CONTACT 



OCEANOGRAPHY 



In addressing the graduating class of the United 

States Naval Academy at Annapolis the other day 
President Roosevelt cautioned the new naval offi- 
cers against setting themselves np as an exclusive 
clan. To quote : 

When you make a close examination of any pro- 
fession you will find very tew successful men, or for 
that matter women, who do not take into considera- 
tion the effect of their individual efforts en humanity 
as a whole. 

That is a good saying, not only for future offi- 
cers of the navy, but for everyone. 

Snobbishness of any kind generally is fatal to 
genuine achievement. The men and women who 
have done most in this world have not disdained 
contact with any class of their fellows. They have 
been able to "walk with kings and keep the com- 
mon touch." They have known that no matter 
how wise one may he he always can learn some- 
thing from the humblest. 

Socrates delighted in arguing with the slaves 
and porters of Athens. And Socrates is supposed 
to have remarked that the beginning of wisdom is 
the knowledge that one knows nothing. All of 
which is simply the Christian doctrine of humility 
put in different terms. 

President Roosevelt has earned the right to talk 
as he did at Annapolis, for there is no record of 
his ever having refused to learn from others, or 
give courteous attention to anyone who had some- 
thing to say. 



Employers who are setting tip "company unions" 
or other fake devices in an attempt to evade pro- 
visions of the National Industrial Recovery Act 
are in a class with men who, when war was de- 
clared in 1917, rushed to get married in the hope 
that they could thus escape serving the nation as 
soldiers. Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins told 
newspapermen at a press conference. "Uncle 
Sam," she said, "didn't exempt these sudden 
bridegrooms from military duty then, and I don't 
believe he will regard these 'company unions' and 
other schemes as being truly representative of the 
workers." 



God help our free institutions when the chan- 
nels of public information are suppressed, con- 
trolled, or directed in such a way as to exploit 
for selfish ends the making, administration, or 
judicial interpretation of laws. — Senator Walsh. 



I 'radical application of scientific discoveries to 
the commercial and economic problems of the civ- 
ilized nations was discussed before the Fifth 
Pacific Science Congress in session at Victoria, 
B. C, recently. 

How oceanography, almost unknown to the lay- 
man, has been making tremendous strides of late 
years was outlined to the congress by Dr. T. 
Way land Yaughan. director of the Scripps Insti- 
tution of Oceanography, of La J<»lla. Calif., in a 
paper which urged further international coopera- 
tion in this work. 

Mr. Vaughan declared that prior to 1923 very 
little was known about sub-surface conditions of 
the Pacific. He showed photographs of the equip- 
ment by means of which temperatures and samples 
of water, sand and organisms are collected. 

He presented results of recent oceanographic 
research carried out in the Pacific, showing that 
for the first 100 feet down from the surface there 
was very little difference in temperature. For the 
next 1300 feet there was a rapid fall in tempera- 
ture and below that was nearly constant for 4000 
feet. Tribute was paid to the work the Japanese 
and Russians in attacking the problem of gettin 
at the origin of currents and circulation of some 
of the deeper water of the Pacific. 

"As a result of the work that has been done, 
there is no area in the North Pacific for which 
we have not soundings except a stretch of fifty 
miles." Dr. Vanghan said. Everybody seems to be 
doing what he can to fill out this area, he continued, 
adding: "Endeavors should be made to get each 
country to undertake a certain work in this ocean- 
ography. Results can only be got by coordina- 
tion of efforts. I am in hopes we may be able to 
do a little to stimulate activity as a result of this 
conference." 

Dr. Vaughan urged that oceanographic work- 
should be brought into closer relations with that 
<if fisheries, lie also proposed that it should be 
discussed whether the time had come now for 
the nations to get together in issuing a new ocean- 
ographic map. 

Courage is a virtue that the young can not 
spare; to lose it is to grow old before the time; 
it is better to make a thousand mistakes and suf- 
fer a thousand reverses than to run away from 
battle. — Henry Van Dyke. 






July, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



105 



DEFAMATION AND LIBEL 



Tn the magistrate's court at Wellington, New 
Zealand, judgment was rendered recently against 
Charles Barker, proprietor of the Communist 
paper. Red Worker, and Fintan Patrick Walsh 
was awarded £50 damages for defamation and 
libel contained in an article in the Red Worker. 

Walsh, general president of the Federated Sea- 
men's Union, had claimed £300 damages in an 
action based on an article in the Red Worker 
headed "Freezing Workers' Strike," with sub- 
headings, "Walsh Aids Bosses" and '"The Black 
. Prince Appears." 

In his judgment the magistrate dealt exhaus- 
tively with the facts and various aspects of the 
law involved in the action, and concluded : "The 
plaintiff is president of a large and important 
union of workers recognized by law. His presi- 
dency is his trade or calling. His status and re- 
sponsibility in that office is much greater than that 
of a rank and file member of his union whose 
principal work is his trade and whose union mem- 
bership is only collateral with his business occu- 
pation. 

"Here the plaintiff was not a member of the 
striking union nor was his union a party to the 
strike. The plaintiff's union, also the Waterside 
Workers' Union and the Freezing Workers' 
Union, are, I understand, affiliated with the Al- 
liance of Labor, but the Alliance did not take 
over the conduct of the strike. That was left to 
the Freezing Workers' Union. Each member of 
an affiliation of the Alliance was free to express 
his views as to how his affiliation should act. 

"Members of the striking union would, with- 
out doubt, and many other unionists probably 
would, resent the plaintiff's alleged conduct as dis- 
loyal to the strikers and to the cause of the labor 
movement generally. On the other hand some 
people in the community might consider it praise- 
worthy as an attempt, from a person of weight, 
to prevent the holding up of a national industry. 
But the view which must determine the matter is 
not the extremist one on either side, but that of 
the average citizen. How, then, would he regard 
the statements? 

"The assertion is that the plaintiff, a highly 
placed trade union official, whose means of living 
is the remuneration he receives from his posi- 
tion, instead of doing his best to further a sister 



union's interests, or remaining neutral, ran counter 
to them and was a strike-breaker and aided the 
employers. It means that his alleged action was 
contrary to his duty to a very large section of 
the community and that he had aided the em- 
ployers instead of the workers. It implies that he 
has been disloyal to the people, from whom he has 
his living. That, I think, is what an average mem- 
ber of the whole community would infer in read- 
ing the paper. To so write of a man in the plain- 
tiff's position, is, in my judgment, defamatory of 
him and a libel." 



DESTITUTE SEAMEN 



The eighty-eighth annual report of the Sea- 
men's Church Institute of New York reveals 
widespread distress among seamen resulting from 
wholesale unemployment. During the past year 
the institute served 941,557 meals as compared 
with 335,400 in 1929. 

"We have tried to meet the distressing situa- 
tion," Rev. Archibald R. Mansfield, superinten- 
dent of the institution, said, "by providing 400 re- 
lief lodgings daily at the reduced rate of 20 cents 
and two meals a day at the reduced rate of 10 
cents each. For many months we have been fur- 
nishing from 1,200 to 1,500 such meals a day at 
less than cost to seamen who can still afford to 
pay a little. The result of this is that the insti- 
tute had an operating deficit for 1932 of $69,176. 

"For wholly destitute seamen we have been pro- 
viding free board and lodging. During 1932, 81,- 
375 free lodgings and 163,750 free meals were 
so furnished. For the first time in their lives 
large numbers of self-respecting men have been 
compelled to accept the charky thus tendered 
them." 

The report pointed out that the institute's free 
employment bureau was able to procure only 1,455 
positions afloat or ashore, for seamen, as com- 
pared with 8,637 in 1929. 



FUMIGATION NECESSARY 



The crews of the various vessels which were 
temporarily manned by "free" labor during the 
recent New Zealand Seamen's strike demanded 
that such ships should be fumigated before they 
were remanned by their original crews. This was 
agreed to by the shipowners, and the ritual was 
duly performed. 



106 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July, 1933 



"NEW DEAL" EXECUTIVES 



The ranks of labor, business men and econ- 
omists were drawn upon in filling executive and 
advisory positions in the organization which will 
help Gen. Hugh S. Johnson in his administration 
of the National Industrial Recovery Act. 

The machinery of administration so far de- 
veloped consists of a Labor Advisory Board, ap- 
pointed by Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins, 
an Industrial Advisory Board, appointed by Sec- 
retary of Commerce Roper, and key positions in 
his administration filled by General Johnson him- 
self. 

MEMBERS OF LABOR ADVISORY BOARD 

William Green, president of the American Fed- 
eration of Labor. 

John L. Lewis, president of the United Mine 
Workers of America. 

Joseph Franklin, president, International Boiler- 
makers' Union. 

John P. Frey, secretary-treasurer, Metal Trades 
Department, American Federation of Labor. 

George L. Berry, president of the International 
Printing Pressmen's and Assistants' Union. 

Dr. Leo Wolman, economist, of Columbia Uni- 
versity. 

Sidney Hillman, president, Amalgamated Cloth- 
ing Workers. 

Father Francis Haas, Catholic Welfare Coun- 
cil. 

Rose Schneiderman, secretary, Women's Trade 
1 Jnion League. 

MEMBERS OF INDUSTRIAL BOARD 

Austin Finch of Thomasville, N. C, president, 
Thomasville Chair Company and chairman of a 
committee of the Southern Manufacturers' Asso- 
ciation, appointed in connection with National In- 
dustrial Recovery Act. 

Edward N. Hurley of Chicago, chairman of 
the board, Hurley Machine Company. 

Louis Kirstein, vice-president, William Filene's 
Sons Company, Boston. 

Alfred P. Sloan, Jr., of New York, president, 
General Motors Corporation. 

Walter C. Teagle of New York, chairman of 
the board, Standard Oil Company of New Jersey. 

Gerard Swope of New York, president, Gen- 
eral Electric Company. 

William J. Vereen of Moutrie, Ga., cotton 
manufacturer and former president of the Amer- 
ican Cotton Manufacturers' Association. 



A third board, to be known as the consumers' 
advisory board, to represent the public, will be 
appointed later. 

Other important appointments are as follows: 

Assistant for Labor — Edward F. McGrady of 
Washington, legislative representative for many 
years of the American Federation of Labor. 

( hief of Legal Division — Donald R. Richberg 
of Chicago, attorney for railroad brotherhoods 
and recognized authority in public utility rate 
litigation. 

Chief of Research and Planning Division — 
Dr. Alexander Sachs, economist and a director 
of the Lehman Corporation of New York. 

Assistant for Industry — Dudley Gates of Chi- 
cago, vice-president of Marsh & McLennan, in- 
surance. Mr. Gates, who attended the University 
of California, was engaged in banking in San 
Francisco until 1917. During the war he was 
secretary of the Capital Issues Committee in 
Washington. 

General Johnson also appointed a number of 
deputy administrators who, he explained, will as- 
sist him in conducting hearings in which all units 
of an industry — employers and employees — will 
be heard on any proposed code. 



NOVA SCOTIA'S SEAMEN'S UNION 



The Halifax (X. S. ) Daily Star of June 15 
contains the following interesting news: 

History was made in Halifax labor circles last night, 
when for the first time in more than sixty years of 
trade-union activity in this city, a group of colored 
workers sat in the councils of organized labor. The 
Nova Scotia Seamen's Union became an affiliated 
member of the Trades and Labor Council, meeting 
at the Labor Temple, and the seating of the delegates 
was received with great applause by the assembled 
delegates. 

The Union, organized in the campaign to secure 
jobs for Canadians on Canadian boats, and which has 
met with a large measure of success, is a branch of 
the International Seamen's Union of America and has 
jurisdiction over the entire Atlantic coast of Canada. 
The charter of the union, suitably framed, has been 
hung in the Labor Temple. 

The delegates from the Union to the Trades Council 
are: Walter Johnson, president; Joseph Johnson, first 
vice-president: Frederick Brindley, second vice-presi- 
dent; S. C. Cornell, secretary-treasurer; and A. Carter. 
Making their maiden speeches as members of the 
Council, all new delegates spoke strongly in favor of 
Canadian jobs for Canadians and endorsed the efforts 
being made to have two Canadian National Prince 
liners placed in the tourist trade on the Boston, Hali- 
fax, Charlottetown route. Various members of the 
Council spoke of the good work of the colored sea- 
men, since their organization last winter. The con- 
sensus of opinion was that the union is one of the 
most aggressive in Halifax, and a valuable asset to the 
trade-union movement. 



Ki 



Julv, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



107 



SHIPPING NEWS 



The Bremer Vulkan Schiffbau und Maschinen- 
fabrik, Vegesack, have received an order from 
the Afrikanische Frucht Kompagnie (Messrs. F. 
Laeisz, managers), Hamburg, for a banana car- 
rying motorship for service in the West African 
trade. The vessel is similar in all respects, apart 
from her propelling machinery, to the Panther and 
Puma, two steamers built for the same owners 
three years ago. 

According to the monthly return of the Nor- 
wegian Shipowners' Association, there were 309 
Norwegian vessels of 1,263,615 tons dead weight 
laid up on May 1, compared with 287 of 1,226,170 
tons on April 1. These totals are exclusive of 
whaling vessels and vessels undergoing repairs. 
The most recent total included thirty-seven tank- 
ers of 349.370 tons, compared with thirty-eight 
of 353,285 tons on April 1. 

The United States Bureau of Fisheries attempts 
to stock the Potomac River with the splendid 
Chinook salmon. Some 2000 fry from the Co- 
lumbia on the Pacific Coast are planted in Deep 
Creek Lake, Maryland, a feeder of the upper 
Potomac. The hope is that the developed fish, 
finding their way out to sea, will follow the par- 
ent stream habit and return after four years to 
spawn in the lake. 

The seventy-third annual report of the manage- 
ment committee of the training ship Conway states 
that 6,259 cadets have passed through the ship 
since its establishment in 1859. The average num- 
ber on the roll during 1932 was 137, of whom 
seventy-two completed their training. In spite of 
the depression in shipping, no difficulty was ex- 
perienced in placing them with leading steamship 
companies. 

The China Merchants Steamship Company has 
been granted a loan of 360,000 pounds sterling 
from the British Boxer Indemnity Funds for the 
development of this shipping enterprise. The 
board of trustees of the British Boxer Indemnity 
Fund also approved a loan of £4,500,000 for 
completion of the Chuchow-Shaokwan section of 
the Canton-Hankow Railway. On both projects 
it is expected that all important material must 
be British manufactured, if capable of being sup- 
plied by British firms. 



According to returns issued by the National 
Council of American Shipbuilders, thirteen pri- 
vately owned vessels of 122,017 tons gross and 
one government vessel of 10,000 tons displace- 
ment were launched from United States yards in 
1932. At the close of the year, only four mer- 
chant ships of 55,652 tons and seven government 
units of 47,900 tons were under construction, and 
no contracts were awarded during the whole 
twelve months. Less than 10,000 men were em- 
ployed in the shipbuilding industry at the end of 
the year, and the outlook for new work, either 
merchant or naval, was very poor. 

The Helsingors Jernskibs-og Maskinbyggeri 
have completed the third motor ferry ordered 
from them by the Danish State Railways. The 
Korsor and Nyborg have been in service on the 
Great Belt system for some time past, and the 
Sjaelland, the last of the trio, has recently run 
trials. These ferries are the largest of their kind 
in the world, their dimensions being approxi- 
mately 340 feet length by 57 feet four inches 
moulded breadth, and they are fitted with three 
tracks giving a total rail length of about 820 feet. 
All three vessels are propelled by Burmeister and 
Wain Diesel engines. 

The Lurline' s South Sea and Oriental cruise is 
to be repeated, according to executives of the 
Matson Line. "Departing from San Francisco on 
January 23, 1934, the route of the next cruise 
will closely approximate that of the 1933 itinerary, 
with outstanding calls to be those of Bali and 
other entrancing ports of 'The Isles of the East,' " 
it was said. The 1934 cruise will be the sixth 
under the management of the Matson Line to 
explore the famous and the little known ports of 
the Pacific. Three times the Malolo has been the 
cruise ship; once the new Mariposa held that 
honor ; once the Lurline, on her maiden voyage 
Coronation Tour ; and now the Lurline again. 

The half-yearly general meeting of Nippon 
Yusen Kaisha was held at Tokyo recently, with 
Mr. K. Kagami (president) in the chair, when 
it was announced that no dividend would be de- 
clared for the previous half-year. The president 
stated that the net profit amounted to 1,129,000 
yen, after providing for reserve fund and de- 
preciation of property to the extent of 5,890,000 
yen. The addition of the balance brought forward 
from last half-year brought the total to 1,679,000 
yen, which would be carried forward to next ac- 
count. He announced the building of six new 



108 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July, 1933 



cargo motor vessels and the scrapping of old 
steamers under the Improvements Law. 

The Soviet government's cargo and passenger 
steamer Lena has been delivered from Copen- 
hagen yard of Messrs. Burmeister and Wain. In- 
tended for service between Vladivostock, Lena 
and Kolyma, this vessel is specially constructed 
for navigation in ice. She is approximately 306 
feet in length, 55-foot beam and 25- foot moulded 
depth, and has a carrying capacity of 4,500 tons 
deadweight. The entire crew is accomodated amid- 
ships, together with cabins for twenty-six pas- 
sengers and a large dining saloon. In the 'tween 
deck aft is a saloon for about fifty passengers, 
effectively insulated against the cold. As the ship 
will only be able to operate in the Arctic during 
the summer months, she will spend the rest of the 
year in the North Pacific. 

The accounts of the Swedish America Mexico 
Line for the year ended December 31, 1932, 
show that freight earnings amounted to 2,600,- 
000 kr., compared with 2,100.000 kr. in 1931. The 
gross profit was 1.000.000 kr.. and after allowing 
for all charges there was a net profit of 640,000 
kr. A dividend of three per cent is being paid, 
and after allocating 200,000 kr. for extraordinary 
depreciation, the balance is carried forward. The 
fleet of the company now consists of nine motor- 
ships of 52,935 tons dead weight, and two steam- 
ers of 15,014 tons dead weight, which are valued 
in the books at 24.750,000 kr. When the depre- 
ciation reserve fund is taken into account, how- 
ever, the value is reduced to 12.950,000 kr., which 
works out at 191 kr. per ton dead weight. 

Considering the decline in world trade, the Van- 
couver B. C.) Harbor Commissioners have rea- 
son to be satisfied with the report they have 
issued respecting their operations during 1932. 
The entrances of deep sea shipping increased from 
1,036 to 1,123, the net tonnage of 4,501,754 being 
almost half a million tons more than in the previ- 
ous year. Unfortunately, the imports from over- 
seas dropped from 1,364,727 tons to 1,272.172, 
but this decline was more than compensated for 
by a rise in the volume of exports from 2,932.203 
to 3,793,105 tons. This was principally due to the 
increased shipments of grain, which amounted to 
105,007,000 bushels, against 70,841.500 bushels in 
1931. Of this quantity more than half, or 57,- 
000,000 bushels, was consigned to the United 
Kingdom. 



LABOR NEWS 



The California State Federation of Labor is 
broadcasting over KQW Station every Tuesday 
at 7:15 p. m. These radio talks deal with current 
topics of the world of labor and are of special 
interest to all working men and women. 

The largest increase in factory employment and 
in payrolls recorded in New York state since the 
depression began was registered between the 
middle of April and the middle of May, accord 
ing to the State Labor Department. Despite th< 
fact that the normal course during this period i. 
downward, jobs are reported to have gained 3.1 
per cent and earnings went up 5.8 per cent. T 
upward trend was reported to be widespread, nin 
major industry groups having been benefited. 

It was recently announced in Japan that the 
government of Brazil has given permission to the 
International Development Company (Kaigai 
Kogyo Kaisha) to send 25.000 Japanese immi- 
grants to Brazil during 1933. It may be recalled 
that this Japanese company has a monopoly on 
recruiting Japanese emigrants for overseas coun- 
tries. It is stated that in order to meet the costi 
of transportation and other expenses of persons 
emigrating to Brazil during 1933 the Japanese 
government is prepared to grant a subsidy amount- 
ing to over six million yen. 

Federal Judge Ferris has approved an applies] 
tion by the management of the Missouri Pacific 
Railroad to continue paying approximately $63,000 
a month in pensions to retired employees. The 
railroad is in bankruptcy under the amended fed- 
eral bankruptcy law. The management told the 
judge that the pension system was inaugurated in 
1917, and that even a temporary discontinuance 
would affect present employees. Employees receiv- 
ing pensions must be 70 years old and have had 
twenty-five continuous years' service with the rail- 
road. 

Work is to be commenced at once in govern- 
ment navy yards on a new shipbuilding program, 
amounting to $238,000,000 and calling for con- 
struction of thirty-two cruisers, destroyers, air- 
craft carriers, submarines, and gunboats within 
the next three years, Secretary of the Navy Claude 
A. Swanson announced. The program is part of 
the public works provided for in the just-enacted 



12 



July, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



109 



National Industrial Recovery Act. "We will build 
to the fullest capacity of shipyard facilities," Sec- 
retary Swanson said. ''We want to put people to 
work at shipbuilding as quickly as possible as 85 
per cent of the cost of a ship goes to labor." 

An unemployment insurance plan for the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, which would be a model for 
the states to follow, has been proposed in the 
Senate by Senator Robert F. Wagner (Demo- 
crat, New York). The benefits would be limited 
to workers earning less than $2,000 a year, who 
had worked at least thirteen weeks in the preced- 
ing year. They would get not exceeding $15 a 
week for not more than sixteen weeks in any 
year. Payments would begin three weeks after 
the lay-off. Employers would be taxed three per 
cent of their payrolls to meet the cost of the 
system. The Secretary of Labor would administer 
the law. 

The General Federation of Japanese Labor used 
to require that all male members over twenty years 
of age should subscribe to the principle of the 
social democratic party and its constitution stressed 
class war. At its recent convention it changed its 
constitution to leave out all reference to party and 
to class warfare and put emphasis on "sound 
trade unionism." The federation pledged itself 
to autonomous organization and self-imposed dis- 
cipline of the workers and emancipation of the 
working class through trade unionism. It de- 
manded among other things public unemployment 
insurance, adoption of an unemployment relief act 
to provide for the unemployed until unemploy- 
ment insurance could come into effective opera- 
tion, establishment of a legal eight-hour day, and 
revision of the workmen's compensation act. 

The governor of Arkansas has served notice on 
the penal board of that state that the prisons must 
be made self-supporting. Surplus labor will be 
farmed out to private employers at not less than 
$1.50 a convict per day. Several provisions in- 
tended for safeguards are thrown around the plan. 
The prison authorities are at all times responsible 
and in control, and they may not make long term 
leases. But the result, without reasonable doubt, 
will be the same old story of brutality and suffer- 
ing that has marked the history of leasing convict 
labor since the scheme was first tried. There have 
been no exceptions, and none need be looked for 
now. When men already under the ban of society 
as criminals are farmed out to profiteers, a super- 



vising force of archangels could scarcely prevent 
abuses. 

Adolf Hitler, German chancellor and leader of 
the Fascist dictatorship, announced the determina- 
tion of his government to introduce compulsory 
labor service this year for every able-bodied Ger- 
man youth. The labor program, he said, was 
designed for the triple purpose of reducing un- 
employment, attempting to end the social stigma 
involved in manual labor, and weakening the 
effect of that portion of the Communist propa- 
ganda which is based on class differences. The 
Nazi chieftain said the old prejudice against the 
soldier had been destroyed by the introduction of 
universal compulsory military training. He be- 
lieved the middle-class prejudice against hand- 
workers could be destroyed by employing the 
compulsory principle in industry. "It is therefore 
our irrevocable determination," he said, "that 
every single German, no matter who he is, whether 
born rich or poor, whether the son of a savant 
or the son of a factory worker, shall at least once 
in his life do manual labor, in order that he can 
command more easily once he has himself learned 
to obey." 

The members of the Dutch Association of Com- 
mercial Air Pilots, which includes all the pilots, 
except two, in the service of the Dutch Royal Air 
Transport Company, unanimously decided to hand 
in their notices with effect from July 1. To under- 
stand this surprising step it is necessary to know 
the situation in the company, which apparently 
attaches no importance to a satisfactory coopera- 
tion with its pilots, one of the principal factors in 
the operation of air services. The pilots realize that 
a reduction in wages is inevitable. What they ob- 
ject to are methods of management, so high- 
handed that no pilot knows what the next day 
has in store. Technical progress, permitting as it 
does of flights in all weathers and at night, makes 
such calls on the physical and mental powers that 
an attack on these men's security of existence, on 
top of the strain of their work, is serious from 
the point of view of safety. Particularly on the 
flights to the Indies the strain on the pilots is 
heavy. Formerly these flights were accomplished 
in stages of 1,200 kilometers, they have now been 
increased to 1,800 and even 2,500 kilometers, so 
that it is not rare for pilots to remain in the air 
without landing for twelve to fifteen hours at a 
stretch. 



13 



110 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July, 1933 



International Seamens' Union of America 

Affiliated with the American Federation of Labor 
and the International Seafarers' Federation 

EXECUTIVE BOARD 
President: ANDREW FURUSETH, 59 Clay St.. 
San Francisco, Calif. Vice-Presidents: PATRICK 
FLYNN, 58 Commercial St., San Francisco, Calif.; 
P. B. GILL, 84 Seneca St., Seattle, Wash.: PERCY 
J. PRYOR, 1% Lewis St.. Boston, Mass.; OSCAR 
CARLSON, 70 South St.. New York, N. Y. ; PAT- 
RICK O'BRIEN, 71 Main St., Buffalo, N. Y r . ; PETER 
ES. OLSEN, 49 Clay St., San Francisco, Calif; IVAN 
HUNTER, 1038 Third St., Detroit, Mich. Editor: 
PAUL SCHARRENBERG, 525 Market St., San 
Francisco, Calif. Secretary-Treasurer: VICTOR A. 
OLANDER, 666 Lake Shore I 'rive, Chicago, 111. 



DISTRICT UNIONS AND BRANCHES 
ATLANTIC DISTRICT 

EASTERN AND GULF SAILORS' ASSOCIATION 
Headquarters 

BOSTON, Mass PERCY J. PRYOR, Secretary 

1% Lewis Street. Phone Capitol 5178 
Branches 

NEW YORK, N. T ADOLF KILE, Agent 

70 South Street. Phone John 4-1637 

BALTIMORE, Md JOHN BLEY, Agent 

723 S. Broadway. Phone Wolfe 5630 

NORFOLK, Va FRED SOREXSEN, Agent 

54 Commercial Place. Phone 2386S Norfolk 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, AND WATERTEN DERS' 

UNION OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters 

NEW YORK, N. Y OSCAR CARLSON, Secretary 

70 South Street, Telephone John 0975 
Branches 

BOSTON, Mass JOHN FITZGERALD, Agent 

6 Long Wharf 

BALTIMORE, Md JOHN BLEY', Agent 

723 S. Broadway. Phone Wolfe 5630 

NORFOLK, Va FRED SORENSEN, Acting Agent 

54 Commercial Place. 23868 Norfolk. 



MARINE COOKS AND STEWARDS' UNION OF THE 

ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters 

NEW YORK, N. Y D. E. GRANGE, Secretarj 

61 Whitehall Street. Phone Bowling Green 1297 

Branches 

NEW YORK (West Side Branch)— JAMES ALLEN, Agent 

61 Whitehall St. Phone Bowling Green 1297 

BOSTON, Mass JOHN MARTIN, Agent 

288 State Street 

BALTIMORE, Md mux BLEY. Agent 

723 S. Bn.adwav. Phone Wolfe 5630 



NOVA SCOTIA SEAMEN'S UNION 

HALIFAX. X. S SAMUEL C. CONNELL, Sec'y-Treas. 

66 Xorth Street 



FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE ATLANTIC 

BOSTON, Mass PERCY J. PRYOR, Secretary 

J. M. NICKERSOX, Agent 
\y 2 Lewis Street. Phone Richmond 0S27 

HARBOR BOATMEN'S UNION OF CAMDEN, 
PHILADELPHIA AND VICINITY 

PHILADELPHIA. Pa J. T. morris. Secretarj 

303A Marine Bldg., Delaware Ave. and South St. 
FRANKLIN COUNTY BOATMEN'S UNION 

APALACHICOLA, Fla R. T. MARSHALL, President 

P. O. Box 213 

GREAT LAKES DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 
Headquarters 

CHICAGO, 111 VICTOR A. OLANDER, Secretary 

CLAUDE M. GOSHORN, Treasurer 

810^2 North Clark St. Phone Superior 5175 
Branches 

BUFFALO, X. Y r JOHN W. ELLISON, Agent 

71 Main Str.-et 

CLEVELAND. Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

1426 West Third Street. Phone Main 1842 

MILWAUKEE, Wis CHAS. BRADHERING, Agent 

234 South Second Street. Phone Daily "4S9 

DETROIT, Mich IVAN HUNTER, Agent 

1038 Third Street 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS. WATERTENDERS AND 

COAL PASSERS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters 

DETROIT, Mich iv.\X HUNTER, Secretary 

JAS. TTAYMAX. Treasurer 
1038 Third Street. Phone Cadillac 8170 



Branches 

BUFFALO, X. Y JOHN W. ELIJSOX, Agenl 

71 Main Street. Phone Cleveland 7391 

CLEVELAND, Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN. Agent 

Rm. 211, Blackstone Bldg., 1426 W. 3rd St. Ph. Main 1842 

MILWAUKEE, Wis ERNEST ELLIS. AgenJ 

234 South Second Street. Phone Daily 0489 

CHICAGO, 111 JOHN McGINN. Agenl 

156 W. Grand Ave. Phone Superior 2152 



MARINE COOKS AND STEWARDS' UNION 



BUFFALO, X. Y". 



Headquarters 

J. M. SECORD, Secretary 

71 Main Street 
Branches 

CHICAGO. Ill O. EDWARDS. Agenl 

64 West Illinois Street. Phone Delawar. 1031 

CLEVELAXD, Ohio E. .1. SULLIVAX, AgenJ 

Room 211, Blackstone Bldg., 1426 W. 3rd St. Ph. Main 1841 

MILWAUKEE, Wis OTTO EDWAR1-S. Agenl 

234 South Second Street. Phone Broadw;, . 

DETROIT, Mich 410 Shelby StreeJ 

Phone Randolph 0044 



PACIFIC DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters 

SAX KRAXCISCO, Cal GEORGE LARSOX. A 

59 Clay Street. Telephone Kearny 2228 
Branches 

SEATTLE, Wash P. B GILL, \-.-ut 

86 Seneca St., P. O. Box 65. Ph«>m- Elliot 6752 

PORTLAND, Ore JOHN A. FEIDJE, Agonf 

242 Flanders Street. Telephone Beacon 4.",::'; 

SAN PEDRO, Cal I. A. HAARKLAI 

430 South Palos Verdes Street. P. O. Box 68. Phon. 2491J 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, AND WATERTENDERS 

UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

Headquarters 

S\.\ FRANCISCO, Cal PATRICK FLYNX, S 

58 Commercial Street. Telephone Kearny 



MARINE COOKS AND STEWARDS' ASSOCIATIOf 

OF THE PACIFIC COAST 

Headquarters 

SAX FRAXCISCO, Cal EUGENE BURKE, Secretarj 

86 Commercial Street. Phone Kearny 5956 

SEATTLE. Wash J. L. NORKGAUER. AgeJ 

R>»om 203, Grand Trunk Dock. Phone Main 2233 



ALASKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 
Headquarters 

sax FRANCISCO, Cal 49 Clay sn-.t 

PETER E. OLSEN, Secretary. Phone Sutter 6452 
Branches 

SEATTLE, Wash CHARLES F. HAMMARIX. 

86 Seneca St., P. O. Box 42. Phon.' Elliot 3425 

PORTLAND, Ore PAUL GERHARDT, Ageni 

ill' Flanders Street 



UNITED FISHERMEN'S UNION OF SO. CALIFORNIA 
SAX DIEGO, Calif JAS. FALLON, Secretary, Box 78 



EUREKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 

EUREKA, Calif G. A. SVENSON, S- < n t;.ry 

P. O. Box 541. Phone 8-R-8 



COLUMBIA RIVER FISHERMEN'S PROTECTIVE 

UNION 

ASTORIA, Ore ARVID MATTSON, Sec'y, P. O. Box :'S1 

COQUILLE RIVER FISHERMEN'S UNION 
BANDON, ore F. REIMAXX, Secreta* 



TILLAMOOK COUNTY FISHERMEN'S UNION 
BAY CITY, or.- EARL BLANCHARD, S< 

ROGUE RIVER FISHERMEN'S UNION 
C()LI> BEACH, Ore WARREX H. HOSKIXS. Sec'y-lfl 

DEEP SEA FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters 

SEATTLE, Wash P. B. GILL, Secreta* 

86 Seneca St., P. O. Box 65. I 'hone Elliot 6752 

Branch 

KETCHIKAN, Alaska....GUST OLSEX, Agt., P. O. B \ M 



FISHERMEN'S UNION OF PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND 

AND VICINITY 
CORDOVA, Alaska... .N. SWANSON, S. < y. B O 

FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal C. W. DEAL, Secreta* 

Room "B," Ferry Building; Phone Douglas 8664 



FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION OF PUGET SOUND 

SEATTLE, Wash JOHN M. FOX. s 

220 Maritime Bldg. 



14 



July, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



111 



Professional Cards 



Attorney for the Sailors' Union of the 
Pacific since its organization 

H. W. Hutton 

431 Pacific Bldg., Fourth and Market Sts. 

SAN FRANCISCO 

PHONE DOUGLAS 0315 



Albert Michelson 

ATTORNEY-AT-LAW 

Attorney for 

Marine Firemen and Watertenders' 
Union of Pacific 
Marine Diesel and Gasoline Engi- 
neers' Association No. 49 
611 Russ Bldg. Tel. SUtter 3866 

San Francisco, California 



ANDERSON 8C LAMB 

Attorney s-at-Law 

1226 Engineers Bank Building 

CLEVELAND, OHIO 

Personal Injury Attorneys for Seamen on 
the Great Lakes 



Frank Orwitz 

ATTORNEY-AT-LAW 

Room No. 630, Hearst Building 
Market Street and Third 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 

Telephone GArfield 6353 



INSURANCE 

It would be well for insurance 
agents to know the difference be- 
tween the words "remains" and 
"survivor." 

A colored man injured in a motor 
accident died, and the insurance ad- 
juster went to investigate. 

"Did Washington P. Johnson live 
here?" he asked the weeping wom- 
an who opened the door. 

"Yessah," she replied between 
sobs. 

"I want to see the remains." 

With a new sense of importance 
the dusky widow drew herself erect 
and answered proudly, "I'm de re- 
mains." 



UP TO DATE 

The young man wrenched open 
the door of the British railway car- 
riage, tumbled inside and collapsed 
on the seat gasping for breath as 
the train slid toward the end of the 
platform. The rather obvious "re- 
tired athlete" in the opposite corner 
grunted. 

"When I was your age, my lad," 
he disapproved, "I could sprint 
down a platform and catch a train 
without turning a hair." 

"But I missed this — at the — last 
station," panted the young man. 




Plates and 
Bridgework 

DR. C. S. FORD 

702 Market Street 

At Market-Geary-Kearny Sts. 

Phone EXbrook 0329 

Daily Office hours, 8:30 a. m. to 7 p. l 
Sunday hours, 9 a.m. till noon 
"One Patient Tells Another" 



JENSEN 8c NELSEN 

Gents' Furnishing Goods 

Saver's Oil Skin Clothing 
Uniforms, Caps, Hats, Shoes 



110 EAST STREET 
GArfield 9633 



NEAR MISSION 
San Francisco 



PAYMENT OF INTEREST 

The Encyclopedia of Social Sci- 
ences says: "In the Middle Ages the 
prohibition (upon interest) was 
premised on religious and ethical 
principles. A loan was usually 
made under stress of special need 
for consumption purposes, and it 
was considered that to exact inter- 
est under such circumstances was 
to take advantage of a brother's 
need. Indeed, it was admittedly a 
compromise with strict Christian 
tenets to require repayment of the 
principal. The doctrinal basis of the 
opposition to interest was found in 
the concept of objective value, any 
departure from which was looked 
upon as unjust. It was argued that 
no value could attach to the use of 
a consumptible good separate from 
a good itself, and money was re- 
garded as consumptible because it 
could be used only by parting with 
it. Another argument was directed 
against the payment for time, over 
which no man could claim owner- 
ship." 



PLENTY OF COMPETITION 

"If you want me at all," said the 
actor, "you'd better put me on the 
salary list right now. There are a 
lot of other companies after me." 

"Yes," said the director, who had 
often heard that remark before, "and 
what companies are they?" 

"Well," said the actor, "there's 
the electric light company, the gas 
company and the telephone com- 
pany." 



Jones — How does the land lie out 
your way? 

Bones — It's not the land that lies; 
it's the real estate agent. 

15 



SEATTLE, WASH. 



K. K. Tvete & Sons 

Established 1890 

MEN'S CLOTHING, SHOES, HATS, 
AND FURNISHING GOODS 

1300-1302 First Ave., cor. University 
SEATTLE, WASH. 



Westerman's 

UNION LABEL. 

Clothier, Furnisher 8C Hatter 

Alaska Outfitter 

TWO BIG STORES 

Store No. 1 — Cor. Main and First 

Store No. 2 — Westlake and Pine 

SEATTLE 



Bonney-Watson Co. 

Funeral Directors 

Crematory and Columbarium 

1702 Broadway Seatde 



A TIMELY ERROR 

A man who was motoring along 
a country road offered a stranger 
a lift. The stranger accepted. Short- 
ly afterwards the motorist noticed 
that his watch was missing. 

Whipping out a revolver which 
he happened to be carrying he dug 
it into the other man's ribs and ex- 
claimed: "Hand over the watch!" 

The stranger meekly complied be- 
fore allowing himself to be booted 
out of the car. When the motorist 
returned home he was greeted by 
his wife. 

"How did you get on without 
your watch?" she asked. "I sup- 
pose you know that you left it on 
your dressing table?" — Labor. 



LIFE'S INEQUALITIES 

He was a good-natured Irishman, 
and was one of a number of men 
employed in erecting a new build- 
ing. The owner of the building said 
to him one day: 

"Pat, didn't you tell me that a 
brother of yours is a lawyer? 

"Yis, sor," replied Pat. 

"And you a hod carrier? The good 
things of life are not equally di- 
vided, are they?" 

"No, sor," said Pat. "Poor fel- 
low! My brother couldn't do this 
to save his loife!" 



NO BUSTER OF HOMES 

Meandering Mose applied for 
work to a farmer who had a shack 
he wanted torn down and salvaged. 
Other duties occupied the farmer 
himself for the time being. 

"Ever done any house wreck- 
ing?" asked the farmer. 

"House wreckin' Naw, suh," an- 
swered the Negro. "Pse a respect- 
able married man." 



112 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July, l'ljj 



Taylor's Nautical Academy 

FOR NAVIGATORS AND MARINE ENGINEERS 
Established 1888 

Consular Bldg., Corner Washington 
and Battery Sts M opp. New Custom 

House, San Francisco, Calif. 
THIS OLD AND NOTEWORTHY 
SCHOOL is under the direct and per- 
sonal supervision of CAPT. HENRY 
TAYLOR, and equipped with all mod- 
ern appliances to illustrate and teach 
any branch of Navigation. 

The class of teachers of Navigation 
in the past have been those having 
simply a knowledge of Navigation and 
Navigation only. Conditions have 
changed, and the American seamen 
demand a man as a teacher with 
higher attainments than one who has 
only the limited ability of a seaman. 
The Principal of this School, keeping 
this always in view, studied several 
years the Maritime Law. and is now, 
in addition to being a thorough teacher of Navigation and its kindred 
subjects, a regularly admitted Member of the Bar. 

There is no standard of education required of a pupil entering the 
School, for no matter how ignorant the seaman may be, even in the 
rudiments of common education, Captain Henry Taylor will teach and 
raise him from the depths of ignorance to the height of the average 
well informed man, and in a comparatively short interval of time. 




Phone GARFIELD 2076 

DR. EDMOND J. BARRETT 

DENTIST 

Rooms 2429-30, 450 Sutter Building 

Hours: 9 A. M. to 5 P. M. and 

by Appointment 



Seamen's Furnishing Goods 

OTTO PAHL 

Shoes, Oilskins, Seaboots and Underwear 
Suits cleaned and pressed while you wait 

140 EMBARCADERO 
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 



Union-made Work Clothes and Shoes 

Uniform Caps, Oilskins and 

Seaboots, Belfast Cord 

and Buckles 



SAM'S 



Shore and Offshore Outfitting Store 
Formerly with Geo. A. Price 

4 Clay Street, San Francisco 

Phone GArfield 6784 



INFORMATION WANTED 



Thomas Smolden retained the un- 
dersigned in the matter of a case 
against the Steamship Joancy. Will 
he please communicate with Silas B. 
Axtell, 80 Broad Street, New York 
City, at once? 



Speaker — Mr. Chairman. I've 
been speaking for ten minutes, but 
there is so much chattering all 
around me that I can't hear myself 
speak. 

Voice — Don't worry; you're not 
missing much. 



Now in Our New Location 

-624 MARKET* 

Opposite Palace Hotel 




-BOSS- 

YOUR UNION TAILOR 



WHAT IS LIFE TO YOU? 

To the preacher life's a sermon 

To the joker it's a jesl ; 
T( i the miser life is monej , 

To the loafer life is rest. 

To the lawyer life's a trial, 
To the poet life's a song; 

To the doctor life's a patient 

That needs treatment right along. 

Life i- lovely to the lover. 

To the player life is play; 
Life may he a load of trouble 

To the man upon the dray. 

Life is hut a long vacation 

To the man who loves his work; 

Life's an everlasting effort 
To shun duty to the shirk. 

To the heaven blest romancer 
Life's a story ever new; 

Life is what we try to make it — 
Brother, what is life to you? 
— S. L. Kiser. 



Free delivery of mail in cities 
came into operation in the United 
States in 1863. 



A Great Store 

Built Upon 

Successful 

Service to 

Millions 



*8 



HALE BROS. 

INC 

Market at Fifth 

SAN FRANCISCO 
SUTTER 8000 



THE 

James H. Barry Go. 

The Star Press 

Printing 



122-1124 MISSION STREET 
SAN FRANCISCO 



We print "The Seamen's Journal" 



In San Francisco 

KODAKS 

Exchanged 1 Bought 
Sold 

at 

SAN FRANCISCO 
CAMERA EXCHANGE 

88 Third St. near Mission St. 

CAMERA SHOP 
145 Kearny St. near Sutter St. 



16 




A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, FOR SEAMEN 



Our Aim : The Brotherhood of the Sea 



Our Motto: Justice by Organization 



VOL. XLVIL No. 8 



SAN FRANCISCO, AUGUST 1, 1933 



WHOLE No. 2035 



THE MAKING OF "CODES" 




HE avowed purpose of the National 
Industrial Recovery Act, outlined in full 
in the last issue of the Journal, is to 
shorten the hours of labor, raise wages 
and thus break down unemployment. 
Under the terms of that far-reaching law a tre- 
mendous effort is to be made to balance produc- 
tion and consumption by equipping the masses 
of the people with adequate purchasing power 
and by giving them the free time necessary for 
the use of a vast array of products. 

Industries will be enabled to control produc- 
tion, to maintain proper prices and to allocate 
production. This will be done through "codes" 
or trade agreements which must be made in each 
industry. The anti-trust laws are suspended to 
make this possible. The purpose is not to foster 
combination, but to compel cooperation. 

These lines are not written to question the effi- 
cacy of the new law, yet it is becoming self-evi- 
dent that if the National Industrial Recovery 
Act is to function with fairness to all and malice 
toward none, then something needs to be done, 
and done quickly, about the method of code 
making. As the matter stands, there is nothing 
labor can do about a code until it is drafted, 
docketed and called for hearing. Then labor can 
appear and register its kicks in open hearing. 
But by the time a code gets to the hearing stage 



a great deal of what may be called congealing has 
been done. And the Administration itself has, 
in a sense, become a partisan of the code as of- 
fered. Perhaps the nation does not realize to 
what extent the Administration becomes party to 
a code before there is any hearing. Here is the 
way of it, as it is working in practice : 

An industry begins to work out its code. If it 
is a big industry, it goes to Washington to see 
what about many things. It finds the deputy 
administrator assigned to that industry. And the 
deputy administrator sits in with the industry 
and helps work out the code. He must be either 
more or less than human if he comes out of that 
cooperative effort without being partisan to the 
code he has helped to draw. The deputy may take 
advice from labor in that field, and he may forget 
all about labor. Or he may take labor's advice and 
then discount it — kill it in advance. Labor's ad- 
vice was had in the making of the Cotton Textile 
Code, but labor had to go in and fight for modifi- 
cation of that code. Labor's advice was not taken 
in advance, yet when labor offered its views in 
open hearings, the deputy administrator said, 
"Why, but you were my advisor." 

At the present time, according to newspaper 
dispatches, the organized shipowners of America 
are doing some framing all by themselves. Cald- 
well Jenkins, chairman of the American steam- 



114 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



August. 1933 



ship owners' committee on a national code, has 
been quoted as stating that substantial progress 
is being made in meetings held in New York City 
during the past week and that a complete report 
may be expected in the near future. 

These codes deal with labor. They fix hours 
and wages and prescribe how much or how little 
of the good things of life shall be given to the 
seamen and the seamen's dependents. 

The result may be happy, all around, but the 
method thus far indicates that some people who 
claim they ardently desire to cooperate with the 
President will in truth and in fact go only as far 
as they are required or compelled to go. 

Let us hope that this is an erroneous deduc- 
tion, but, at the same time let us not forget that, 
with or without the shipowners' consent, we our- 
selves must take a hand in the code framing 
business. 

To do so, successfully, the old, old story must 
be told and retold again and again. Despite a mul- 
titude of obvious reasons constantly given why 
seamen should organize for their own protection, 
many suffer along, working for low wages and 
long hours, piling up dividends for the shipown- 
ers who have sense enough to organize. 

If we are to continue under the present system 
and retain private ownership it must be done by 
both sides organizing, and working on a basis 
that recognizes the rights of both labor and capi- 
tal. Unless labor and capital jointly agree that 
labor must receive sufficient in wages to live in 
comfort and decency and keep the buying power 
on a level with production the present system will 
fall because of a lack of balance between con- 
suming capacity and producing ability. 

Organized labor has been a persistent crusader 
for this undisputed economic fact for years, and 
now for the good of all workers, earnestly appeals 
to the still unorganized to join with the organized 
to make a real new deal for labor. 



President Furuseth of the International Sea- 
men's Union of America has returned to his home 
port, San Francisco, and has been active in ad- 
dressing meetings of seamen and otherwise stimu- 
lating and directing organizing work. 



The moderation of those who are happy arises 
from the calm which good fortune bestows upon 
their temper. — Rochefoucauld. 



A MEMORABLE HULK 

Few visitors to the Falkland Islands have rec- 
ognized in the old coaling hulk lying in the harbor 
at Port Stanley a ship which occupies a special 
niche in the history of steam navigation. Built at 
Bristol in 1843, this vessel, which is now con- 
demned to the breakers' yard, was the Great Brit- 
ain, the first screw steamer to cross the Atlantic. 
She was planned by the Great Western Steamship 
Company for their service between Bristol and 
New York and there were few shipbuilders in 
the country willing to take on the job of the mag- 
nitude she represented — her length was no less 
than 100 feet greater than that of the largest 
vessel then afloat — but Patterson, of Bristol, 
eventually carried out her construction success- 
fully. The original intention was to fit her with 
paddles, but during her construction the Arcki- 
medes began setting up her epoch-making per- 
formances with the screw propeller, and Brunei 
the builder, changed his plans overnight, making 
the Great Britain the first big ship to be screw- 
propelled. Her main dimensions were 274 feet 
length (322 feet over all), 48 feet, two inches 
beam, and 31 feet, 6 inches depth of hold, the 
gross measurement being 3,270 tons, and she was 
rigged with six masts, each, as there were no 
technical names available for them, named after 
a day of the week. On her maiden voyage to New 
York, which was carried out without mishap, she 
took rather more than a fortnight, averaging nine 
and one-fourth knots, but her second and third 
trips saw a great deal of trouble, with damage to 
the propeller. After alterations to her rigging and 
the design of the screw, she made another essay, 
only to go ashore on the Irish coast. When she 
had been salved, sensational rumors cropped up 
as to her fate, but she was eventually bought by 
Messrs. Gibbs, Bright & Company, a firm re- 
nowned for their auxiliary vessels. Under their 
flag, the Great Britain made several more Atlantic 
crossings and then was placed in the Australian 
trade, with several short spells of trooping. In 
1881 she was sold privately and converted into 
a sailing ship, her original lines making this an 
easy task, and for five years she gave excellent 
service in various trades. At length, however, she 
was caught in a real "spot of weather" off Cape 
Horn, and limped into the Falklands, to be con- 
demned as unseaworthy. Patched up sufficiently 






August, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



115 



to serve as a wool hulk, she was later used for 
coal, and during the war she bunkered the British 
battle-cruisers just before the famous action which 
took place off the islands. 



WHAT IS TOLERATION? 



IT WON'T STAY DEAD 



How many lives has the trade-union movement ? 
It is always being destroyed, and yet, somehow or 
other, there it still is ! It flourishes and it decays. 
It waxes and it wanes. Today it is a force to be 
reckoned with, and tomorrow it seems a poor 
thing. 

No other civilized institution has had such ups 
and downs as trade-unionism. But it never dies. 
Or at any rate, if it does, it comes to life again, 
which is more extraordinary still. 

It has been effectually slain, and shortly after- 
wards has confounded its murderers by turning 
up again as though nothing had happened. 

It is having a bad time in Germany at present. 
The ferocious Hitler is not only attacking it ; he 
is adopting it, which is infinitely worse. He is 
oppressing it with his protection. He is debasing 
it with his patronage. It would appear that Ger- 
man trade-unionism is done for as an instrument 
of working class betterment. But don't you be- 
lieve it. It will survive the Brownshirt Despot. 
It will be present at his funeral. And when the 
malignant Nazi plague has ended, and the places 
it infected have been cleansed and fumigated, 
trade-unionism will arise resplendent, to once 
more lead the way to mankind's ultimate goal. 

In every capitalist land it will have a similar 
experience. Fascists and Nazis will destroy it. 
And when it is thoroughly and officially dead, 
it will suddenly burst out of its grave and destroy 
those who slew it. 

Trade-unionism has got a bigger job to do than 
the twelve labors of Hercules rolled into one. 
But never fear, brother — it will do it ! Don't fret, 
though you should see it most brutally assaulted 
and foully done to death. It is used to it. That's 
how it grows strong enough to achieve its mighty 
task. — Australian Worker. 



The dangers that menace our civilization do 
not come from the weakness of the springs of 
production. What it suffers from, and what, if a 
remedy be not applied, it must die from, is un- 
equal distribution. — Henry George. 



Toleration, liberty of conscience, freedom of 
speech and of the press are all dogmas ; conse- 
quently no person ignorant of history will accept 
them; for they are against all reason. It is for 
want of historical knowledge that they are not 
accepted at present. He who remarks that it is a 
fine morning is not taking a liberty. Galileo took 
a seventeenth century liberty when he said that 
the earth moved round the sun ; but the most ab- 
ject slave may say that in the twentieth century. 
It is from history that we learn that the obvious 
and immediate evils of allowing individuals and 
newspapers to utter and publish revolting proposi- 
tions and to deny sacred beliefs are not so dan- 
gerous as the stagnation and retrogression which 
follow the enforcement of conformity, and that 
even in the crises of a war the consequences of 
deceiving the enemy, involving as they do the con- 
sequences of deceiving the nation, may easily be 
more disastrous than fighting strictly on the facts 
and discarding bluff. Now there is no sign that 
this lesson has been effectively taught to our edu- 
cated classes, or even taught at all. It is the re- 
ceived opinion and practice among us that heresy 
should be persecuted and "bad taste" punished. 
There is, it is true, a benefit of clergy and of 
class, and of income allowed in time of peace ; and 
party invective and vulgar abuse are always privi- 
leged ; but this is not Toleration : we do not tol- 
erate suttee in India, nor did the United States 
tolerate the cult of nakedness introduced by the 
Doukhobors. — G. Bernard Shaw. 



ATTACK ON SHIP SUBSIDIES 



New York steamship lines holding mail con- 
tracts have received letters from the Postoffice 
Department asking for estimations on reductions 
in mail pay possible in line with the request from 
the Department of the Budget calling on all gov- 
ernment departments to reduce operating expenses 
15 per cent or more. With the administration de- 
termined to effect a cut of $7,000,000 out of the 
$28,500,000 appropriated for ocean mail contract 
payments to American steamship lines, executives 
of these companies are greatly concerned as to 
the amount each will be expected to contribute to 
the reduction. That these executives will soon be 
called upon to effect these reductions is reliably 
reported as certain. 



116 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



August, 1933 



NEWS AND COMMENT 

Concerning Seamen the World Over 



The ballot among Dutch seamen on the ques- 
tion of wage reductions has resulted in a majority 
in favor of acceptance. Consequently wages will 
be reduced by a first 5 per cent with immediate 
effect and by a further 5 per cent in six months' 
time. Members of the Stewards' Department, 
whose earnings do not exceed 70 guilders a 
month will only have a cut of 5 per cent. For 
other ratings wages may not drop below 66.50 
guilders a month. Signing on is taking place as 
usual. The attempts of the Red Industrial Oppo- 
sition and the Communists to provoke strike 
action have failed completely. 

* * * 

The city of Venice, Italy, has come to the pro- 
tection of the gondoliers, whose centuries-old 
occupation has been the pride, and the glory, and 
the romantic atmosphere of Neptune's most fa- 
vored capital. In recent years, the ancient boats 
have been driven to the wall by motor launches 
which have been permitted to desecrate the ro- 
mantic canals once kept sacred for the gondoliers 
who were the pride and glory of the Adriatic's 
mistress. The council of Venice has decreed that 
motor boats and gondolas each shall have its defi- 
nite part of the traffic to handle. 

* * * 

The Finnish shipping strike continues un- 
abated. Although the shipowners are able to re- 
cruit blacklegs, the effects of the strike and the 
sympathetic action taken abroad are beginning to 
tell. The Finnish Shipowners' Association has 
declared that many shipping firms pay wage 
rates which cannot be regarded as reasonable, and 
consequently called a meeting to consider the 
question. It was decided to adopt the higher rates 
paid by the bigger companies. A similar decision 
was arrived at with regard to the manning scale. 
The meeting making these decisions was attended 
by owners representing four-fifths of Finnish 
shipping. * * * 

The British Royal Seamen's Pension Fund is a 
child of the Health Insurance Act, and is the re- 
sult of a bargain between Lloyd George and Sir 
Norman Hill and the late J. H. Wilson, the 
founder of the British National Union of Sea- 



men, and was originally known as the Lascar 
Fund. Under the Act, the shipowners' portion of 
Health Insurance contributions on account of all 
non-domiciled seamen go to the Fund; similarly, 
sums of money are received by the Fund under 
the Unemployment Insurance Act, and so the fund 
is made up. It was thus established with the idea 
that as far as possible deep sea seamen on reach- 
ing the age of 65 years, who had spent the greater 
part of their lives at sea, should be paid a small 
pension. The only people who contribute to the 
fund are the shipowners, in money, and seamen 
by the loss of employment which would be theirs 
if these non-domiciled seamen were not employed. 
Fishermen do not contribute directly or indirectly 
to the fund. Therefore, one would have imagined 
that the only people to benefit would have been 
members of the British Mercantile Marine. How- 
ever, this is not the case, as during the last five 
years, pensions have been granted to more than 
2500 fishermen. * * * 

The task of providing relief for unemployed 
Italian seamen who have exhausted their right to 
unemployment insurance benefit has been taken 
over by the National Fascist Confederation of 
Seamen and Airmen under an agreement with the 
provincial unemployment relief offices established 
by the National Fascist Party. Owing to the spe- 
cial conditions of such workers it appears that 
they can be more effectively reached and assisted 
through their own trade union, and consequently, 
whenever an unemployed seaman applies to one 
of the offices referred to, he is sent to the local 
office of the confederation. The expenses of this 
relief work are met for the most part by contri- 
butions from seamen in employment, who have 
accepted since the beginning of 1932 a monthly 
deduction from their wages, amounting either to 
1 per cent or \ l / 2 per cent, according to whether 
they are employed on cargo or passenger steam- 
ers, wages on board the latter being the higher. 
This spirit of mutual help has made it possible 
to give relief to 12,000 distressed seamen each 
month. About 200,000 lire a month have been 
directly contributed for this purpose by seamen, 
while large payments have been made by the 
Garibaldi Seamen's Cooperative Society. The 
Seamen's Institutes in Genoa and Trieste, which 
belong to the confederation, serve on an average 
5,000 free meals per month and provide free ac- 
commodation for 100 persons every night. 



August, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



117 



The General Steam Navigation Company (Brit- 
ish) have completed arrangements for a combined 
pension and insurance scheme for their employees. 
The scheme is contributory and is based on the 
"purchase" in each year of service of a certain 
pension value. These values are cumulative up to 
the retirement age of 65. The scheme also pro- 
vides that, from the time of the first contribution, 
the employee is insured, and, in the event of death 
at any time thereafter, his representatives receive 
a sum approximately equal to one year's salary, 
plus the refund of all contributions paid up to 
the time of death. The company intend to pay all 
the contributions needed to provide pensions of 
varying scales for the past service of each em- 
ployee entering the scheme at its inception. Em- 
ployees may elect to have pensions made payable 
for the joint lives of their wives and themselves, 
while all pensions are payable for a minimum of 
five years after 65. In reckoning the length of 
service of employees, the company have included 
all war service, whether afloat or in the army, as 
counting towards pension. All regular employees 
of the General Steam Navigation Company's ships 
are eligible to participate in the scheme, and it is 
reported that already 99 per cent of the stafT 

afloat and ashore have joined. 

* * * 

The First Lord of the British Admiralty would 
have liked to build a ship for sailing-ship train- 
ing, but finance is against his scheme, and "a large 
number of senior officers of the navy" are also 
opposed to sailing-ship training as unnecessary 
under modern conditions. These men coldly insist 
that there is no point in learning to sail a ship 
when steam is the only power that matters. And 
yet the argument for training on a sailing ship is 
not necessarily based on only romantic sentiment 
and the tradition of "a tall ship and a star to steer 
her by." A sailing ship is a school of character as 
well as of navigation ; crises and emergencies arise 
in the handling of it which have to be dealt with 
swiftly and decisively, and the handling of them 
encourages habits of thought and action which can 
never be wasted at sea. Possibly they can be 
formed in other ways, but a ship under sail is a 
first-class school for them. Yet the senior officers 
say, "No ; better let a young man who has much to 
learn waste no time but start, as he will have to 
continue, on a steamship." It is exactly the dif- 
ference which is often raised in the ordinary edu- 
cational world. Some say, "It does not matter 



very much what precise subjects a boy learns at 
school ; the great thing is that he should enter the 
wider world with his mind trained and disciplined 
by having learnt something, even if it is Latin 
prose, and learnt it well." Others say, "No, this 
is an increasingly practical world, and the rudi- 
ments of vocational training which will be actually 
needed in later life cannot be started too soon. 
Senior officers in the British navy evidently tend 
to the latter view. For them the Latin can go 
hang in favor of the commercial French and 
German. ^ + # 

The validity of the Swedish Act of 1926 re- 
lating to hours of work on board ship came before 
the Riksdag during its present session. The 
Board of Trade and the Social Board, which were 
requested by the Government to report on the 
question of prolonging the validity of the Act, 
had proposed that it should be provisionally ex- 
tended, without modifications, for a further three 
years (to 1936 inclusive), in the expectation that 
in 1934 an international convention on the subject 
would be adopted, which would then be discussed 
by the Riksdag. The bill introduced by the Minis- 
ter of Commerce expressed regret that this ques- 
tion, which is of great importance to Swedish 
shipping, had not made further progress during 
the existing prolongation of the Act, so as to per- 
mit of the establishment of permanent regulations. 
But the experience gained during its period of 
validity was held to afford a sufficient basis for 
the necessary revision of the existing regulations. 
While international treatment of the question was 
also of the greatest interest from the Swedish 
standpoint, this consideration should not be al- 
lowed to prevent the adoption, at the earliest pos- 
sible moment, of the modifications of the Swedish 
Act which experience had shown to be necessary. 
The proposal made by the Board of Trade and 
the Social Board in 1930, for the holding of an 
inquiry (since suspended) into the question of 
amending the Act, should therefore be carried out 
as soon as possible. The Minister of Commerce 
estimated that the inquiry could be completed by 
October 1, 1933, which would be in sufficient time 
to allow the question of an amended Act relating 
to hours of work on board ship to be submitted 
to the Riksdag at its 1934 session. The Govern- 
ment Bill, proposing a prolongation without alter- 
ation for one year, was approved by the compe- 
tent Parliamentary Committee. 



118 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



August, 1933 



Seamen's Journal 

Established in 1887 
Published on the first day of each month at 525 
Market Street. San Francisco, by and under the di- 
rection of the International Seamen's Union of 
America. 

PAUL SCHARRENBERG. Editor 

© 

Entered at the San Francisco Postofflce as second- 
class matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate 
of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of Oc- 
tober 3, 1917, authorized September 7, 1918. 

Subscription price $1.00 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 



NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will be 
published, provided they are of general interest, 
brief, legible, written on one side only of the paper, 
and accompanied by the writer's own name and ad- 
dress. The JOURNAL, is not responsible for the ex- 
pressions of correspondents, nor for the return of 
manuscripts. 



MR. MORGAN'S YACHT 



August 1, 1933 



SIGN THE PETITION 



All seamen, union as well as non-union, are 
urged to sign the petitions now circulated in all 
the principal ports of the United States to assure 
adequate representation to seamen under the Na- 
tional Industrial Recovery Act. 

Your signature to one of these petitions is evi- 
dence of the fact that you have exercised your 
right under the National Industrial Recovery Act 
and requested and authorized the International 
Seamen's Union of America to represent you in 
proceedings under the said National Industrial 
Recovery Act (and/or Section 15 of Shipping 
Act, 1916), to bring about improvements in wages 
and working conditions in the American Merchant 
Marine. 

Please bear in mind that the main purpose of 
the Recovery Act is to unite the industries of the 
nation in a concerted movement to reemploy the 
idle workers and to pay them adequate wages so 
that they can buy each other's products. The 
principal method of carrying out this program is 
to establish a Code of Fair Competition for every 
trade or industry. 

A Code of Fair Competition will be established 
in the shipping industry. Sign the before-men- 
tioned petition now and thereby make sure that 
you are properly represented when the question 
of wages and hours is under consideration. 



The most expensive and largest private yacht 
in the world, the Corsair, is owned by Banker 
J. P. Morgan. It cost $2,500,000. Estimates of 
the annual cost of operation is said to be over 
$100,000. Curiously enough, this yacht was 
launched in 1930, a year in which Banker Morgan 
testified he paid no income taxes. And he con- 
tinued to enjoy its luxurious comforts in 1931 and 
1932, when he also paid no income tax. 

The average citizen who has been so simple 
minded as to believe that an income tax meant 
a tax on income now finds it is something else 
entirely ; that no matter how much a millionaire 
banker like Morgan actually may have taken in 
to put out on steam yachts and similar trinkets, 
he can report no income, provided he sold enough 
stock below the price which he paid for it. 

Apologists for a system that enables the 
wealthiest to escape payment of taxes have sub- 
mitted some strange alibis. At that, most of them 
admit it's wrong and made possible only because 
of the severity of the economic depression. 

It is true, of course, that the water that has run 
under the bridge cannot be reclaimed. 

But if the same old leaky dyke is still in opera- 
tion next year, Uncle Sam ought to have his head 
examined. For no matter who he is, a man who 
can own and operate a $2,500,000 private yacht 
in times like these should be compelled to make a 
substantial contribution to the national treasury, 
even if he has to undergo the awful hardship of 
curtailing his cruising radius. 



WHEAT FOR CHINA 



The United States has loaned China $50,000,000 
on the pledge that the Flowery Kingdom will pur- 
chase all the wheat she needs from our farmers. 

If that be sound business why should not a 
grocer or a furniture dealer go around among 
his customers, and say: "I'll lend you all the 
money you need if you'll only buy from me"? 

But, say the modern "Americans" who believe 
the United States is an international cow, to be 
milked by every nation : "This helps the American 
farmer to sell his wheat. Besides, China has 
promised to pay." 

To be sure. And nearly all of the honorable 
Christian nations of Europe promised to pay 



August, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



119 



Uncle Sam the billions they owe him. And every 
one of them is lying out of it. What guarantee 
have we that the "heathen Chinee" will treat us 
any better? If Uncle Sam has any more money 
to spare to lend to the needy and deserving let him 
lend it solely to his own children. They still 
need it. 

STEEL TRUST FINANCES 



In the current number of Harper's Magazine, 
John T. Flynn, a well known American student 
of economics, has an article captioned "The Wall 
Street Debt Machine." 

It is the general belief, Flynn points out, that 
the stocks and bonds of a corporation represent 
actual capital contributed to its operations. But 
as a matter of fact, how often is this just a popu- 
lar delusion ! For example, to take a notable case, 
Flynn traces the formation of the United States 
Steel Corporation. This concern was organized 
by J. P. Morgan and Company with a capital on 
paper of $1,321,752,000, divided as follows: 

Bonds $303,450,000 

Preferred stock $510,000,000 

Common stock $508,000,000 

All the bonds and $188,000,000 in preferred 
stock were issued to Andrew Carnegie for his 
Carnegie Steel Company. The balance of the pre- 
ferred stock, except $64,000,000, was paid over 
to the owners of the other steel companies which 
came into the merger. These represented some 
actual physical values. 

The $64,000,000 in preferred stock and an 
equal amount of common stock was given to J. P. 
Morgan and Company in return for $25,000,000 
cash to be used as working capital. 

The $508,000,000 common stock was presented 
to J. P. Morgan and Company and the other bank- 
ers and organizers of the trust as a donation. Not 
one nickel of cash or property was turned into 
the United States Steel Corporation for these 
shares. In other words, the only thing that was 
behind this common stock was a hope that might 
be instilled, by methods well known to J. P. Mor- 
gan and Company, in the hearts of investors. 

In the case of the United States Steel Corpora- 
tion, this hope was materialized when the common 
stock, which did not represent a dollar of invest- 
ment, was opened at $42, and before it was all 
disposed of the insiders to whom it had been 
donated, received not less than $250,000,000, in 



cash, all of which went into their pockets and no 
part of which went into the steel industry. 

Yet the United States Steel Corporation was 
expected and did for many years, pay dividends 
on this stock, which perhaps is one explanation 
why the twelve-hour day was continued so long 
in the steel mills and why wages were paid that 
disgraced the nation. 

Flynn urges that the "speculative Machinery" 
for the sale of shares which do not represent 
money invested, or an equivalent in assets, be 
prohibited. He also demands that other people's 
money deposited in banks be ruthlessly excluded 
from the stock market. 

It is a matter to which the New Deal should 
give very serious consideration. For while the 
piracies practiced during the last few years may 
have been respectable and may have been per- 
fectly legal, they essentially differed no whit from 
the free-booting operations of Sir Henry Mor- 
gan and other cut throat buccaneers who once 
operated on the Spanish Main. 



THE NEW "ALSACE-LORRAINE' 



The sorest spot in Europe today is the so-called 
Polish corridor, a narrow strip of territory ex- 
tending from Poland proper northward to the 
Baltic Sea. By that corridor, East Prussia is 
separated from the rest of Germany. It is an 
amputation that is a festering ulcer in the rela- 
tionships of the two countries. 

It is the "Alsace-Lorraine" of the treaty of 
Versailles. 

Yet the creator of the corridor was not Clem- 
enceau, nor Lloyd George, nor Orlando, but 
Woodrow Wilson. It was he who forced accept- 
ance of the plan that Poland must have access 
to the sea. 

It is a good sample of what is likely to happen 
when idealistic Americans rush in where angels 
justly fear to tread. 



Every trade unionist can help in the recovery 
movement by buying union-made products. The 
purchase of union-made goods and the demand 
for union services make for higher standards of 
wages and the shorter work week and day, which 
are main objectives of the National Industrial 
Recovery Act. 



120 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



August, 1933 



PRESSURE OF POPULATION 



The population of the world at the beginning 
of the Christian era is estimated at sixty-five mil- 
lions; in 1700 it reached five hundred million; by 
1850 it doubled to one billion and at this time is 
close to two billion. Estimates differ widely as 
to the maximum the earth will support. While 
the law of diminishing returns and a restricted 
land surface may form a basis for calculation, yet 
the unknown factors cannot be reckoned with. Sci- 
ence tells us that energy itself is transmutable 
into matter and, if so, there are no limits to the 
means of subsistence. The limits of possible ex- 
pansion and development of the human family 
have been virtually abolished by the discoveries 
science already has made and some are even 
dreaming of the habitability of other planets and 
other universes. But to be sure, constant adjust- 
ment of population to resources will be needful. 

The world's population is composed of about 
one-third whites and two-thirds colored ; with the 
present trend towards a relative decline of the 
whites excepting the Russians and Italians. The 
greatest decline will apparently take place among 
the most advanced whites since fertility rates are 
in inverse ratio to education and rising standards 
of living. The higher the standards of living the 
lower the birth rates. We balance our ever in- 
creasing wants with the desire for offspring and 
in the equation the child suffers. It may be ques- 
tioned whether these factors will check the fer- 
tility of the colored races. Ancestor worship, filial 
piety, may rise superior to material desires and 
multiplication of the colored proceed unchecked. 
Ancestor worship seems favorable to the per- 
petuation of a people. The advanced whites in 
the United States, Australia and Canada, occupy 
the fairest and at the same time the most sparsely 
settled regions of the earth, controlling territory 
looked upon with envy by more teeming popula- 
tions. Only the rim of Australia is occupied by 
whites. In America and Canada vast stretches 
remain unsettled. 

Arising from this situation a portentous issue 
is looming. Have those in possession of the un- 
cultivated lands the right to preserve them for 
children they will never have? Is it consonant 
with international justice? Have they the right to 
withhold their use from peoples crowded for room 
and lacking the means of subsistence? It is a 
significant thing that a majority of the states par- 



ticipating in the organization of the League of 
Nations voted to recognize immigration as an 
international rather than exclusively a domestic 
problem. Only by the influence of President Wil- 
son and Premier Hughes was such recognition 
prevented. 

Of course the reply to this argument is that if 
precedence in occupation of lands be granted to 
such nationals as are most fertile, regardless of 
other qualifications, the higher types of man who 
multiply less rapidly must constantly move on and 
finally disappear. So the issue involves the pri- 
mary instinct of self-preservation which may only 
be resolved by an appeal to arms. The con- 
tingency already exists in the instance of Japan. 
Confined as she is within narrow borders she 
seems ready to die on the battlefield in preference 
to starvation. W r hen peoples are confronted with 
the alternatives of life and death they become 
desperate, moral values collapse; and therefore, 
we observe Japan recreant to her pledges to re- 
nounce war. 

At the present rate of increase in China, Java, 
India and Russia, a similar situation will arise 
which, unless controlled, renders a conflict irre- 
pressible. Therefore the United States should 
collaborate with the League of Nations or some 
other agency to study population problems and 
recommend necessary measures. The doctrine 
should be laid down that no people may reproduce 
themselves beyond available resources and accept- 
able standards of living. 



THE WORLD DOES MOVE 



The volume of labor and social legislation 
passed by Congress and the various state legis- 
latures since the first of the year disposes of the 
fear that such legislation cannot be enacted dur- 
ing a depression. As a matter of fact, "hard 
times" have apparently helped enactment of labor 
and social laws. Nine additional states passed 
old-age pension laws, while a number outlawed 
the "yellow dog" contract and curbed the use of 
the labor injunction. Ten states ratified the child 
labor amendment to the Federal Constitution and 
a number passed minimum wage legislation for 
women and minors in industry. Congress adopted 
a comprehensive program of relief and recovery 
legislation that has astonished the world. 

In the face of the depression and the insistent 



August, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



121 



clamor for governmental "economy," the progress 
already made this year has been so great as to 
surprise even the most optimistic advocates of 
labor and social legislation. Truly, "the world 
do move," as the old Virginia colored minister 
of the celebrated story said. 



U. S. OCCUPATION STATISTICS 



RECORD FASTS 



Mr. Gandhi's recent twenty-one days' fast has 
again raised the question how long a human being 
can manage to exist without food. The record 
of endurance was claimed by the late Riccardo 
Saccho, one of whose professional fasts lasted 
sixty-five days. But for a determined attempt to 
live without food altogether no one seems ever 
to have equaled the feat of a wealthy American, 
Joseph Sheppard. At the inquest — for it came 
to that in the end — Sheppard's son, a well-known 
New York physician, declared that his father was 
not insane and that his mind was perfectly 
normal except on this one point of food. Shep- 
pard believed it possible to " spiritualize" life to 
the extent of being able to live without eating at 
all. For years he ate nothing but fruit, gradu- 
ally cutting down his allowance to about two 
ounces a day. Then, in final preparation for total 
abstinence, he restricted himself to a sip of wine 
and a spoonful of honey every three days. On 
this allowance he contrived to subsist for five 
months — then died of exhaustion. 



PROFANE LANGUAGE 



The Commander-in-Chief of the United States 
Navy, who recently issued orders for "the eradi- 
cation of the undesirable habit of profane lan- 
guage" throughout the service, is merely trying 
to do what was attempted by one of the principal 
maritime authorities of Great Britain centuries 
ago. The Corporation of Trinity House in its 
early days, when it had jurisdiction over all 
British shipping, drew up stringent rules for the 
conduct of officers and seamen which included 
a prohibition of all profanity and "ill-speaking" 
under penalty of a system of fines graded accord- 
ing to the rank of the offender. Unlike some other 
moralists, the Elder Brethren treated themselves 
on an equality with those they sought to reform, 
and prohibited "profane speech" at the corpora- 
tion's meetings under penalty of sixpence for- 
feited to the poor-box for every oath. 



The United States Census Bureau recently pub- 
lished a summary of occupation statistics of per- 
sons gainfully occupied, as shown in the Fifteenth 
Census, 1930. The census showed that of the total 
population of 122,775,046, the number of persons 
ten years old and over who were gainfully em- 
ployed was 48,829,920 (38,077,804 male and 10,- 
752,116 female). The largest group, manufactur- 
ing and mechanical industries, had 14,110,652 of 
these workers, followed by agriculture with 10,- 
471,998; trade, with 6,081,467; domestic and per- 
sonal services, with 4,952,451 ; clerical occupations, 
with 4,025,324; transportation and communica- 
tion, with 3,843,147; professional service, 3,253,- 
884 ; extraction of minerals, with 984,323 ; public 
service (not elsewhere classified), with 856,205; 
forestry and fishing with 250,469. 

The percentage of workers engaged in agricul- 
ture was 21.4 of the total number of gainful work- 
ers, as compared with 25.6 in 1920, and 32.5 in 
1910. The percentage of female agriculture work- 
ers showed a marked decline, being 8.5 of the total 
number of female employees, as compared with 
12.7 in 1920 and 22.4 in 1910. Manufacturing and 
mechanical industries engaged 28.9 per cent of 
the total number of workers (30.8 in 1920 and 
27.9 in 1910). Trade engaged 12.5 per cent (10.2 
in 1920 and 9.5 in 1910). The "domestic and per- 
sonal service" group included 10.1 per cent of 
the total (8.1 in 1920 and 9.8 in 1910). 



Secretary Hunter of the Marine Firemen's 
Union and Patrick O'Brien of the Sailors' Union 
of the Great Lakes have addressed large and en- 
thusiastic meetings of seamen at Buffalo, Ashta- 
bula, Cleveland and Toledo. The attendance at 
these meetings ranged from eighty to over 400. 
Resolutions protesting against the policies of the 
Lake Carriers' Association were adopted at each 
meeting and all present signed the petitions being 
circulated by the International Seamen's Union 
of America. Up to the present over 1500 signa- 
tures have been secured. The entire situation 
along the chain of Great Lakes has changed in 
the past two months. More and more boats are 
going into operation, and business is improving 
everywhere. Organizing campaigns are on all 
over the country and organizers are meeting 
with encouragement everywhere. 



122 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



August, 1933 



CURRENT LEGAL NOTES 



Permission to Go Ashore. — An important 
case affecting seamen has just been decided in 
a British court by Judge L. C. Thomas. The 
facts of the case were that a seaman named 
Price signed on the steamship Firhy on May 6. 
On May 7 he went ashore with other men, and 
when they returned the vessel had been moved 
to the middle of the dock. They were taken out 
in a small boat, and when Price, who was 57 
years of age, mounted the rope ladder he lost his 
hold and fell on to a motorboat. His skull was 
fractured and he died. 

The defense contended that Price had not asked 
permission to go ashore, and it was submitted 
that he did not sustain the accident during the 
course of his employment. In giving his judg- 
ment the court said : 

He was satisfied that there were no specific regu- 
lations laid down which prevented Price from going 
ashore after he finished his watch. He was satisfied 
with the evidence which was called, two master mari- 
ners and a chief engineer, that it was the custom after 
a man did his day's work to go ashore without any 
special permission from the master, and therefore 
Price was entitled to go ashore, and when returning 
to the ship the accident arose out of his employment. 

The court then awarded the plaintiffs, Mrs. 
Mary Price and two grandchildren, the full 
amount of compensation claimed, i. e., £342 — 
£292 for the widow and £50 for the children. 

Compensation for Drowning. — A seaman, 
who mysteriously fell overboard after he had re- 
tired to sleep in the forecastle of his ship, was 
discussed by the House of Lords, which decided 
recently, in an appeal that his dependents should 
be compensated. The point raised was whether he 
had met with an accident "in the course of his em- 
ployment." 

Clarice Amanda Rosen, a sister, aged 19, and 
Elizabeth Alice Rosen, the mother of Hull, ap- 
pealed on behalf of George Oscar Rosen, who 
was employed as a fireman by the Arbor Shipping 
Company, Ltd., owners of the steamship Quercus. 

A county court judge, it was stated, had nega- 
tived any suggestion of suicide or drunkenness, 
and drew the inference that, at the time of the 
accident, Rosen was in the course of his employ- 
ment, but was unable to draw the inference that 
the accident arose "out of his employment. The 
Court of Appeal had affirmed this decision. 

The defense contended that Rosen was sleep- 



ing in a position of peril. At 3 a. m. the watchman 
heard a splash. 

Lord Wright, in summarizing the evidence, said : 
"He was in the place where his employment re- 
quired him to be, and at any moment he might 
have been called to do something." 

The judgment of the Court of Appeal wai 
accordingly reversed, and the case sent back to 
the county court judge to be dealt with again. 

Personal Injuries. — Judgment against the 
owner of a fishing vessel was recovered by a 
member of the crew for personal injuries. Action 
was brought against the owner's insurer, Conti- 
nental Insurance Company, when the owner failed 
to pay the judgment. The insurer's motion to dis- 
miss the complaint was denied as the policy was 
a liability policy and not a marine indemnity 
cover as claimed by the insurer, under Section 
109 of the New York Insurance Law, which pro- 
vides that certain standard provisions must be 
contained in "liability policies." — Hansen v. Con- 
tinental Ins. Co. of the City of N. Y., Sup. Ct., 
X. Y.. Faber, J. 



KEEP ON ORGANIZING 



The duty of the moment is to organize. 

A lot of questions under the Industrial Re- 
covery Act remain to be cleared up, but one thing 
is sure : The wage earner has no voice unless he 
is organized. 

And the job of organizing is up to the workers 
themselves. 

Nobody is going to hand labor anything on a 
platter. Labor has its own mission, its own re- 
sponsibilities and its own duty to itself. 

Go forth, all wage earners, and organize in 
unions. 

One of the primary purposes of the National 
Industrial Recovery Act is to increase national 
buying power. If minimum wage scales proposed 
for recovery codes are too low to accomplish this 
intent of the act, they might just as well not be 
set at all. Short-sighted employers seeking to hold 
wages down under the act would do well to get 
this idea through their heads without delay. 



There is no defeat except in no longer trying. 
There is no defeat save from within, no really 
insurmountable barrier, save our own inherent 
weakness of purpose. — Elbert Hubbard. 



10 



August, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



123 



SHIPPING NEWS 



Robert C. Thackara, chairman of the United 
States Intercoastal Conference, announces that 
eastbound lumber rates for September have been 
fixed at $11.75 per 1,000 feet, plus 25 cents sur- 
charge. This increase is regarded as definite evi- 
dence of upturn in intercoastal business. 

San Diego is on its hind legs like other Pacific 
Coast ports which are not major terminals. The 
San Diego Harbor Commission has filed a com- 
plaint against the Pacific Westbound Conference, 
alleging discrimination on the part of the trans- 
Pacific carriers for not putting into the "Harbor 
of the Sun." C. O. Arthur, director of the bureau 
of regulation of the Shipping Board, has set 
August 17 for a hearing on the subject at San 
Diego, where "I cover the waterfront." 

The San Francisco Junior Chamber of Com- 
merce has formally launched an intensive three- 
point San Francisco harbor campaign as the cen- 
tral theme for the Fifth Annual Harbor Day 
celebration to be held August 17. Its aims are: 
1, to make San Francisco Bay the main home base 
of the United States fleet ; 2, to build an American 
Merchant Marine second to none, particularly for 
the fast-growing Pacific trade routes ; 3, to build 
up the United States Navy to treaty limitations, 
preserving the nationally valuable shipbuilding 
facilities on San Francisco Bay by alloting them 
a fair share of this construction. 

Sir John Reeves Ellerman, owner of one of the 
largest fleets of cargo ships under the British flag 
and reputed to be the wealthiest man in England, 
died July 17 at Dieppe, where he had gone re- 
cently in hopes of improving his health. Sir 
John's holdings, mostly in shipping concerns, have 
recently been estimated at £30,000,000. With an 
income of about £1,000,000 a year, he lived very 
modestly in a home in Mayfair, having disposed 
of his castle in Scotland about three years ago. 
He sedulously avoided publicity, but is reported 
to have been a generous contributor to charities, 
including the Red Cross. 

Shipping scrapped as condemned by the mari- 
time nations last year was more than 70 per cent 
greater than the new tonnage added, it is an- 
nounced by the transportation division of the 
Department of Commerce. A total of 328 steam 



and motor ships of 1,296,325 gross tons were so 
disposed of in 1932, it is stated, while shipping 
added to the world merchant marine amounted to 
but 726,591 gross tons. Shipping scrapped or 
condemned in 1931 totaled 973,000 gross tons and 
in 1930 was 794,202 tons, none of these figures 
including tonnage lost by wreck or like causes. 

The financial affairs of the International Mer- 
cantile Marine Company, whose headquarters are 
in New York, are usually somewhat difficult to 
unravel, owing to the widespread nature of their 
ramifications. From the annual report and state- 
ment of accounts, however, it appears that the 
parent concern made last year a loss of $1,507,187 
after all charges had been met and allowance made 
for depreciation. For the previous year the net 
loss was $1,278,000. The plight of shipping in the 
United States is clearly exemplified by the di- 
rectors' statement that "operating results for the 
first four months of 1933 show no improvement 
when compared with the same period last year, 
and, unfortunately, we do not at the present time 
feel encouraged to forecast a turn for the better, 
either in freight or in passenger business, in the 
near future." 

The annual report of the Nederland Steamship 
Company, Amsterdam, states that the economic 
position in the Nederlands East Indies during the 
past twelve months was in many respects more un- 
favorable than in the preceding year. Despite the 
smaller number of sailings the volume of cargo 
offering was insufficient to fill the company's ves- 
sels on their outward passages, and as the quan- 
tity of homeward cargo remained practically un- 
altered, the balance was even more disturbed than 
in 1931. Reductions had been made in passenger 
fares to bring them into line with the lower value 
of sterling and the homeward traffic remained at 
about the same level. There was, however, a no- 
ticeable tendency to travel in a lower class. Freight 
and passage receipts were approximately 8,000,000 
gls. less than in the preceding year and sixteen 
millions less than in 1930; nevertheless, the ac- 
counts show a trading surplus of 6,394,847 gls., 
compared with 6,140,894 gls. in 1931. 

At the end of 1932 the Belgian merchant fleet 
comprised 141 sea-going vessels of 469,817 tons 
gross and several times during the year over 50 
per cent of the total tonnage was lying idle. In a 
recent issue of a Belgian shipping contemporary, 
there appeared an article which viewed this situa- 
tion with alarm, and recommended the imme- 



11 



124 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



August, 1933 



diate adoption of the shipping credit scheme which 
has been under parliamentary discussion for two 
years past. The plan provides for the constitu- 
tion of a limited company with a capital of 100,- 
000,000 fr., the state to subscribe up to a maxi- 
mum of 65,000,000 fr. and shipowners and cer- 
tain banks to provide the balance. The company 
would be authorized to issue bonds up to five 
times its capital, affording loans to owners for a 
maximum period of twenty years. It is claimed 
for the scheme that the two Belgian shipyards, 
which are at present without work, could start 
building vessels at once, thereby giving employ- 
ment to 3,000 men who now cost the state about 
eighteen million francs a year in relief. It would 
also give work to 1,500 seamen, and would im- 
prove the trade balance of the country by increas- 
ing the revenues from shipping. 

According to present indications, the prospects 
of any marked improvement in the volume of 
transatlantic traffic during the current year are 
not encouraging. Trade conditions, both in the 
United States and Canada, are still unsettled, 
and emigration to both countries when com- 
pared with that of boom years is almost negligible, 
with the eastward flow of travel exceeding the 
westward. For the increased movement to Europe 
the deportation policy of the Canadian authorities 
is largely responsible. Under this system unde- 
sirables are repatriated at the expense of the ship- 
ping lines which brought them, and thus ship- 
owners, besides facing an unremunerative volume 
of travel, are further handicapped by having to 
provide free transportation for those who, from 
no fault of their own, have failed to make good. 
Under the provisions of the Immigration Act any 
person who has not established Canadian domicile, 
or who has developed specified diseases, com- 
mitted certain classes of crime or become charge- 
able to the public rates may be returned to the 
country from which he came. The number so 
deported during the decade ended with 1929 was 
16,320 out of the total 1,248,000 admitted, of 
whom 530,700 were British. The percentages of 
deportees were thus 1.3 of the total and 1.6 of 
the British immigrants. Since then the proportion 
returned has increased enormously. These fig- 
ures, it should be remembered, do not include 
would-be entrants into the Dominion who were 
rejected as undesirable at the ports of landing, 
the number thus prohibited in the period men- 
tioned being 7,000. 



LABOR NEWS 



Absorption of the membership of the Neptune 
Association of Masters, Mates and Pilots and the 
Ocean Association of Marine Engineers by the 
recently organized United Licensed Officers is an- 
nounced following meetings of the two first 
named organizations. This amalgamation, it is 
stated, will increase the membership of United 
Licensed Officers by about 4,000 men. 

The British Trades Union Congress General 
Council has endorsed a recommendation of the 
National Joint Council (representing the T. U. C, 
the Labor Party and the Parliamentary Labo 
Party) that, "having regard to the action of thi 
Hitler government against the trade union, so- 
cialist and cooperative organizations in Germany, 
an appeal should be issued to members of the 
respective organizations urging them not to pur-M 
chase or use German goods or services." 

Ruskin College, Oxford, has received 145 ap- I 
plications for the three scholarships which are I 
being offered by the Governing Council of the 1 
college for the year 1933-3-1 — one to a working 
woman, one to a miner, and the other to an agri-1 
cultural worker. Although funds will not allow! 
of the award of more than three scholarships,! 
there is no doubt, judging by the experience ofl 
previous years, that a considerable number of the 
applicants will prove to merit a course of study 
at the college. 

The question of a forty-hour week for manual 
workers has been shelved for at least two years 
following a formal vote in the International Labor 
Conference, which met in plenary session. Great 
Britain has maintained the staunchest opposition 
to a forty-hour convention, and at the suggestion 
largely of Frederick Leggett of the Ministry of 
Labor, the British Government's delegate and Sir 
James Lithgow, the conference decided by a 
majority vote to give time for an investigation 
into the problem. A questionnaire will be prei 
pared for discussion at next year's conference. 

President T. A. Rickert of the United Garment 
Workers of America announced that witli the 
week beginning July 17 the workers employed 
in all of the overall, short, and general work cloth- 
ing factories under the Garment Workers' juris- 



12 



August, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



125 



diction had received a 20 per cent wage increase. 
Many of the men's ready-to-wear using the 
United Garment Workers' label, which is the only 
label recognized by the American Federation of 
Labor on this class of clothing, are also falling 
in line and granting similar increases, affecting 
approximately 40,000 clothing workers, Mr. 
Rickert stated. 

Strange how rough an administration devoted 
to a New Deal can be. More than 100 commercial 
attaches, mostly hard working folks who thought 
they were in a career service, are told they are 
fired and have four days in which to catch the 
boat for home. Most of them have furniture, 
many have children. Four days to clean up and 
get out. Tough going. Many had to sacrifice their 
belongings for a song, dump stuff here and there. 
Many had to pay servants "discharge pay." But 
at that, there's very little complaining. Just the 
wonderment about where the next job is coming 
from. 

The executive committee of the Japanese Trade 
Union Federation held a meeting in Tokyo re- 
cently to discuss its attitude towards the League of 
Nations, and especially the International Labor 
Organization. The meeting unanimously adopted 
the following resolution, which was presented to 
the Prime Minister and the Ministers for Home 
and Foreign Affairs : "The Japanese Trade Union 
Federation is of opinion that the withdrawal of 
Japan from the League of Nations will entail 
great disadvantages to the country. Above all, 
should Japan secede from the International Labor 
Organization, the Congress is confident that the 
workers in Japan in general will be greatly dis- 
appointed ; the trend of their thought will be ag- 
gravated, and the development of national in- 
dustry will be seriously impaired. The Congress, 
therefore, requests the government to give most 
careful attention to these facts. 

The Dutch National Trade Union Center and 
the Dutch Socialist Party have decided to organ- 
ize a boycott of German goods. They justify 
their decision on the ground that those in power 
in Germany fear nothing so much as a boycott, 
and it is the only available weapon against them. 
It is thought that it will be possible to make the 
boycott a very thorough one. The executives of 
the two bodies will set up an office to inform the 
public as to what goods come from Germany, as 
especially in the case of semi-manufactured 



goods, it is not always easy for the consumer to 
ascertain the facts. In taking this action, it is 
fully realized that the German Government may 
take counter measures, but this is a risk which 
the Dutch labor movement is determined to run 
in view of the great moral significance of the 
action. It is expected that thousands outside the 
ranks of labor will follow suit, despite the finan- 
cial sacrifices which may well be involved. 

"Nema," whose full name is the National Elec- 
trical Manufacturers' Association, was pilloried 
by labor representatives when its code providing 
a forty-hour week and $14 minimum wage, with 
20 per cent discount for office boys, learners and 
casuals, was presented before the Industrial Re- 
covery Administration. Charles L. Reed, assistant 
to the president, and Charles D. Keaveney, vice- 
president of the International Brotherhood of 
Electrical Workers, declared a minimum wage of 
$14 in an industry as profitable as the electrical 
is anti-social. They denounced it as a makeshift 
advancing no standards and offering no prospect 
of absorbing its quota of the unemployed. They 
proposed a minimum wage of 90 cents an hour 
for skilled labor and a maximum work week of 
thirty hours. They also asked that the National 
Recovery Administration make an investigation 
of labor relations in the electrical manufacturing 
field, an almost wholly open shop industry. 

Seventeen members of the United States Sen- 
ate are on record in favor of decentralizing wealth 
through drastic taxes on incomes and inheritances. 
Senator Huey P. Long (Democrat, Louisiana) 
has been urging this program since he came to 
Congress and was given an opportunity to offer 
it as an amendment to the bill continuing the gaso- 
line tax for another year. The proposal called 
for stiff boosts in the higher tax brackets, with 
Uncle Sam taking all incomes above $1,000,000, 
and provided that no person could inherit more 
than $5,000,000. Those supporting Long's pro- 
posal were Senators Cutting of New Mexico, 
Frazier of North Dakota, La Follette of Wis- 
consin, Norris of Nebraska, Nye of North Da- 
kota and Robinson of Indiana, Republicans ; Bone 
of Washington, Long of Louisiana, McGill of 
Kansas, Neely of West Virginia, Overton of 
Louisiana, Pope of Idaho, Reynolds of North 
Carolina, Trammell of Florida, Dill of Washing- 
ton and Wheeler of Montana, Democrats, and 
Shipstead of Minnesota, Farmer-Laborite. 



13 



126 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



August, 1933 



HONORING CHARLES P. STEINMETZ 



Henry Ford has placed in his River Rouge 
museum the little camp shack in which Charles P. 
Steinmetz used to rest, and dream, and work out 
his bewildering mathematics of electricity. 

Any honors to Steinmetz are justified, though 
the alternating current and high tension transmis- 
sion lines are better monuments to that weird 
genius than any which Mr. Ford can buy. Yet 
the shack has its uses as a memorial — if Mr. Ford 
will take advantage of them. 

It marks the career of a man who loved his 
work for its own sake. In the forty years or so 
that he served the General Electric Company, 
Steinmetz probably added hundreds of millions of 
dollars to the wealth of the electrical industry — 
which may have passed on a minor fraction of 
that sum to the America consumer. He could 
have had many of those millions for himself. But 
he did not want them. His code, which a gifted 
writer put together from Steinmetz's own words, 
was this: 

"Let no man take from society more than he 
requires for his immediate needs. Let him house 
and clothe and feed himself and his family; let 
him take enough to afford him opportunity for 
unhampered service to the community. Let him 
never waste himself in piling up riches. What 
flows out (of his work) above his needs, let it 
go back directly to where it will produce for the 
public good." 

History holds a million careers which refute the 
claim that gigantic money rewards must be offered 
to procure great services; but the life of Steinmetz 
is perhaps the most dramatic of them all. If Mr. 
Ford will engrave a tablet with a brief statement 
of the life and principles of Charles Proteus 
Steinmetz, that shack may be a true memorial. 
after all. — Labor. 



BRITISH UNION REGISTRATION 



The registration of trade-unions was first per- 
mitted by the British Trade-Union Act of 1871, 
the principal Act which governs these bodies. The 
main purpose of the Act was to relieve trade- 
unions and their members from some of the dis- 
abilities which they suffered because their asso- 
ciations were combinations in restraint of trade. 
Registration under the Trade-Union Act was per- 
mitted to such trade-unions as chose to register, 



but registration under the Friendly Societies In- 
dustrial and Provident Societies, or Companies 
Acts was forbidden. Associations, both of masters 
to regulate the relationship with their work people 
and of persons engaged in trade or bu>iness to 
impose restrictive conditions on such trade or 
business, are in law trade-unions, and have the 
same privileges and are subject to the same con- 
ditions as trade-unions of work people. Although 
a number of unions of employees, mostly small, 
are still not registered, the registered unions of 
employees are believed to comprise about 80 per 
cent of trade-unions memberships. In regard to 
trade-unions of masters and traders the position 
is probably reversed, only the small and less pow- 
erful being registered. 

The office of the Chief Registrar of Friendly 
Societies deals with annual returns furnished by 
unions under the Trade-Unions Acts, the returns 
being often sent back for correction. The Trade- 
Unions Acts do not require unions to haw- their 
accounts audited by professional accountants, and, 
for the most part, they prefer to choose their 
auditors from among their own members, but in 
view of the inaccuracy of the annual returns the 
Registrar has, in many instances, considered it 
his duty to recommend the employment of profes- 
sional auditors. About one-third of the unit jus 
now employ professional auditors. 

The number of registered Trade-Unions in 
1930 was 474, having 3,764,348 member.-. The 
membership of unregistered unions was e-timated 
at over half a million persons. 



COAST-TO-COAST AIR MAIL 



lor twelve years the United States has had 
coast-to-coast mail by air. The first schedules 
were flown in thirty-three and one-half hour- of 
daylight flying. Now the continent is spanned in 
twenty-seven hours of continuous flight. Beacons 
located every ten miles make it possible to cover 
half the course between dusk and dawn. Xew 
mail planes now on order are expected to bring the 
schedules within the compass of a twenty-four- 
hour day. In twelve years more, coast-to-coast 
seems likely even to fit itself into a single revolu- 
tion of the clock. 



The labor union is not a perfect organization 
to cure all the ills of labor, but it has given such 
help to wage earners as could have been attained 
in no other way. — Garriga. 



]A 



August, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



127 



Professional Cards 



Attorney for the Sailors' Union of the 
Pacific since its organization 

H. W. Hutton 

431 Pacific Bids;., Fourth and Market Sts. 

SAN FRANCISCO 

PHONE DOUGLAS 0315 



Albert Michelson 

ATTORNEY-AT-LAW 

Attorney for 

Marine Firemen and Watertenders' 
Union of Pacific 
Marine Diesel and Gasoline Engi- 
neers' Association No. 49 
611 Russ Bldg. Tel. SUtter 3866 

San Francisco, California 



ANDERSON 8C LAMB 

Attorney s-at-Law 

1226 Engineers Bank Building 

CLEVELAND, OHIO 

Personal Injury Attorneys for Seamen on 
the Great Lakes 



Frank Orwitz 

ATTORNEY-AT-LAW 

Room No. 630, Hearst Building 
Market Street and Third 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 

Telephone GArfield 6353 



AND AFTER THAT— 

The roadmaster, riding along on 
the train, sent a telegram to the 
section foreman which read as fol- 
lows: "Grass and weeds accumu- 
lated around bridge 365-M. Burn." 

In a short time the roadmaster 
received a telegram from the sec- 
tion foreman: "Bridge 365-M 
burned." — Frisco Employes' Maga- 
zine. 



BABY TALK 

"Is that a dray horse you have 
there?" 

"Say, sister, this is a brown 
horse, and don't talk baby talk to 
me." 



FOUNDATION O. K. 

"Did you hear Erica is marrying 
her X-ray specialist?" 

"Well, she's lucky. Nobody else 
could ever see anything in her." 



Mourner — Can you tell me what 
you charge for a funeral notice in 
your paper? 

Editor — Fifty cents an inch. 

Mourner — Good heavens, man, 
that's too high My brother was six 
feet tall. 




Plates and 
Bridgework 

DR. C. S. FORD 

702 Market Street 

At Market-Geary-Kearny Sts. 

Phone EXbrook 0329 

Daily Office hours, 8:30 a. m. to 7 p. i 
Sunday hours, 9 a.m. till noon 
"One Patient Tells Another" 



JENSEN 8C NELSEN 

Gents' Furnishing Goods 

Sayer's Oil Skin Clothing 
Uniforms, Caps, Hats, Shoes 



110 EAST STREET 
GArfield 9633 



NEAR MISSION 
San Francisco 



SEATTLE, WASH. 

-> 

K. K. Tvete & Sons 

Established 1890 

MEN'S CLOTHING, SHOES, HATS, 
AND FURNISHING GOODS 

1300-1302 First Ave., cor. University 
SEATTLE, WASH. 



Westerman's 

UNION LABEL, 

Clothier, Furnisher 8C Hatter 

Alaska Outfitter 

TWO BIG STORES 

Store No. 1 — Cor. Main and First 

Store No. 2 — Westlake and Pine 

SEATTLE 



Bonney-Watson Co. 

Funeral Directors 

Crematory and Columbarium 

1702 Broadway Seattle 



ONLY WHAT WE FIGHT FOR ! 



"What does labor get out of the Industrial Recovery 
Act?" 

That question is being asked on every hand. 

The answer is simple : Only what we fight for. 

But that may be a great deal, because — 

Today the law gives us a chance to stand up and fight. 

Men can organize. 

Yellow dog contracts can't touch them. 

The old injunctions are out. 

An organizer can ask a man to join a union and the 
man can join — and nothing is going to happen to him. 
The employer is forbidden to fire him for joining a union. 

At last that is law, good and plenty, with teeth, with a 
bite — with jail waiting to teach lessons to those who try 
the old and dirty tricks. 

Of course, if workers will not join unions, then that's 
too bad. Nothing much can be done for them or by them. 

The law compels no man to join a union. The govern- 
ment won't organize unions. 

The law does only what labor has always wanted. It 
clears the field of obstacles. It gives men the lawful 
chance to join unions. 

That being done, it's up to the workers. 

Labor will get only what it fights for, and it can't fight 
for anything if it isn't organized. 



15 



128 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



August. 1933 



Taylor's Nautical Academy 

FOR NAVIGATORS AND MARINE ENGINEERS 
Established 1888 

Consular Bldg., Corner Washington 
and Battery Sts., opp. New Custom 

House, San Francisco, Calif. 
THIS OLD AND NOTEWORTHY 
SCHOOL is under the direct and per- 
sonal supervision of CAPT. HENRY 
TAYLOR, and equipped with all mod- 
ern appliances to illustrate and teach 
any branch of Navigation. 

The class of teachers of Navigation 
in the past have been those having 
simply a knowledge of Navigation and 
Navigation only. Conditions have 
changed, and the American seamen 
demand a man as a teacher with 
higher attainments than one who has 
only the limited ability of a seaman. 
The Principal of this School, keeping 
this always in view, studied several 
years the Maritime Law. and is now. 
In addition to being a thorough teacher of Navigation and its kindred 
subjects, a regularly admitted Member of the Bar. 

There is no standard of education required of a pupil entering the 
School, for no matter how ignorant the seaman may be, even in the 
rudiments of common education, Captain Henry Taylor will teach and 
raise him from the depths of ignorance to the height of the average 
well Informed man, and in a comparatively short interval of time. 




Phont GARFIELD 2076 

DR. EDMOND J. BARRETT 

DENTIST 

Rooms 2429-30, 450 Sutter Building 

Hours: 9 A. M. to 5 P. M. and 

by Appointment 



Seamen's Furnishing Goods 

OTTO PAHL 

Shoes, Oilskins, Seaboots and Underwear 
Suits cleaned and pressed while you wait 

140 EMBARCADERO 
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 



Union-made Work Clothes and Shoes 

Uniform Caps, Oilskins and 

Seaboots, Belfast Cord 

and Buckles 



SAM'S 



Shore and Offshore Outfitting Store 
Formerly with Geo. A. Price 

4 Clay Street, San Francisco 

Phone GArfield 6784 



INFORMATION WANTED 

Will the following firemen com- 
municate with me: Jacob Butler, 
W. M. Myer, and John Spencer. 
Also the following oilers: J. Hamil- 
ton, Antonio Lopez, and J. N. 
Wright. John A. Bryant, former 
first assistant engineer, was injured 
on the Steamship Sarcoxie, July 19. 
1930. Silas B. Axtell, Esq., 80 Broad 
Street, New York Citv, N. Y. Room 
3008. 



An archaelogical expedition in 
northern Iraq recently unearthed 
ivory combs and stone cosmetic jars 
of 3700 B. C. 



Now in Our New Location 

"624 MARKET* 

Opposite Palace Hotel 




-BOSS- 

YOUR UNION TAILOR 



INFORMATION WANTED 
Will the following seamen, J. 

Gladstone, P. W. Newman, and 
Henry White, who were witnesses 
to the accident of Harry Bloom on 
the steamship Algic, November 19, 
1929, please communicate with me? 
Silas B. Axtell. Esq., 80 Broad 
Street, New York City, N. V.. 
Room 3008. 



Will the following seamen, Nicho- 
las Tomis, steamship Berury: Law- 
rence Cruz, steamship Bellbuckle; 
Eddie Weik, steamship Commercial 
Trader; Thomas Elliott, steamship 
Halfmoon; James Connors, steam- 
ship Exbrook, kindly communicate 
with Lucian V. Axtell, 80 Broad 
Street, New York Citv, N. Y. 



ON HIS FEET AGAIN 

"Good morning, Mrs. Kelly," said 
the doctor, "did you take your hus- 
band's temperature, as I told you?" 

Yes, doctor; I borrowed a ba- 
rometer and placed it on his chest; 
it said 'very dry,' so I went and 
bought him a pint of beer an' he's 
gone back to work." 

16 



A Great Store 

Built Upon 

Successful 

Service to 

Millions 



is 



HALE BROS. 

INC. 

Market at Fifth 

SAN FRANCISCO 
SUTTER 8000 



THE 

James H. Barry Go, 

The Star Press 

Printing 



1122-1124 MISSION STREET 
SAN FRANCISCO 



We print "The Sesmen't Journal' 



In San Francisco 

KODAKS 

Exchanged * Bought 
Sold 

at 

SAN FRANCISCO 
CAMERA EXCHANGE 

88 Third St. near Mission St. 

CAMERA SHOP 
145 Kearny St. near Sutter St. 




A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, FOR SEAMEN 



Our Aim : The Brotherhood of the Sea 



Our Motto : Justice by Organization 



Vol. XLVII, No. 9 



SAN FRANCISCO, SEPTEMBER 1, 1933 



Whole No. 2036 



SEAMEN SUBMIT CODES 



S time rolls on. it has become evident that 
the organized shipowners of America have no 
intention of consulting with the organized seamen 
with respect to Codes governing wages, hours and 
working conditions. 

In harmony with the intent and purpose of the 
National Recovery Act, the Pacific, Atlantic and 
Great Lakes District Unions of the International 
Seamen's Union of America have therefore 
drafted and submitted Codes to National Recovery 
Administrator Hugh S. Johnson. All the Codes 
were prepared under the guidance and with the co- 
operation of the respective Executive Board mem- 
bers of the International Seamen's Union of 
America. 

The Codes prepared for the Pacific District 
Unions are published in this issue of the Journal. 
The Codes covering Great Lakes and Atlantic 
shipping will appear in subsequent issues. 

PROPOSED CODES FOR THE SHIPPING IN- 
DUSTRY GOVERNING WAGES, HOURS 
AND WORKING CONDITIONS 
OF SEAMEN 

Deck Department 

Code proposed by Sailors' Union of the Pacific, or- 
ganized March 6, 1885, affiliated with the Interna- 
tional Seamen's Union of America, the American 
Federation of Labor, the State Federation of 
Labor in the States of California, Oregon and 
Washington, and with the respective City Central 
Labor Councils in the various localities. 

In order to provide for the general welfare by pro- 
moting the organization of the Shipping Industry of 



the United States, for the purpose of cooperative 
action among the trade groups, to induce and maintain 
united action of labor and management inder adequate 
governmental sanction and provisions, to eliminate 
unfair competitive practices, to reduce and relieve 
unemployment, to increase the purchasing power and 
improve .the standards of labor, and otherwise to 
rehabilitate and conserve natural resources; we, the 
undersigned organizations and groups as the true rep- 
resentatives of our respective fields of enterprise do, 
hereby and herein, agree to the provisions of the fol- 
lowing agreement as the equitable means to accom- 
plish these purposes, and further agree that when a 
code of fair competition for the shipping industry of 
the United States is adopted the provisions hereof 
shall be made a part of said code of fair competition 
for the Shipping Industry of the United States as 
follows: 

This Agreement, made and entered into this 

day of , 1933, by and between the Ameri- 
can Steamship Owners' Association and the Pacific 
American Steamship Owners' Association and Ship- 
owners' Association of the Pacific Coast, party of the 
first part, and the International Seamen's Union of 
America, party of the second part, 

WITNESSETH: 

Article I. (a) Employees shall have the right to 
organize and bargain collectively through representa- 
tives of their own choosing, and shall be free from the 
interference, restraint, or coercion of employers of 
labor, or their agents, in the designation of such repre- 
sentatives or in self-organization or in other concerted 
activities for the purpose of collective bargaining or 
other mutual aid or protection. 

(b) No employees and no one seeking employment 
shall be required as a condition of employment, to join 
any company union or to refrain from joining, organ- 
izing, or assisting a labor organization cf his own 
choosing. 

(c) Employers shall comply with the maximum 
hours of labor, minimum rates of pay, and other con- 
ditions of employment, approved or prescribed by the 
President. 



130 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



September 1, 1933 



Article II. Classification and Minimum Rates of 
Wages — Deck Department. 
Coastwise Shipping: 

Carpenters $85.00 

Boatswains 85.00 

Winchdrivers 85.00 

Able Seamen 75.00 

Ordinary Seamen 40.00 

Deck Boys 30.00 

Overtime 75 an liour 

Inter coastal ship pim/: 

Carpenters $85.00 

Boatswains 85.00 

Able Seamen 75.00 

Ordinary Seamen 40.00 

Deck Boys 30.00 

Overtime 75 an hour 

Off-shore Shipping: 

Carpenters $75.00 

Boatswains 75.00 

Able Seamen 65.00 

Ordinary Seamen 40.00 

Deck Boys 30.00 

Overtime 60 an hour 

Boatswains and Carpenters: In vessels of 10,000 to 
20,000 gross tons, the wages of chief boatswains and 
carpenters shall be graduated upwards with a mini- 
mum not less than $90 a month. In vessels of 20.000 
gross tons the minimum shall not be less than $100 
per month. 

Carpenters' and Boatswains' Mates: Carpenters' and 
boatswains' mates shall be paid at a rate not less 
than $5 more than the rate paid able seamen in the 
respective trades. 

Quartermasters: Those members of the crew who 
are detailed to act as quartermasters, and where spe- 
cial uniforms, blues, whites, caps, and extreme clean- 
liness are demanded, shall be paid wages at a rate of 
not less than $7.50 per month more than the regular 
able seamen. 

Ordinary Seamen: The ordinary seamen's wages, 
after twelve months' experience as ordinary seamen, 
shall be increased to not less than $50 a month. 
After the second year's experience it shall be increased 
to not less than S60 a month. 

Deck Boys: Deck boys must have at least six 
months' actual deck experience before being allowed 
to sail as ordinary seamen. 

Working Cargo: Xo employee shall be used for 
working cargo unless he has the following qualifica- 
tions: Employee must be not less than 19 years of 
age and have not less than two and one-half years of 
experience at sea. All employees working cargo shall 
be paid not less than $60 per month. 

Article III. Working Hours in Port: Six hours 
shall constitute a day's work in port, except on Sat- 
urdays, when work shall begin at 8 a. m. and cease 
at 12 noon. The hours of work from Monday to Fri- 
day, inclusive, shall be from 9 a. m. to 12 noon, and 
from 1 p. m. to 4 p. m. The dinner hour shall be 
from 12 noon to 1 p. m., but may be varied not to 
exceed one hour. Any work performed before 9 
a. m. and after 4 p. in. shall be paid for at the regu- 
lar overtime rate. 

Days of Departure and Days of Arrival: For the 
purpose of computing the time on days of departure 
and days of arrival, the work-day shall be reckoned 
from midnight to midnight, and all service rendered 
to the ship in excess of seven (7) hours on such days 
shall be paid for at the regular overtime rate. 

Definition of Holidays: The following days shall he 
observed as holidays: Sundays, and United States 
legal holidays everywhere, whether in port or at sea; 
Sundays and state holidays in the port of the state of 
the United States where the vessel may be at the time. 
United States legal holidays to be observed shall be: 
New Year's Day. Washington's Birthday. Memorial 



Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving 
Day. Christmas Day and Sundays. 

ll'ork on Holidays: Work performed on Sundays, 
holidays and Saturday afternoons shall be paid for at 
the regular overtime rate. Any work on Sundays, 
holidays or week days, in case of emergency for the 
immediate safety of the vessel, her cargo, passengers 
and crew, shall be done at any time without extra 
compensation. 

Members of the crew are required to keep gangway 
or watch vessel on Sundays, holidays and Saturday 
afternoons, shall be paid therefor at overtime rate. 

Article IV. Working Hours at Sea: Three watches 
at sea, four hours on and eight hours off, constitute 
an eight-hour workday, and a fifty-six (56) hour work 
week. 

Xo work to be performed on Sundays or holidays, 
except two hours in the morning for washing down, 
and for sanitation; provided, however, that a regular 
watch shall be on deck at all times for steering, for 
lookout, and to stand by for any duties incidental to 
safe navigation of the ship. 

Any work in case of emergency for the immediate 
safety of the vessel, her cargo, passenger> and crew, 
to he done at any time, by the watch on deck or 
watches below, as the case may require, without extra 
compensation; provided, however, if any of the 
watches are called upon to perform any other work, 
excei >t for such immediate safety of vessel, her pas- 
sengers, cargo and crew, they shall be paid therefor 
at the regular overtime rate. 

Meals and Room Allowances: When no cooking is 
done on board and the crew have to eat ashore, 50 
cents shall be allowed for each meal. When crew is 
compelled to sleep ashore on account of repairing, 
cleaning, fumigating, etc., of the forecastle, seventy- 
five (75) cents a night shall be allowed each man for 
room rent. 

Deck Manning Scale for Steam and Motor J'esscls: 
Schedule of deck crews proposed for steam and motor 
vessels, showing the smallest number of able seamen 
allowable, and the respective number of ordinary sea- 
men and deck boys required: 

Tonnage (Gross) Carptr's Bosn's A. B.'s O. S. D. B. 

Of 500 and under 700 .... 4 1 1 

Of 700 and under 1,000 ..1421 

Of 1,000 and under 1.500 114 2 1 

Of 1,500 and under 2,000 110 2 1 

Of 2,000 and under 2,500 116 2 1 

Of 2,500 and under 3,000 116 2 1 

Of 3.000 and under 3.500 117 2 1 

Of 3.500 and under 4,000 117 2 1 

Of 4.000 and under 4.500 118 2 1 

Of 4,500 and under 5,000 118 2 1 

Of 5,000 and under 5,500 1 19 2 1 

Of 5,500 and under 6,000 119 2 1 

(Note) In vessels of 6,000 gross tons and over, a 
proportionate number of able seamen shall be added 
for every 1,000 gross tons. 

In vessels of 6,000 gross tons and over a propor- 
tionate number of ordinary seamen and deck boys 
shall be carried. 

ARTICLE V. Preference of Employment and Right to 
Visit Ships: Members of the Sailors' Union of the 
Pacific shall have preference of employment, and the 
shipment and discharge of seamen shall be conducted 
solely through the office of the United States Ship- 
ping Commissioner, in accordance with the navigation 
laws. Xo seaman shall be required, as a condition of 
receiving employment, to register with any institution 
maintained or conducted in opposition to the purposes 
of this section. 

In order to induce and maintain united action ot 
labor and management under adequate governmental 
sanction, the authorized representatives of the Sailors' 
Union of the Pacific shall be permitted to visit ships 
when crews sign shipping articles and when men are 



September 1, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



131 



being paid off, and at other times during reasonable 
hours. 

In Witness Whereof, the parties hereto have set 

their hands and seals this day of , 

1933. 

Employer: Union: 



Engineers' Department 
Code Proposed by the Marine Firemen, Oilers and 
Water-tenders' Union of the Pacific, organized 
May 12, 1885, affiliated with the International 
Seamen's Union of America, the American Fed- 
eration of Labor and the California State Federa- 
tion of Labor. 
[Note:— The Preamble and Article I of this Code 
are identical in language with the Preamble and 
Article I of Code applicable to the Deck Department.] 
Article II. Classification and Minimum Rates of 
Wages — Engine Department. 
Coastwise Shipping: 

Watertenders $80.00 

Storekeepers 80.00 

Oilers 80.00 

Firemen , 75.00 

Donkeymen or Combinationmen 75.00 

Wipers 70.00 

Overtime 75 an hour 

Intercoastal Shipping: 

Watertenders $80.00 

Storekeepers 80.00 

Oilers 80.00 

Firemen 75.00 

Donkeymen or Combinationmen 75.00 

Wipers 70.00 

Overtime 75 an hour 

Off -Shore Shipping: 

Watertenders $70.00 

Storekeepers 70.00 

Oilers 70.00 

Firemen 65.00 

Donkeymen or Combinationmen 65.00 

Wipers ..- 60.00 

Overtime 60 an hour 

Article III. Working Hours in Port: Six hours 
shall constitute a day's work in port, except on Sat- 
urdays, when work shall begin at 8 a. m. and cease 
at 12 noon. The hours of work from Monday to 
Friday, inclusive, shall be from 9 a. m. to 12 noon, 
and from 1 p. m. to 4 p. m. The dinner hour shall 
be from 12 noon to 1 p. m., but may be varied not 
to exceed one hour. Any work performed before 9 
a. m. and after 4 p. m. shall be paid for at the regu- 
lar overtime rate. 

Days of Departure and Days of Arrival: For the 
purpose of computing the time on days of departure 
and day of arrival, the work day shall be reckoned 
from midnight to midnight, and all service rendered 
to the ship in excess of seven (7) hours on such days 
shall be paid for at the regular overtime rste. 

Article IV. Working Hours at Sea: Three watches 
at sea, four hours on and eight hours off, constitut- 
ing an eight-hour work day, and a fifty-six (56) hour 
work week. 

Any work performed on Sundays or holidays, out- 
side of the recognized regular sea duty, except for the 
immediate safety of the vessel, her passengers, cargo 
and crew, shall be paid for at the regular overtime 
rate. 

Article V. Work on Sundays, Holidays and Saturday 
Afternoons: Work performed on Sundays, holidays 
and Saturday afternoons, while in port, shall be paid 
for at the regular overtime rate. 

Any work at any time on Sundays, holidays, or 
week days, in case of emergency for the immediate 
safety of the vessel, her passengers, cargo and crew, 



shall be done at any time without extra compen- 
sation. 

Definition of Holidays: The following days shall be 
observed as holidays: Sundays and United States legal 
holidays everywhere, whether in port or at sea; Sun- 
days and state holidays in the port of the state of the 
United States where the vessel may be at the time. 

United States legal holidays to be observed shall be: 
New Year's Day, Washington's Birthday, Memorial 
Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving 
Day, Christmas Day and Sundays. 

Article VI. Relieving Unemployment by Restoring 
Engineroom Crews to the Level of January 1, 1929: 
Wherever the engineroom crews were reduced by one 
or more employees, since January 1, 1929, the same 
number of employees shall now be restored to their 
respective capacities on each and every such ship on 
which the said reduction was effected. 

Article VII. Meals and Room Allowances: When 
no cooking is done on board and the crew have to eat 
ashore, fifty cents shall be allowed for each meal. 
When crew is compelled to sleep ashore on account 
of repairing, cleaning, fumigating, etc., of the fore- 
castle, seventy-five cents a night shall be allowed each 
man* for room rent. 

Article VIII. Preference of Employment and Right 
to Visit Ships: Members of the Marine Firemen, Oil- 
ers and Watertenders' Union of the Pacific shall have 
preference of employment, and the shipment and dis- 
charge of seamen shall be conducted solely through 
the office of the United States Shipping Commissioner, 
in accordance with the navigation laws. No seaman 
shall be required, as a condition of receiving employ- 
ment, to register with any institution maintained or 
conducted in opposition to the purposes of this 
section. 

In order to induce and maintain the united action of 
labor and management under adequate governmental 
sanction, the authorized representatives of the Marine 
Firemen, Oilers, and Watertenders' Union of the 
Pacific shall be permitted to visit ships when crews 
sign shipping articles and when men are being paid 
off, and at other times during reasonable hours. 

In Witness Whereof, the parties hereto have set 

their hands and seals this day of , 

1933. 

Employer: Union: 



Stewards' Department 
Code proposed by the Marine Cooks and Stewards' 
Association of the Pacific, organized May 1, 1901, 
affiliated with the International Seamen's Union 
of America, the American Federation of Labor 
and the California State Federation of Labor. 
[Note: — The Preamble arid Article I of this Code 
are identical in language with the Preamble and Ar- 
ticle I of Code applicable to the Deck Department.] 

Article II. Preference of Employment and Author- 
ized Representatives of Union Right to Visit Ships: 
Members of the Marine Cooks and Stewards' Asso- 
ciation of the Pacific shall have preference of employ- 
ment, and the shipment and discharge of seamen shall 
be conducted solely through the office of the United 
States Shipping Commissioner, in accordance with the 
navigation laws. No seaman shall be required, as a 
condition of receiving employment, to register with 
any institution maintained or conducted in opposition 
to the purpose of this section. 

In order that the united action of labor and man- 
agement under adequate governmental sanction, the 
authorized representatives of the Marine Cooks and 
Stewards' Association of the Pacific shall be permitted 
to visit ships when crews sign shipping articles and 
when men are being paid off and at other times during 
reasonable hours. 

(Continued on Page 137) 



132 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



September 1, 1933 



NEWS AND COMMENT 

Concerning Seamen the World Over 



Weary of trying to make both ends meet on 
their low wages, the crews of the ships belonging 
to the South American Steamship Company went 
on strike in Valparaiso, Chile, demanding a 25 
per cent pay increase. 

"Vagabond Cruises" have been introduced by 
a transatlantic shipping company, the attraction 
held out to tourists being that, as the steamers 
available for them are freighters, '"they don't 
know where they are going when they set out." 

* * * 

The Swedish Seamen's Journal, Sjomannoi, has 
issued a pretentious and well edited supplement 
for the members of the Stewards' Department. 
The name of the twenty-four-page publication is 
The New Economist. As previously reported, 
all the seamen in Sweden have recently joined 
hands in one national union. 

* * * 

J. W. Scott, a South Shields ship's officer, was 
decorated with a bronze medal by King George 
at Buckingham Palace for gallantry at sea while 
serving as chief officer on the Southern Cross VI. 
The vessel stranded on an island in the New 
Hebrides, and Mr. Scott swam ashore with a line 
through heavy seas. All the crew were eventually 

rescued. 

* * * 

Thirty-six British ships were sold to Japan last 
year, a shipowner declared in court during the 
hearing of the case in Blyth, Northumberland, 
against Davison, charged with inciting the crew 
to prevent the Stanleyville, a British ship sold to 
Japan, from leaving for Kobe. Davison declared 
in court that the Stanleyville was intended for 
scrap to be used in the manufacture of shells. 

He was fined £2. 

* * * 

Following protracted negotiations a new agree- 
ment has been concluded with the employers' 
association in the Swedish inland shipping indus- 
try. An improvement of conditions is provided 
for, especially for female personnel, who in future 
will also come under the maritime code. Wages 
and subsistence allowances have also been in- 



creased. In case of illness women employees shall 
be cared for at the expense of the shipowner. 
The new agreement does not affect the conditions 
of the deck and engine-room personnel. 

* * * 

The seamen of Latvia are on strike for an in- 
crease in wages and conclusion of a collective 
agreement. Ships returning to Latvian port- are 
held up and. according to reports received, not 
a single ship has -ailed. .Most of Latvian ship- 
ping is engaged in the tramp trade, and is conse- 
quently abroad. These crews are also stopping J 
work, with the result that in some cases they have 
been set ashore and repatriated. Strikebreakers 
have been sent from Latvia to take the ships 
home. They have been recruited from among 
pupils of the maritime school, coerced into per- 
forming this work under the threat of being penal- 
ized at the examination.-. 

* * * 

The strike of fishermen at Ymuidcn, which has 
been in progress since January, ended with the 
acceptance of a compromise proposal of the official 
umpire. It is true that certain reductions of wages 
are provided, but. on the other hand, the ship- 
owner.-' aim of destroying the union has been 
entirely defeated. The fight was carried on under 
extremely difficult conditions and made heavy de- 
mands on the men, more particularly owing to 
the fact that the Christian union had earlier 
capitulated and entered into an agreement with 
the owners. The agreement which has now been 
signed will operate until December 31, next. 
Both parties have undertaken to refrain from 
retaliation. 

* * * 

The Journal notes with regret the discontinu- 
ance of the official monthly paper of the Inter- 
national Transport Workers Federation. The last 
number explains the situation as follows: "With 
this number T. T. F.' ceases publication. We 
hope only temporarily. The reasons for this will 
be found in the report of the recent meeting of 
the Executive Committee of the I. T. F.. which 
took cognizance of the loss of over 500.000 
members as a result of the 'nazification' of the 
German unions hitherto belonging to the I. T. V. 
This, besides a great moral blow, is also a very 
substantial loss of income. The Executive Com- 
mittee, on the proposal of the Secretariat, decided 
on a number of drastic economies. One of them 
is the discontinuation of the I. T. F. journal." 



September 1, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



133 



The Finnish seamen's strike has now lasted 

nearly four months without any weakening of the 

spirit of the strikers. Although the shipowners 

have succeeded in manning a certain number of 

ships, they are certainly feeling the effects of the 

strike. Since it was declared they have not dared 

to send any more of their vessels to Norway and 

Sweden, while Finnish ships are now also being 

boycotted in Russia. The shipowners have tried 

to break down the resistance of the seamen by 

offering higher rates of wages, but they have not 

succeeded. The seamen are fighting chiefly for the 

recognition of their union and the conclusion of a 

collective agreement and they are not inclined to 

put an end to the struggle before their demands 

have been granted. There have been negotiations, 

but without leading to any result. 
* * * 

Britain's wealthiest shipowner, Sir John R. 
Ellerman, who recently died at the age of 71, was 
born in Hull, the son of a German father. The 
fleet controlled by ''Sir John" comprised 163 
vessels of 781,405 tons gross, the largest group 
under the British flag, with a network of services 
stretching from nearly every British port to the 
Mediterranean, Scandinavian, Baltic ports, Con- 
tinental North Sea and Atlantic ports, India, 
Ceylon, Burmah, Egypt, East Africa, North 
Africa, South Africa, Australia, Turkey and 
North America. In addition, in more recent years 
"Sir John" had acquired a very large financial 
interest in many other shipping lines, including 
the P. and O., British India, Shaw, Savill and 
Albion and Cunard companies, and he was also 
the principal shareholder and chairman of numer- 
ous investment and trust companies, the holdings 
of which are mainly in shipping shares. 



SEAMEN SUPPORT PRESIDENT 



In whatever direction we look we see the most 
stupendous waste of productive forces — of pro- 
ductive forces so powerful that were they per- 
mitted to freely play the production of wealth 
would be so enormous that there would be more 
than a sufficiency for all. What branch of pro- 
duction is there in which the limit of production 
has been reached? What single article of wealth 
is there of which we might not produce enor- 
mously more ? — Henry George. 



The following expressive resolution pledging 
support to President Roosevelt and his New Deal 
was unanimously adopted at a regular meeting of 
the Sailors' Union of the Pacific : 

Whereas, Labor-displacing machinery and improved 
methods usually termed mass production in industry, 
together with the private absorption of public lands, 
have well nigh abolished our opportunities of finding 
self-employment and brought most of us to the ne- 
cessity of seeking some employer willing to employ 
us; and 

Whereas, These conditions place the employer under 
the temptation of insisting upon and preferring his 
own interests as he sees them, even to the extent of 
preventing us from organizing into voluntary organi- 
zations for mutual aid and protection; and 

Whereas, Inspired by American ideals, our common 
needs have moved us to follow the example set by 
the Colonists, which resulted in the Declaration of 
Independence, proclaiming their determination to form 
a government which was to establish inalienable rights 
among which are those of life, liberty and the pursuit 
of happiness; and 

Whereas, The right to liberty was established by the 
Civil War and the adoption of the Thirteenth Amend- 
ment to the Constitution, and the pursuit of happiness 
was temporarily encouraged by the homestead laws, 
though later rendered obsolete through the private 
absorption of the public domain; and 

Whereas, We were heartened prior to the nomina- 
tion and election of the President by his promise of 
"a new deal," which we understood must refer to the 
pursuit of happiness and the right of using our facul- 
ties within the law to that end; and 

Whereas, Immediately following his inauguration, 
the President called the Congress into session and 
step by step laid before it measures of policy which he 
believes necessary to bring about the promised "new 
deal," and which resulted in the passage of the Na- 
tional Recovery Act; and 

Whereas, Employers generally and promptly en- 
dorsed in principle the President's ideas as adopted by 
the Congress, but at the same time began to protest 
against the recognition and organization of legitimate 
labor unions, against wages as being too high, and 
hours of labor being too low, which acts on the part 
of employers have been described as "sniping" and 
indicate, at first, a tentative, and then a more direct 
opposition, the purpose of which is evidently to change 
the recovery act from restoring employment to restor- 
ing dividends on unconscionably inflated capitaliza- 
tion; and 

Whereas, The New Deal as suggested by the Presi- 
dent and adopted by the Congress is, from our under- 
standing of American history and the Constitution, 
both historically and constitutionally right, and in the 
light of recent history most urgently needed; therefore, 
be it 

Resolved, By the Sailors' Union of the Pacific, in 
regular meeting assembled at headquarters, San Tran- 
cisco, California, on August 14, 1933, that we unquali- 
fiedly stand by the President and support him in his 
patriotic purposes and actions with reference to this 
New Deal; and be it further 

Resolved, That we earnestly urge upon all organized 
labor to do the same; that this resolution be forwarded 
to the President, and that copies thereof be furnished 
to the press. 



Do not require the reputation of being an ob- 
structionist. Do something for the good of the 
organization. 



Those who reprove us are more valuable 
friends than those who flatter us. 



5 



134 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



September 1, 1^33 



Seamen's Journal 

Established in 1387 
Published on the first day of each month at 525 
Market Street, San Francisco, by and under the di- 
rection of the International Seamen's Union of 
America. 

PAUL SCHARRENBERG, Editor 



Entered at the San Francisco Postoffice as second- 
class matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate 
of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of Oc- 
tober 3, 1917, authorized September 7, 1918. 

Subscription price $1.00 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 



NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will In: 
published, provided they are of general interest, 
brief, legible, written on one side only of the paper, 
and accompanied by the writer's own name and ad- 
dress. The JOURNAL is not responsible for the ex- 
pressions of correspondents, nor for the return of 
manuscripts. 



September 1, 1933 



A MEMORABLE LIFEBOAT RACE 



show similar speed in a real emergency was clearly 
shown by an incident on her last homeward voy- 
age, as revealed by San Francisco marine report- 
ers. A youthful member of the crew accidentally 
fell overboard. The Monterey was stopped, a boat 
was launched, the missing man picked up and the 
ship was again under way in just twenty-two 
minutes. This simple performance in the line of 
duty was not nearly as spectacular as the well 
advertised race in San Francisco Bay, but it 
proved once more that in the promotion of safety 
of life at sea it is good judgment and commend- 
able policy to carry skilled and experienced union 
seamen. 



The Merchant Marine lifeboat race, which has 
become a popular feature in San Francisco's 
annual Harbor Day celebration, enhanced its for- 
mer popularity by providing a new world record 
in this year's contest, held on August 17. 

There were seven entries with the finish in this 
order: (1) the Oceanic liner Monterey, (2) the 
Standard Oil tanker F. H. Hillman, (3) the 
American-Hawaiian freighter Ohioan, (4) the 
McCormick freighter Silverado, (5) the Matson 
Line's Manoct, (6) the Dollar Line's President 
Polk, and (7) the United Fruit steamer Antigua. 

It has been said that "class will tell." And in 
this race class did tell when the 100 per cent union 
crew of the Monterey easily won the race by ten 
boat lengths and finished the mile pull in 9 minutes 
and 16 seconds. The best previous record was 
9 minutes and 24^2 seconds. 

The Journal is proud of the men who so easily 
demonstrated that union seamen are the best oars- 
men. In behalf of all other members of the 
Union, the Journal extends congratulations to 
Coxswain C. E. Hansen, to George J. Andrews 
and A. M. Gardener, who pulled the stroke oar, 
and last but not least, to the remaining six stal- 
warts in the boat, namely Robert Eastman, Jr.; 
John W. Massey, Karl Katlas, Don Chivers, 
Frank H. Jacks and Einar T. Ahl. 

That the crew of the Monterey is quite able to 



BENEVOLENT NEUTRALITY STOPS 



In the recent developments under the NRA 
the position of benevolent neutrality formerly 
taken by the administration seems to be changing 
and a firmness of attitude toward the undue en- 
croachment of big business is becoming more and 
more apparent each day. 

The significant interpretation of the labor sec- 
tion, Section 7 of the National Recovery Act. 
as recently stated by Administrator Hugh S. 
Johnson, leaves no doubt as to the course the 
Government will pursue in enforcing fair codes 
for industry. The XRA is governed in its inter- 
pretation of this Section of the Act by the de- 
cision of the United States Supreme Court out- 
lawing "Yellow Dog" contracts in the case en- 
titled T. & N. O. R. R. versus Brotherhood of 
Railway Clerks, 281 U. S. 548. The Administra- 
tion seems determined to give labor the same right 
to organize without discrimination that big busi- 
ness has always had. Labor at last has its chance 
to show 100 per cent performance. 

A tremendous incentive to organize has thus 
been given to Labor under the NRA, and Labor 
is rising to meet the challenge. A renewed hope 
and a willingness to protest against unbearable 
conditions is building a united Labor movement. 
A wave of strikes has been sweeping from one 
end of the country to the other, as Labor feels its 
new power of organization. Sweat shop condi- 
tions, unfair codes, rising prices without propor- 
tionate rise in wages, denial of the right of free 
unionization — these are the chief points of attack. 
Last month 30,000 clothing trade workers walked 
out in New York and 3,000 in Philadelphia. As 



September 1, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



135 



a result, the two warring unions in the clothing 
trade — the Amalgamated and the United — have 
settled old differences and the Amalgamated 
Clothing Workers of America will affiliate with 
the American Federation of Labor. 

Encouraged by the recently expressed stand 
taken by the Administration in regard to the 
power of collective bargaining, Labor is starting 
an intensive drive to set up its own unions even 
in those hitherto impregnable open shops — the 
steel mills and automobile plants. 

It is becoming more and more clear that the 
consuming public and the working class will have 
all the cards stacked against them in the New 
Deal if they don't organize. 

In this connection the following statement 
by a spokesman of the shipping industry is 
quite significant: "There are many ramifications 
to the shipping industry which are not found in 
the ordinary American industry, and we are not 
certain that it comes under the provisions of the 
Recovery Act. However, if it is determined that 
it does, a code will be prepared immediately, and 
labor will be one of the details involved." 

We wonder if dividends will be a detail, too? 



CHEAPEST MARITIME NATION 



The Republic of Panama has lately earned 
something of a dubious reputation for being the 
cheapest country in which to own ships. For some 
years the merchant fleet of Panama has occupied 
quite a respectable position in the list of maritime 
powers, and an uninformed observer might have 
been excused for thinking that the Panamanians 
were becoming a race of seafarers akin to the 
Norwegians. The fact was, of course, that ship- 
owners in countries with a higher standard of liv- 
ing, and where the general regulations were more 
rigid, were transferring their vessels and running 
them under the Central American republic's colors. 

The tendency has not been so marked in more 
recent times, but during the past few months there 
has been another wave of transfers. The ship- 
owners of Greece have always paid the lowest 
wages out of Europe, but by a recent agreement 
between the Association of Greek Shipowners and 
the Panhellenic Maritime Union, wages have been 
fixed on a definite schedule, to remain in force at 
least until the end of the current year. Therefore 
the enterprising Greeks, with their infallible nose 
for a good thing, have purchased ships for opera- 



tion under the Panama flag, and owners of sev- 
eral other countries, notably France, Holland, 
Germany and Spain, have been quick to follow 
suit. 

The main object, as already stated, is to take 
advantage of lower wage rates, long working 
hours, skeleton crews and the proportionately 
lower general costs. It is reported that one owner 
saves no less than $600 per month on his cost of 
operation, principally in wages, social charges and 
by insuring against total loss only. 

The Republic of Panama, it will be recalled, was 
formed in 1903 by a secession movement from the 
Republic of Colombia. It was current gossip at 
the time that Theodore Roosevelt, then President 
of the United States, was instrumental in foment- 
ing this secession. At any rate, the recorded fact 
is that the new Republic of Panama, only a few 
days after its birth, granted to the United States 
in perpetuity all the lands necessary for the Pan- 
ama Canal route. 

And so, the irony of history has played another 
little trick. The Republic of Panama, brought to 
life by generous Uncle Sam, has become the cheap- 
est maritime nation on earth — a nation which per- 
mits ships under its flag to sail without rules or 
regulations and with scarcely any protection to 
the crew ! 



THE MONEY MOTIVE 



What would one think of a doctor who said he 
would treat his patient only for the money there 
was in it for him? 

What would one think of a lawyer who never 
would handle the case of a client in trouble unless 
he were rich? 

What would one think of a teacher who put the 
money value above the good he could do? 

And yet this is the usual motive of the business 
man — big and small — "What is there in it for 
me ?" is his eternal question. 

Even in these grave days of united effort to 
rout the depression, when pressure is being 
brought to bear on everyone to help reestablish 
American commerce on a prosperous basis, selfish 
business interests are again dictating their age-old 
policy. 

As an illustration of this fact — it has recently 
come to light that while thousands of American 
seamen have been out of work and in need, an 



136 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



September 1, 1933 



American oil company, doing business on the West 
Coast, has been shipping great quantities of oil 
to the Orient in foreign tankers. 

This oil, shipped under conditions so detri- 
mental to American business and American labor, 
was destined for the exclusive use of the Ameri- 
can Navy's Asiatic Beet! Formerly there was a 
clause in all the Navy's fuel oil contracts requir- 
ing transportation in American flag vessels. For 
some reason this clause was omitted from the 
recent contracts and big business, at the expense 
of the United States, selfishly turned its back on 
its country's need, because it saw a way of making 
a larger profit for itself through alien channels. 

Even with the NRA in full swing, it will be 
hard to break the system of excessive compensa- 
tion for private profit. Big business hails the new 
idea, but every business man hopes the other will 
comply. His question is "How am I to make both 
ends meet and make a profit?" And so lie raises 
prices, which makes it harder than ever to sell his 
goods, and often speeds up his workers instead of 
taking on new help. 

It is beginning to be apparent that the real 
response of big business to the Blanket Code 
is not the noble response expected by the Presi- 
dent. To paste a Blue Eagle in the shop window 
is one thing — but to sacrifice profits is another. 

The change must come from within — not from 
without — and if it does not come, then we will 
hear in reality from our 12.000,000 unemployed 
in the near future. 



IX MEMORIAM— PADDY FLYNN 



After years of intense physical suffering, Paddy 
Flynn, First Vice-President of the International 
Seamen's Union of America and Secretary of the 
Marine Firemen, Oilers and Watertenders' Union 
of the Pacific, crossed the river for unknown 
shores on August 16. 

Edward P. Flynn, known to all his friends as 
"Paddy," spent more than forty years of his 
eventful life on the waterfront of San Francisco. 
A native of Ireland, he left home in his early 
teens and sailed the seven seas in various capaci- 
ties. His Union affiliation began in early man- 
hood upon arrival in California. 

In the Pacific Coast labor struggles of the last 
four decades "Paddy" took an active and ener- 



getic part. His judgment was valued and he was 
honored on various occasions by election or as- 
signment to important missions in the United 
States, Great Britain and Australia. Unhappily, 
the last few years of his life had a full measure 
of extreme suffering due to an incurable disease 
which sapped his vital organs. 

Surviving him are his widow, Celene. and three 
children. Edward, Mrs. R. Caldwell and Mrs. 
\\ . Remmers — to whom, in behalf of the organ- 
ized seamen of America the JOURNAL extends 
heartfelt condolence. 

Mere words expressing the esteem we hold for 
our departed friend seem wholly inadequate. But 
the high regard and affection in which Paddy 
Flynn was held by the San Francisco labor move- 
ment is well stated in the following self-explana- 
tory resolution unanimously adopted by the San 
Francisco Labor Council on August 25: 

Whereas, In the passing of Edward P. Flynn, Sec- 
retary of the Marine Firemen, Oilers and Watertend- 
ers' Union of the Pacific, and First Vice-President 
of the International Seamen's Union of America, the 
great Brotherhood of the Sea has suffered an irre- 
trievable loss; and 

Whereas, Paddy Flynn, the name by which he was 
known among his fellows of the seafaring craft-, was 
an original, forceful and strong-hearted champion in 
behalf of the interests of all those who go to sea in 
ships; he was a mighty influence and tower of strength 
to his fellows, exposing himself in their defense and 
for the establishment of the rights of seamen, without 
fear, favor or exception; in the history of the San 
Francisco waterfront and its contests between capital 
and labor the name of Paddy Flynn will be cited for 
many years to come as one of its prominent and pic- 
turesque figures, worthy the remembrance of all mari- 
ners and toilers oi the sea; therefore, be it 

Resolved, That the San Francisco Labor Council 
deeply mourns the demise of Brother Edward P. 
Flynn, and pays respect to his memory; and that we 
tender our sympathy and condolences to his bereaved 
family and friends; that this resolution be spread upon 
the minutes of the Council, and that copies thereof 
be forwarded to the family of the deceased, to the 
Marine Firemen, Oilers and Watertenders' Union of 
the Pacific, the Seamen's Journal and the Interna- 
tional Seamen's Union of America. 



It is a pleasure to announce that Andrew Furu- 
seth, President of the International Seamen's 
Union of America, has been appointed by Presi- 
dent Roosevelt as a member of the California 
State Recovery Board of the National Recovery 
Administration. Secretary Victor A. < 'lander, of 
the International Seamen's Union of America, has 
also been honored with an important appointment. 
The XRA Labor Advisory Board has requested 
Secretary Olander to serve as Labor Representa- 
tive in the consideration of any permanent code 
of shipping. 



8 



September 1, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



137 



SEAMEN SUBMIT CODES 

(Continued from Page 131) 



Article III. Minimum Wage Scales, Overtime Pay 
and Working Conditions: The minimum wage scales, 
overtime pay and working conditions shall be as per 
following schedule: 

Minimum Wage Scale on Class A Steamers, Carrying 
Passengers 

Second Steward, $175; Third Steward, $90; Head 
Waiter, $100; Storekeeper, $100; Assistant Store- 
keeper, $75; Bartender, $75; Soda Fountain Operator, 
$65; Lounge Steward, $55; Smoking Room Steward, 
$55; Deck Steward, $55; Watchman, $60; Assistant 
Watchman, $55; Messmen, $60; Waiters, first class, 
$55; Messboys, $55; Bedroom Stewards, $55; Janitors 
and Porters, $55; Chief Linenman, $115; Assistant 
No. 1, $60; Assistant No. 2, $55; Chef Cook, $275; 
Sous Cook, if carried, $200; Sauce Cook, $150; Salad 
Cook, $150; Roast Cook, $140; Vegetable Cook, $140; 
Grill Cook, $140; Fish Cook, $140; Assistant Sauce 
Cook, $85; Assistant Vegetable Cook, $85; Chief 
Baker, $180; Second Baker, $110; Third Baker, $75; 
Confectioner, $150; Pastryman, $140; Chief Butcher, 
$125; Second Butcher, $100; Third Butcher, $60. 

Crew Cook, $100; Assistant Cook, $70; Night Cook, 
$70; Pantryman, $100; First Assistant Pantryman, 
$80; Second Assistant Pantryman, $70; Chief Scullion, 
$70; Assistant Scullion, $55; Galleymen, $55. 

Cabin Class: Chief Steward, $150; Second Steward, 
$90; Bartender, $75; Deck Steward, $55; Bath Stew- 
ard, $55; Night Watchman, $60; Waiters, $55; Pan- 
tryman, $80; Second Pantryman, $75; Scullion, $55; 
Bootblack, $45. 

Minimum Wage Scale on Class B Steamers, Carrying 
Passengers 

Second Steward, $115; Third Steward, $90; Chef 
Cook, $140; Second Cook, $110; Third Cook, $90; 
Fourth Cook, $75; Scullerymen, $55; Butchers, $110; 
Second Butcher, $80; Chief Baker, $130; Second 
Baker, $90; Third Baker, $70; Pantryman, $100; Sec- 
ond Pantryman, $80; Third Pantryman, $60; Mess- 
men, $60; Waiters, $55; Messboys, $55; Janitors, $55; 
Linenmen, $60; Silvermen, $60; Porters, $55. 
Working Rules on Classes A and B Passenger Ships 

(1) At home port overtime to be paid before 8 
a. m. and after 5 p. m. on week days and on Sundays 
and legal holidays full overtime for actual time em- 
ployed. On sailing days waiters not to stand gang- 
plank watch over two hours. 

(2) When away from home ports all hands outside 
of galley crew who work, to receive overtime for any 
work performed in excess of nine hours (between 
6 a. m. and 8 p. m.) in each twenty-four hours. When 
not necessary for service to passengers waiters will 
not be required to work in excess of eight hours per 
day and only between the hours of 8 a. m. and 5 p. m. 
for any work performed when no passengers are 
aboard, before and after hours overtime to be paid. 

(3) Cooks, messmen and messboys or those actually 
engaged in cooking and serving midnight lunch to be 
allowed three hours overtime. Cooks, messmen and 
messboys, or those actually engaged to be allowed one 
hour overtime for each meal served to longshoremen 
and others not of the crew. 

(4) Cooks, bakers, butchers, pantrymen and scul- 
lerymen will be kept under wages when in home port 
to compensate them for extra hours at sea. 

(5) Cooks, bakers, butchers, pantrymen and scul- 
lerymen to clean up galley, bake shop, butcher shop 
and pantry before taking time off. 

(6) For any cooking in home ports, cooks to receive 
overtime at the rate of three hours per meal. 

(7) Vessels arriving in home ports and sailing fol- 
lowing day, thereby giving cooks less than twenty- 
four hours off, they are to be paid overtime for the 



difference in time between arrival and turning to, as 
shall be less than twenty-four hours. 

(8) Steerage steward to care for twenty passengers 
and one waiter for every additional twenty-five passen- 
gers up to 100 and then one waiter for every additional 
fifty passengers. 

(9) For day watch in home ports on Sundays and 
legal holidays, in lieu of time off, overtime to be paid. 

(10) No painting of staterooms, salons or kitchens, 
only such as lockers and receivers and stateroom 
decks. 

(11) In case of any trouble regarding working 
hours or working of ship, members of the stewards' 
department not to leave ship, but must return to home 
port and settle all grievances there. 

(12) All heavy stores and provisions to be carried 
on board by longshoremen and stowed with the as- 
sistance of cooks and butchers. Waiters will carry on 
board equipment, or hand or stateroom baggage. 

(13) Salon watchman will be carried all the year 
round on passenger steamers while in commission. 
Watchmen to have time off each trip. In lieu of time 
off, overtime. Salon watchman to stand watch of 
arrival in port and will work after first twenty-four 
hours in port if necessary. 

(14) Holidays to be observed as follows: United 
States legal holidays and legal state holidays. No 
overtime at sea on account of any holiday. 

(15) Meal money in port to be allowed at the rate 
of 50 cents per meal and when crew is compelled to 
sleep ashore, 75 cents for room rent. 

(16) Overtime to be paid at the rate of 60 cents 
per hour to cooks, bakers, butchers and pantrymen, 
and 50 cents per hour for others of the crew. 

(17) Employees in stewards' department engaged in 
cleaning up ship after vessel has been laid up, to be 
paid at the rate of $5 per day of eight hours. 

Minimum Wage Scale on Freighters and Oil Tankers 

Freighters: Steward, $130; Chef Cook, $110; Second 
Cook, $80; Messmen, $65; Messboys, $60. 

Combination Cook and Steward: Cook and Steward, 
$130; Second Cook, $100; Messmen, $60; Messboys, 
$60. 

Oil Tankers, Coastwise and Intercoastal: Combina- 
tion Cook and Steward, $130; Second Cook, $100; 
Messmen, $60; Messboys, $60. 

Oil Tankers Carrying Stewards: Steward, $130; 
Cook, $105; Second Cook, $80; Messmen, $60; Mess- 
boys, $60. 

Working Rules on Freighters and Oil Tankers 

(1) Freighters when carrying over ten passengers 
to pay passenger scale. 

(2) In home ports overtime to be paid before 8 a. m. 
and after 5 p. m. on week, days, and on Sundays and 
legal holidays full overtime for actual time employed. 

(3) In home ports for any cooking performed, 
cooks to receive overtime at the rate of three hours 
per meal. 

(4) Cooks to be kept under wages when in home 
ports to compensate them for the extra hours at sea. 

(5) When away from the home ports all hands — 
outside of the galley crew — who work, to receive over- 
time for any work performed in excess of ten hours 
between the hours of 6 a. m. and 8 p. m. in each 
twenty-four hours. 

(6) Cooks, messmen and messboys or those actually 
engaged to be allowed three hours for cooking mid- 
night lunch. Cooks, messmen and messboys to be 
allowed overtime for each meal served longshoremen 
and others not of the crew at the rate of one hour 
for four up to twelve men, two hours for thirteen up 
to twenty-four men, and three hours for twenty-five 
up to fifty men. 

(7) When vessel arrives in home port, Stewards' 
Department to leave quarters in sanitary condition 
before going ashore. 

(8) All heavy stores and provisions to be carried 



138 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



September 1, 1933 



on board by longshoremen or others and stowed away 
with the assistance of the crew in Stewards' Depart- 
ment. 

(9) Meal money in home port to be allowed at the 
rate of 50 cents per meal, and when crew is compelled 
to sleep ashore, 75 cents room rent. Stewards to re- 
ceive officers' compensation. 

(10) Holidays to be observed as follows: United 
States legal holidays and legal state holidays in home 
ports only. No other holidays to be observed and no 
overtime at sea on account of any holiday. 

(11) Overtime to be paid at the rate of 60 cents 
for cooks, and 50 cents for balance of crew in the 
Stewards' Department. 

(12) In case of members committing themselves 
and are barred from sailing in company's vessels, this 
association does not object if reasons given are sub- 
stantiated after getting a hearing on demand. The 
chief steward to notify the accused that he is to be 
"turned in." 

(13) Employees in the Stewards' Department en- 
gaged in cleaning up ship after vessel has been laid up, 
to be paid $5 per day. 

Minimum Wage Scale on Steam Schooners 
Coastwise: Cook and Steward, $110; Galleymen, 
$60; Cabinmen, $60. 

Inter coastal: Steward, $120; Cook, $100; Second 
Cook, $80; Messmen, $60; Messboys, $60. 

Overtime: Cooks, 65 cents per hour; Messmen, 
60 cents per hour; Galleymen, 60 cents per hour. 
Working Rules on Steam Schooners 

(1) A vessel (cargo carrier only) whose full com- 
plement, exclusive of Stewards' Department, is less 
than twenty-one, shall be manned with one cook and 
one waiter, in the galley crew. 

(2) A vessel (cargo carrier only) whose complement, 
exclusive of Stewards' Department, is twenty-one or 
more, shall be manned with one cook and one galley- 
man and one waiter. 

(3) A vessel, licensed to carry not more than six- 
teen passengers, shall, when carrying passengers, be 
manned, in the Stewards' Department, with one cook, 
one galleyman and one waiter. 

(4) A vessel, licensed to carry more than sixteen 
passengers, but not more than twenty-five, shall on 
any voyage which more than sixteen passengers are 
carried, be manned, in the Stewards' Department, with 
one steward, one cook and one galleyman and one 
waiter. 

(5) The hour of 5 p. m. shall be the hour for the last 
meal in all inside and outside ports, provided, how- 
ever, that such last regular meal hour may, at the 
option of the master, be. postponed for not more than 
one hour for the purpose of finishing loading or dis- 
charging cargo or in cases of emergency, such as 
moving on tide, or berthing vessel, etc., without pay- 
ment of overtime. 

(6) A vessel, working cargo on Sundays or holidays 
hereinafter designated in any port, will pay overtime 
to the men in the Stewards' Department, for the same 
hours as the deck crew is paid. 

(7) Allowances for overtime for meals and lunches 
served after supper to be as follows: For 9 p. m. 
lunch, one hour; for 12 p. m. cold lunch, two hours; 
for 12 p. m. hot lunch, three hours. 

(8) A vessel, working cargo all night where 9 p. m. 
lunch, 12 p. m. lunch hot and 3 a. m. lunch are served, 
will pay overtime for seven hours. Where breakfast 
is served prior to 7:30 a. m., overtime will be paid for 
the difference in time between the hour set for break- 
fast and such 7:30 a. m.; no coffee (as such) to be 
served before 7:30 a. m. 

(9) For each meal or lunch served to a unit con- 
sisting of at least five, but not more than twelve, long- 
shoremen on board any vessel, a lump sum of one 
dollar will be paid to the galley crew, for each lunch 
or meal served to a unit consisting of more than 



twelve longshoremen, a lump sum of $1.50 will be 
paid to the galley crew. 

(10) When in port and board is not furnished, each 
member of the Stewards' Department will be entitled 
to 50 cents per meal subsistence allowance when 
quarters are not furnished, 75 cents per night lodging 
allowance. 

(11) Steam schooners lying in port over Sundays or 
legal holidays shall not lay the men off for such day 
or days, provided, however, that in case any man is 
BO laid off, he shall, in addition to his wages for the 
time so laid off, be paid meal money at the rate of 
50 cents per meal, and 75 cents for lodging. 

(12) Holidays shall be considered as follows: All 
national and state holidays in whatever port the ship 
may be. 

(13) When vessels are out of commission and 
monthly wages are not paid, the daily wages shall be 
$5 per day. 

(14) In home ports Stewards' Department shall 
have equal time off on Sundays and holidays, as the 
deck and engine room crew; in ports, the Stewards' 
Department shall prepare one hot meal, and put up 
a cold lunch. 

(15) Eight hours shall constitute a day's work in 
all ports. 

In- Witness Whereof, the parties hereto have set 

their hands and seals this dav of , 

1933. 

Employer: Union: 



THE PEN— THE SWORD 



The pen and the sword. These are the two 
things that have been used to a great extent in 
almost anything and everything for a great many 
years. You have seen the results of these for 
many years. You will no doubt realize by this 
time that the pen is mightier than the sword. 

When the pen is used it is always a matter of 
fact. It is written with the pen. It cannot be 
denied when it is written ; with the sword it is 
a different story. There are so many different 
ways to use the sword. There are so many differ- 
ent angles to the sword procedure. With the 
sword there is no thinking. With the pen, unless 
it happens to be the poison pen, there is a lot of 
thinking. 

Almost all good results have come from the 
use of the pen coupled with study and thought. 
Thinking people are great pen users. The non- 
thinkers are mostly all in the class that rely upon 
the sword procedure. Is it not a fact? Don't you 
think we are right in our contentions? Today is 
the time to always resort to the pen in place of 
the sword. President Roosevelt is a great advo- 
cate of the pen program. 



Andrew Furuseth has been sentenced to a rest 
cure at St. Luke's Hospital in San Francisco. He 
has reluctantly complied and is improving nicely. 



10 



September 1, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



139 



SHIPPING NEWS 



The Shipping Board has approved the appli- 
cation of the Northland Transportation Com- 
pany, operating as a common carrier between 
Seattle and Southeast Alaska and British Co- 
lumbia, for a loan of $350,000 for construction of 
a new passenger-cargo vessel of 1800 gross tons 
to cost approximately $450,000. 

Japanese interests have purchased for scrapping 
the laid-up Lassco passenger steamers City of 
Honolulu and Calaivaii, it is announced by Ralph 
J. Chandler, president of the Los Angeles Steam- 
ship Company. Authorization to dispose of the 
veteran vessels, for scrapping only, was granted 
by the United States Shipping Board. They will 
be delivered at Osaka by the Los Angeles Steam- 
ship Company within ninety days. 

The Shipping Board's analysis of financial con- 
dition of shipowning companies of the United 
States for the calendar year 1932, operating as 
common carriers in foreign, intercoastal and coast- 
wise trades, shows that $27,759,000 was paid for 
crews' services and $35,186,000 for stevedoring 
during the year ; $9,749,000 was paid in Panama 
Canal tolls. It is estimated that these companies 
expended a total of approximately $100,000,000 
for American labor and products during the year 
1932. The operating results analyzed do not in- 
clude tankers. 

Contract for the building of a fleet of six steel 
barges 100 feet long, twenty-six feet wide and 
six and one-half feet deep with a capacity of 350 
tons of sand or gravel has been placed with the 
McClintic Marshall Corporation, Pittsburgh, by 
the Union Sand and Gravel Company of Hunt- 
ington, W. Va. The Leetsdale yard, in the same 
district, has received an order from the Texas 
Company for two barges 110 feet long, twenty- 
four feet wide and ten feet deep. The American 
Bridge Company also has received an order for 
a fleet of barges for delivery to an unnamed pur- 
chaser on the lower Mississippi. 

The Navy Department has awarded contracts 
"to the lowest responsible bidder" for twenty-one 
naval vessels. The department also allotted six- 
teen vessels to be constructed in navy yards. An- 
nouncing the awards, officials said charges by 
Senator Trammell, chairman of the Senate Naval 



Committee, of collusion between the bidders had 
not been substantiated. Meanwhile, in view of the 
shipbuilding code as to wages and hours in private 
yards, the Navy has ordered a five-day week of 
forty hours for civilian employees at all shore 
stations. The new work week will replace the 
present five and one-half day week for which six 
days' pay is given. Pay will now be on the basis 
of five days' wages for the five-day week. Some 
44,000 employees will be affected. 

Six major airlines in the United States have 
agreed on arrangements which allow an air ex- 
press service to operate on an interline basis. 
The service is to be known as General Air Ex- 
press and will reach to 130 cities directly served 
by these airlines, with probable further extensions 
at a later date to cover practically the entire air- 
way map of the nation. This is one of the most 
important developments in air transportation since 
the widespread beginning of passenger services 
two years ago. It is generally conceded that air 
express will develop into a most important phase 
of this industry, and in developing it, will auto- 
matically assist passenger and United States Air- 
mail services to grow. It is the first time that 
different airlines have combined their facilities 
in air express services, each airline previously 
operating on an independent basis. 

The speed record for the westward crossing of 
the North Atlantic by ships, once a bulky, sizable 
affair that could be measured in terms of months, 
has been hacked and chipped away until it's now 
a mere ghost of its former self. Christopher Co- 
lumbus made the first record run in 1492, when his 
good ship Santa Maria lumbered across in eighty 
days. Centuries before the Norsemen had made 
the crossing, but they neglected to leave their 
speed marks for posterity. On August 16 the 
mythical blue pennant was won by the Italian liner 
Rex, when it sliced two hours off the previous 
record, by completing the run from Gibraltar to 
New York in four days thirteen hours and fifty- 
eight minutes. The Rex took the pennant away 
from the North German Lloyd liner Bremen, 
which had won it last September, by crossing from 
Cherbourg to New York in four days fifteen hours 
and fifty-six minutes. 

The British Board of Trade inquiry into the 
loss of the steamship Arundale, 2,857 tons gross, 
on a rock on the Isabel Bank in the Strait of Gib- 
raltar, when approaching Ceuta, has several points 



140 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



September 1, 1933 



of interest. The cause of the disaster was the 
misjudgment of the master, in broad daylight 
and clear weather, of the distance of the shoal, 
and failure to allow for the inshore set, and as a 
result his certificate was suspended for six months. 
The investigation also brought out the serious 
depreciation in the value of shipping property 
during recent years. The Arundale was built in 
1910 and bought by her late owners in 1923 for 
£24,750. They spent £21,800 upon her in re- 
pairs, additions and classification expenses, and 
at the time of her loss, when in good and sea- 
worthy condition, well found and well equipped, 
she was valued at £5,000. Hull and machinery 
were insured for £15,000, and counsel for the 
Board of Trade pointed out that no importance 
was attached to the fact that the ship was insured 
for a sum very much over her value and that the 
figures would not surprise the assessors, who 
knew the state of the shipping industry. A more 
striking example of the decline in shipping values 
it would be difficult to find — from £46,550 to 
£5,000 in less than ten years! 

The results of two German shipping com- 
panies which have recently been made public 
show losses on the year's operations. The Woer- 
mann Line, Hamburg, which owns eleven steam- 
ers of between 2,000 and 9,000 tons gross, and 
is engaged in the West African passenger and 
cargo trade, announces a gross surplus of 2,429,- 
088 marks, but social charges, taxes and interest 
amount to 2,701,787 marks. After writing 324,- 
280 marks off various items, the year closed with 
a loss of 596,978 marks. In view of the heavy 
allocation made to depreciation of the fleet last 
year, it was not considered necessary to make any 
provision in this respect for 1 (, 32. The loss has 
been covered by a transfer of 600,000 marks from 
the special reserve, and the balance of 3,022 
marks is carried forward. The Deutsche Ost- 
Afrika Line, which is under the same manage- 
ment and has a similar fleet, ended the year with 
a gross profit of 2,304,215 marks, and here again 
the outgoings were greater than the revenue. As 
in the case of the sister company, it was consid- 
ered unnecessary to provide for depreciation of 
tonnage, and by setting aside 286,000 marks for 
writing down other items, and covering the loss 
of 596,978 marks by a transfer of 600,000 marks 
from reserve, there was likewise a balance of 
3,022 marks to carry forward. 



LABOR NEWS 



Members of the Union-Made Garment Manu- 
facturers' Association of America have increased 
wages 20 per cent, Benjamin Berman, chairman 
of the Legislative and Fair Practice Committee 
of the Association announced. More than 8,000 
workers received the increase, which became effec- 
tive July 17, he said. The leading manufacturers 
of overalls are members of the association. 

The return of beer has had a very invigorating 
effect on the Hotel and Restaurant Employees and 
Beverage Dispensers' International Alliance. With 
repeal of the Eighteenth Amendment in sight, full 
revival of this former lusty and lively organiza- 
tion is assured, officials of the union say. Labor 
councils throughout the nation are aiding in the 
reorganization program, for which the union is 
duly thankful. Secretary-Treasurer Bob Hesketh 
says. 

Some 10,000 Haverhill, Massachusetts, shoe 
workers who refused to accept a 10 per cent wage 
raise offered by the employers as an old union 
agreement ran out, won a victory here when arbi- 
trators awarded them a 25 per cent boost effective 
August 12, with a 10 per cent bonus for the time 
worked from August 1, when the old agreement 
ran out. About 150 factories, embracing the entire 
shoe industry here, are affected by the settlement. 
The new scale is based on a forty-hour, five-day 
week, effective immediately. 

Five men were condemned to death and six 
others to varying terms of imprisonment follow- 
ing their conviction on a charge of sabotaging the 
quality of food served to several of the workers' 
restaurants in Moscow. Nails, broken glass, hairs, 
and other inedible objects were thrown into the 
food, according to the confessions of the accused. 
Those who received capital sentences were also 
convicted of murdering a Communist who had 
been an active organizer of collective farms and 
a zealous expropriator of kulaks ( the richer 
peasant ) . 

A new type of economic publicity for M orkers 
all over the United States is anticipated by Secre- 
tary of Labor Perkins in the expansion of the 
Department of Statistics and Information. The 
information, which will deal with different phases 



12 



September 1, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



141 



of industrial and economic life, as it applies to 
the individual worker will be distributed in pam- 
phlets, moving pictures, radio programs, and 
books, according to Secretary Perkins. Her aim 
in this new project is to "help the worker get 
information about his own economic status." 
"This new department holds a great deal of 
promise," she said. "It will be a practical means 
of giving the laboring man necessary infor- 
mation." 

The London passenger transport undertakings, 
hitherto a hotch-potch of privately owned and 
publicly owned concerns, has become a unified 
public service. On July 1, it began its career 
under the control of a public authority. The 
transport undertakings which were taken over in- 
clude the nineteen underground railways, the 
Metropolitan District Railway, the fourteen tram- 
way systems run by local authorities, the two 
Tilling 'bus services, fifty-five independent under- 
takings, and, last, the Lewis 'bus company. Un- 
der the Act the new public authority is also in- 
vested with powers to run passenger services on 
the Thames, and possibly a system of water- 
busses will one day be in operation. 

The rising tide of bona fide labor organizations 
is thoroughly emphasized by the fact that the 
American Federation of Labor has issued 122 
charters since July 3, Frank Morrison, secretary 
of the Federation, announced. The new locals are 
located in all parts of the United States, and are 
especially numerous and active in those cities 
where the employers, despite the mandatory pro- 
visions of the National Recovery Act, have en- 
deavored by direct and indirect methods to force 
the workers to join the notorious company union 
— a form of organization which General Hugh S. 
Johnson, Recovery Administrator, told Robert P. 
Lamont, president of the American Iron and Steel 
Institute, had no place in the Institute's fair com- 
petition code for the iron and steel industry. 

Some 6,000 Puerto Rican tobacco workers, 
mostly women, won a 25 per cent pay increase for 
strippers after leaving their jobs in protest over 
the starvation wages imposed upon them by to- 
bacco corporations owned almost entirely by 
American capitalists. Tobacco dealers herded 
under the banner of the Consolidated Cigar Com- 
pany, one of the corporation blessings mainland 
finance has bestowed upon this island, marched in 
on Governor Gore and charged that government 



labor inspectors had fomented a strike among 
some 6,000 tobacco workers, mostly women, they 
claimed to be paying the munificent wage of 50 
cents to $1 per day. Commissioner of Labor 
Rivera, himself a former cigarmaker, disputed 
this claim of opulent remuneration made by the 
employers and retorted that the wages paid in 
many instances was only a lowly "quarter." 

From June 1, 1932, to May 31, 1933, total local 
and international benefits paid by the International 
Photo-Engravers' Union of North America were 
$2,428,448.86. The total was made up of $2,105,- 
394.52 local benefits and $319,053.93 international 
benefits. Of the local benefits, the largest was 
$1,959,617.96 to aid unemployed members. The 
largest item in the international benefits was 
$181,409.83 for strikes and lockouts. The figures 
make a remarkable record, a record all the more 
remarkable when it is considered that the Inter- 
national Photo-Engravers' Union is composed of 
less than nine thousand journeymen, of whom 
36.9 per cent were unemployed, an additional 
41.4 per cent working but part time, leaving but 
21.7 per cent steadily employed on a full time basis 
for the past year, and that all of this money was 
contributed from greatly reduced earnings. 

Three states have responded to the nation-wide 
appeal of Federal Relief Administrator Harry L. 
Hopkins and submitted programs for aid of home- 
less and transient job-seekers within their borders. 
They are Delaware, Ohio and Louisiana. Three 
others, New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania, 
are whipping plans rapidly into shape for sub- 
mission, officials have announced. California noti- 
fied Mr. Hopkins that a meeting had been called 
to formulate a program. Delaware's application, 
the first to be approved, asked for Federal aid at 
the rate of $2,000 per month. Both Ohio and 
Louisiana asked for Federal funds to help carry 
out their programs. A census taken last spring 
showed transient homeless aided in nine states 
ranged from the low of 11,700 in Missouri to a 
high of 49,082 in California. Illinois reported 
43,215; New York, 32,143; Ohio, 29,333; Texas, 
26,515; Michigan, 18,157, and Washington, 18,- 
096. Relief workers are agreed that the number 
of boy and girl wanderers far exceeds any re- 
ported figures. 



He who would have peace must sometimes 
fight for it. 



13 



142 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



September 1, 1933 



International Seamens' Union of America 

Affiliated with the American Federation of Labor 
and the International Seafarers' Federation 

EXECUTIVE BOARD 

President: ANDREW FURUSETH, 59 Clay St., 
San Francisco, Calif. Vice-Presidents: P. B. GILL, 

M Seneca Street, Seattle Wash.; PERCY .1. 
PRYOR, 1% Lewie Street. Boston, Mass.; OSCAR 
CARLSON, 70 South St., New York, N. Y.\ PAT- 
RICK O'BRIEN, 71 Main St., Buffalo, N. Y.; PETER 
E. OLSEN, 49 Clay St., San Francisco, Calif; IVAN 
HUNTER, 1038 Third St., Detroit, Mich. Editor: 
PAUL SCHARRENBERG, 525 Market St., San 
Francisco, Calif. Secretary-Treasurer: VICTOR A. 
OLANDER, 666 Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, 111. 



DISTRICT UNIONS AND BRANCHES 
ATLANTIC DISTRICT 

EASTERN AND GULF SAILORS' ASSOCIATION 
Headquarters 

BOSTON, Mass PERCY J. PRYOR, Secretary 

1% Lewis Street. Phone Capitol 517S 
Branches 

NEW YORK, N. Y ADOLF KILE, Agent 

70 South Street. Phone John 4-1637 

BALTIMORE, Md JOHN BLEY, Agent 

723 S. Broadway. Phone Wolfe 5630 

NORFOLK, Va FRED SOREXSEX, Agent 

54 Commercial Place. Phone 23868 Norfolk 

MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, AND WATERTEN DERS' 

UNION OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters 

NEW YORK, N. Y OSCAR CARLSON, Secretary 

70 South Street, Telephone John 0975 
Branches 

BOSTON, Mass JOHN FITZGERALD, Agent 

6 Long Wharf 

BALTIMORE, Md JOHN BLEY, Agent 

723 S. Broadway. Phone Wolfe 5630 

NORFOLK, Va FRED SORENSEN, Acting Agent 

54 Commercial Place. 23SGS Norfolk. 

MARINE COOKS AND STEWARDS' UNION OF THE 

ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters 

NEW YORK, N. Y D. E. GRANGE, Secretary 

61 Whitehall Street. Phone Bowling Green 1297 

Branches 

NEW YORK (West Side Branch)— JAMES ALLEN, Agent 

61 Whitehall St. Phone Bowling Green L297 

BOSTON, .Mass JOHN MARTIN, Agent 

288 State Street 

BALTIMORE, Md IOHN BLEY, Agent 

723 S. Broadway. Flume Wolfe 5630 



NOVA SCOTIA SEAMEN'S UNION 

HALIFAX. X. S SAMUEL C. CONNELL, See'y-Treas. 

66 North Street 



FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE ATLANTIC 

BOSTON, Mass PERCY .1. PRYOR, Secretary 

J. M. NNCKERSON, Agent 
\y 2 Lewis Street. Phone Richmond I 



HARBOR BOATMEN'S UNION OF CAMDEN, 
PHILADELPHIA AND VICINITY 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa ...J. T MORRIS, Secretary 

303A Marine Rldg., Delaware Ave and South St. 
FRANKLIN COUNTY BOATMEN'S UNION 

APALACHICOLA, Fla R. T. MARSHALL, President 

P. O. Box 213 

GREAT LAKES DISTRICT 

SAILORS* UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 
Headquarters 

CHICAGO, 111 VICTOR A. OLANDER, Secretary 

CLAUDE M. GOSHORN, Treasurer 
810^4 North Clark St. Phone Superior 5175 

BUFFALO, N. Y JOHN W. ELLISON, Agent 

71 Main Street 

CLEVELAND. Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

1426 West Third Street. Phone Main 1842 

MILWAUKEE, Wis CHAS. BRADHERIXG. Agent 

234 South Second Street. Phone Daily 0489 

DETROIT, Mich IVAX HUNTER, Agent 

1038 Third Street 

MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, WATERTENDERS AND 
COAL PASSERS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters 

DETROIT, Mich IVAN HUNTER, Secretary 

JAS. HAYMAX. Treasurer 
1038 Third Street. Phone Cadillac 8170 



Branches 

BUFFALO, N. Y JOHN W. ELLISON, Agent 

71 Main Street. Phone Cleveland 7391 

CLEVELAND, Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

Rm. 211, Blackstone Bldg., 1426 W. 3rd St. Ph. Main 1842 

MILWAUKEE, Wis ERNEST ELLIS, Agent 

234 South Second Street. Phone Daily 0489 

CHICAGO, 111 JOHN McGINN. Agent 

156 W. Grand Ave. Phone Superior 2152 



MARINE COOKS AND STEWARDS' UNION 
Headquarters 

BUFFALO, N. Y J. M. SECORD, Secretary 

71 Main Street 
Branches 

CHICAGO, 111 O. EDWARDS, Agent 

64 West Illinois Street. Phone Delaware 1031 

CLEVELAND, Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

Room 211, Blackstone Bldg., 1426 W. 3rd St. Ph. Main 1842 

MILWAUKEE, Wis OTTO EDWARDS, Agent 

234 South Second Street. Phone Broadway 489 

DETROIT, Mich 410 Shelby Street 

Phone Randolph 0044 



PACIFIC DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal GEORGE LARSON, Act. Sec'y 

59 Clay Street. Telephone Kearny 2228 
Branches 

SEATTLE, Wash P. B GILL, Agent 

86 Seneca St., P. O. Box 65. Phone Elliot 6752 

PORTLAND, Ore JOHN A. FEIDJE. Agent 

242 Flanders Street. Telephone Beacon 4336 

SAN PEDRO, Cal I. A. HAARKLAU, Agent 

430 South Palos Verdes Street. P. O. Box 68. Phone 2491J 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS. AND WATERTENDERS' 
UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters 
SAX FRANCISCO, Cal. 

58 Commercial Street. Telephone Kearny 3699 



MARINE COOKS AND STEWARDS' ASSOCIATION 

OF THE PACIFIC COAST 

Headquarters 

SAX FRANCISCO, Cal EUGENE BURKE, Secretary 

86 Commercial Street. Phone Kearny 5955 

SEATTLE, Wash J. L. NORKGAUER, Agent 

Room 203, Grand Trunk Dock. Phone Main 2233 



ALASKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 
Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 49 Clay Street 

PETER E. OLSEN, Secretary. Ph-.: '152 

Branches 

SEATTLE, Wash CHARLES F. HAMMARIN, Agent 

86 Seneca St., P. O. Box 42. Phone Elliot 

PORTLAND, Ore PAUL GERHARD T. Agent 

242 Flanders Street 



UNITED FISHERMEN'S UNION OF SO. CALIFORNIA 
SAN DIEGO, Calif JAS. FALLON. S Bo* 7^ 



EUREKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 

EUREKA, Calif G. A. SVENSON, Secretary 

P. O. Box 541. Phone 8-R-5 



COLUMBIA RIVER FISHERMEN'S PROTECTIVE 

UNION 

ASTORTA, Ore ARVDD MATTSON, Sec'y, P. O. F.<>x 281 



COQUILLE RIVER FISHERMEN'S UNION 

BANDON, Ore. F. REIMANN, 8ecr< tarj 



TILLAMOOK COUNTY FISHERMEN'S UNION 
BAY CITY, ore EARL BLANCHARD, Seeretary 



ROGUE RIVER FISHERMEN'S UNION 
GOLD BEACH, Ore WARREN 11. HOSKINS, S.c'y-Tr. 

DEEP SEA FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters 

SEATTLE, Wash P. B. GILL, Secretary 

86 Seneca St., P. O. Box 65. Phone Elliot 6752 

Branch 

KETCHIKAN, Alaska ...GUST OLSEN, Agt., P. O. Box A17 



FISHERMEN'S UNION OF PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND 

AND VICINITY 
CORDOVA, Alaska... N. SWANSON, Sec'y, P. O. B 



FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION 

SAX FRANCISCO, Cal C. W. DEAL. Secretary 

Room "B," Ferry Building; Phone Douglas 8664 



FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION OF PUGET SOUND 

SEATTLE, Wash JOHN M. FOX. Secretary 

220 Maritime Bldg. 



14 



September 1, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



143 



Professional Cards 



Attorney for the Sailors' Union of the 
Pacific since its organization 

H. W. Hutton 

431 Pacific Bldg., Fourth and Market Sts. 

SAN FRANCISCO 

PHONE DOUGLAS 0315 



Albert Michelson 

ATTORNEY-AT-LAW 

Attorney for 

Marine Firemen and Watertenders' 
Union of Pacific 
Marine Diesel and Gasoline Engi- 
neers' Association No. 49 
611 Russ Bldg. Tel. SUtter 3866 

San Francisco, California 



ANDERSON & LAMB 

Attorney s-at-Law 

1226 Engineers Bank Building 

CLEVELAND, OHIO 

Personal Injury Attorneys for Seamen on 
the Great Lakes 



Frank Orwitz 

ATTORNEY-AT-LAW 

Room No. 630, Hearst Building 
Market Street and Third 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 

Telephone GArfield 6353 



INFORMATION WANTED 

Will the following seamen, or any 
persons knowing their whereabouts, 
relatives or friends, communicate 
with me or with Mrs. Ida Curry, 
widow of Robert J. Curry, of 6543 
Fifth Avenue, S. W., Seattle; for- 
merly second assistant engineer on 
the steamship Sagebrush, who died 
of burns in the Santiago Hospital on 
March 15, 1931, as a result of said 
accident: V. Segovia, P. I., Oiler; 
Bro. Donato, 85 Hamilton Avenue, 
Brooklyn, N. Y.; M. Vasaya, 12-4, 
P. I., Oiler; B. Comp, P. I., Oiler, 
606 Jackson Street, San Francisco; 
Joe Momal, P. I., Oiler; Father 
Philip, Helio, P. I.; C. Fidel, P. I., 
Fireman; Father Vicente, Davos, 
P. I.; Moses Va Saya, P. I., Fire- 
man; Joe Taturia, P. I., Wiper, 
»16 Seventy-fourth Street, Seattle, 
Wash.; Felipe Gregorio, P. I., 
Wiper, 9 Goble Street, Newark, 
X. J.— Silas B. Axtell, Esq., 80 
Broad Street, New York City, N. Y., 
Room 3008. 



Friend (gazing aloft) : "Aren't you 
worried when you see your husband 
looping the loop?" 

Aviator's Wife: "Oh, no. You 
see, I remove all his loose change 
from his pockets before he goes up." 



DENTIST 




Plates and 

Bridgework 

DR. G. S. FORD 

702 Market Street 

At Market-Geary-Kearny Sts. 

Phone EXbrook 0329 

Daily Office hours, 8:30 a. m. to 7 p. m. 
Sunday hours, 9 a.m. till noon 
"One Patient Tells Another" 



JENSEN 8c NELSEN 

Gents' Furnishing Goods 

Sayer's Oil Skin Clothing 
Uniforms, Caps, Hats, Shoes 



110 EAST STREET 
GArfield 9633 



NEAR MISSION 
San Francisco 



SEATTLE, WASH. 
K. K. Tvete & Sons 

Established 1890 

MEN'S CLOTHING, SHOES, HATS, 
AND FURNISHING GOODS 

1300-1302 First Ave., cor. University 
SEATTLE, WASH. 



Wester man's 

UNION LABEL, 

Clothier, Furnisher 8C Hatter 

Alaska Outfitter 

TWO BIG STORES 

Store No. 1 — Cor. Main and First 

Store No. 2 — Westlake and Pine 

SEATTLE 



Bonney- Watson Co. 

Funeral Directors 

Crematory and Columbarium 

1702 Broadway Seattle 



"Patronize Products Bearing the Union 



Government Takes Leaf from Labor Book 

THE United States Government asks all Americans to 
patronize those firms which display the NRA emblem, 
which indicates they have signed the blanket code of mini- 
mum pay and maximum hours. 

Thus, inferentially, it says, Don't Patronize Those Who 
Do Not Display the Emblem ! 

That's boycott. 

That's what unions have done ever since there has been 
such a thing as a union label. 

Unions have said 
Label." 

Unions have said this because the Union Label stands for 
Fair Working Conditions. 

They have said, "Do Not Buy Goods That Do Not Bear 
the Union Label." 

And for this the courts of the United States have hauled 
unions up and put them under injunction. The famous Dan- 
bury Hatters case grew out of boycott. 

Now, behold, the United States Government, finding- 
sweatshop and exploiting employers refusing to be decent 
voluntarily, says to all America : "Do Not Buy Their 
Products." 

It seems, after all, that through all the years the UNIONS 
HAVE BEEN RIGHT AND THE COURTS HAVE 
BEEN WRONG. 

The whole force of government now lines up for THE 
UNION POSITION. THE UNION LABEL LED THE 
WAY. 



15 



144 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



September 1, 1933 



Taylor's Nautical Academy 

FOR NAVIGATORS AND MARINE ENGINEERS 
Established 1888 

Consular Bldg., Corner Washington 
and Battery Sts., opp. New Custom 

House, San Francisco, Calif. 
THIS OLD AND NOTEWORTHY 
SCHOOL is under the direct and per- 
sonal supervision of CAPT. HJ3NRY 
TAYLOR, and equipped with al. mod- 
ern appliances to illustrate and teach 
any branch of Navigation. 

The class of teachers of Navigation 
in the past have been those bavins 
simply a knowledge of Navigation and 
Navigation only. Conditions have 
changed, and the American seamen 
demand a man as a teacher with 
higher attainments than one who has 
only the limited ability of a seaman. 
The Principal of this School, keeping 
this always in view, studied several 
years the Maritime Law, and is now. 
In addition to being a thorough teacher of Navigation and its kindred 
subjects, a regularly admitted Member of the Bar. 

There is no standard of education required of a pupil entering the 
School, for no matter how ignorant the seaman may be, even in the 
rudiments of common education. Captain Henry Taylor will teach and 
raise him from the depths of ignorance to the height of the average 
well informed man. and in a comparatively short Interval of time. 




Phone GARFIELD 2076 

DR. EDMOND J. BARRETT 

DENTIST 

Rooms 2429-30, 450 Sutter Building 

Hours: 9 A. M. to 5 P. M. and 

by Appointment 



Seamen's Furnishing Goods 

OTTO PAHL 

Shoe*, Oilskins, Seaboots and Underwear 
Suits cleaned and pressed while you wait 

140 EMBARCADERO 
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 



Union-made Work Clothes and Shoes 

Uniform Caps, Oilskins and 

Seaboots, Belfast Cord 

and Buckles 



SAM'S 



Shore and Offshore Outfitting Store 
Formerly with Geo. A. Price 

4 Clay Street, San Francisco 

Phone GArf.cld 6784 



INFORMATION WANTED 

Will the following firemen com- 
municate with me: Jacob Butler, 
W. M. Myer, and John Spencer. 
Also the following oilers: J. Hamil- 
ton, Antonio Lopez, and J. N. 
Wright. John A. Bryant, former 
first assistant engineer, was injured 
on the Steamship Sarcoxie, July 19, 
1930. Silas B. Axtell, Esq., 80 Broad 
Street, New York City, N. Y. Room 
3008. 



Telephone Operator — Your lan- 
guage is uncalled for. 
Voice on Wire — So was the num- 
ber you gave me. 



Now in Our New Location 



"624 MARKET 

Opposite Palace Hotel 



ST. 




-BOSS- 

YOUR UNION TAILOR 



COCKSURE 

"You sav he's very sure of him- 
self ?" 

"Is he? Why. lie always does the 
crossword puzzles with a pen." 



Two men were squabbling in a 
public house. "Did you call me a 
blockhead just now?" said one, an- 
grily. 

"No," replied the other, acidly. "I 
told you to keep your hat on; there's 
woodpeckers knocking about." 



Visitor — What do you use that 
blue pencil for? 

Editor — Well, to make a long 
story short, it's to — make a long 
story short. 



A Scotch cure for seasickness — 
Hold a dime between your teeth 
during the ocean voyage. 



A. — Since Smith lost his money 
half of his friends don't know him. 

B— How about the other half? 

A. — Thev don't know he lost it 
yet. 



16 



A Great Store 

Built Upon 

Successful 

Service to 

Millions 



% 



HALE BROS. 

INC 

Market at Fifth 

SAN FRANCISCO 
SUTTER 8000 



THE 

James H. Barry Co. 

The Star Press 

Printing 



122-1124 MISSION STREET 
SAN FRANCISCO 



We print "The Seamen's Journal' 



In San Francisco 

KODAKS 

Exchanged * Bought 
Sold 

at 

SAN FRANCISCO 
CAMERA EXCHANGE 

88 Third St. near Mission St. 

CAMERA SHOP 
145 Kearny St. near Sutter St. 




A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, FOR SEAMEN 



Our Aim : The Brotherhood of the Sea 



Our Motto: Justice by Organization 



Vol. XLVII, No. 10 



SAN FRANCISCO, OCTOBER 1, 1933 



Whole No. 2037 



GREAT LAKES SEAMEN'S CODES 



THE Labor Codes submitted by the Pacific 
District of the International Seamen's Union 
of America, under the terms of the National Re- 
covery Act, were published in the August issue of 
the Journal. The Codes submitted by the Great 
Lakes District Unions of the I. S. U. of A., are as 
follows: 

PROPOSED LABOR CODE FOR GREAT LAKES 

SHIPPING UNDER THE NATIONAL 

INDUSTRIAL RECOVERY ACT 

Deck Department 

Submitted by Sailors' Union of the Great Lakes 

Whereas, The Sailors' Union of the Great Lakes, 
a district organization of the International Seamen's 
Union of America, affiliated with the American Fed- 
eration of Labor, is in accord with the principles of 
the National Industrial Recovery Act; and 

Whereas, Strict compliance with the purposes of the 
aforesaid law is essential for the welfare of the nation 
as a whole and in the interest of the seamen as well 
as the shipping industry in general; 

Therefore, The following labor code is respectfully 
submitted to be incorporated in any final code which 
may be approved or prescribed for shipping on the 
Great Lakes in accord with the requirements of the 
National Industrial Recovery Act: 

1. Wages: The following minimum wage rates 
prevailing on the Great Lakes prior to the season of 
1932 shall be immediately restored, namely: 

(a) The minimum wage rate for able seamen em- 
ployed on vessels under the American registry plying 
the waters of the Great Lakes and connecting tribu- 
taries shall be One Hundred and Five Dollars 
($105.00) per month. 

(b) The minimum wage rate for ordinary seamen 
shall be Seventy-seven Dollars ($77.00) per month. 

2. Working Hours: As a means of increasing em- 
ployment, no able seaman, ordinary seaman, or other 
member of the deck crew shall be required to labor 
for a longer period than six hours per day, except in 
emergencies involving danger to life or property. 



3. Differentials: Differentials existing heretofore as 
affecting wage rates on sand boats shall be continued. 

4. Right to Organize and to Bargain Collectively (as 
provided in Section 7 of the Act): (a) Employees shall 
have the right to organize and bargain collectively 
through representatives of their own choosing, and 
shall be free from the interference, restraint, or coer- 
cion of employers of labor, or their agents, in the 
designation of such representatives or in self-organiza- 
tion or in other concerted aid or protection; 

(b) No employee and no one seeking employment 
shall be required, as a condition of employment, to 
join any company union or to refrain from joining, 
organizing, or assisting a labor organization of his 
own choosing; and 

(c) Employers shall comply with the maximum 
hours of labor, minimum rates of pay, and other con- 
ditions of employment, approved or prescribed by the 
President. 

5. Preference for Citizens: Citizens of the United 
States shall have preference in employment. 

6. Abolition of Blacklist Scheme: The blacklisting 
scheme known as the Lake Carriers' Association Wel- 
fare Plan, under which seamen employed or seeking 
employment on vessels enrolled in that association of 
employers are required to surrender their rights of 
collective bargaining and to carry the so-called dis- 
charge book issued by the aforesaid association of 
employers, shall be abolished forthwith. 

7. Complaints and Grievances: It is a condition of 
this code that accredited representatives of this or- 
ganization shall have the right of access to any vessel 
under American registry, operated upon the Great 
Lakes and the connecting tributaries, whenever said 
vessel is in port, to interview the members of the 
organization employed in and about the vessel, to 
ascertain whether the provisions of the code and the 
general requirements of the maritime law are being 
complied with in order that any justifiable complaints 
of infractions thereof may be taken up with the proper 
authorities, and to act as the representatives of said 
members in the adjustment of any disputes or griev- 
ances which may require attention. 

Sailors' Union of the Great Lakes. 
(Signed) C. M. Goshorn, 

Acting Secretary. 



146 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



October 1, 1933 



Engineers' Department 

Submitted by Marine Firemen, Oilers, Watertenders 

and Coal Passers' Union of the Great Lakes. 

Whereas, The Marine Firemen, Oilers, Watertend- 
ers and Coal Passers' Union of the Great Lakes, a 
district organization of the International Seamen's 
Union of America, affiliated with the American Fed- 
eration of Labor, is in accord with the principles of 
the National Industrial Recovery Act; and 

Whereas, Strict compliance with the purposes of 
the aforesaid law is essential for the welfare of the 
nation as a whole and in the interest of the marine 
firemen, oilers, watertenders and coal passers as well 
as the shipping industry in general; 

Therefore, The following labor code is respectfully 
submitted to be incorporated in any final code which 
may be approved or prescribed for shipping on the 
Great Lakes in accord with the requirements of the 
National Industrial Recovery Act: 

1. Wages: The following minimum wage rates pre- 
vailing on the Great Lakes prior to the season of 1932 
shall be immediately restored, namely: 

(a) The minimum wage rate of marine firemen, 
oilers, and watertenders employed on vessels under 
American registry plying the waters of the Great 
Lakes and connecting tributaries, shall be One Hun- 
dred and Five Dollars ($105.00) per month. 

(b) The minimum wage rate of coal passers or coal 
trimmers shall be Seventy-seven Dollars ($77.00) per 
month. 

2. Working Hours: As a means of increasing em- 
ployment, (a) No marine fireman, oiler or water- 
tender shall be required to labor for a longer period 
than six hours per day, except in emergencies involv- 
ing danger to life or property; and 

(b) No coal passer or coal trimmer shall be required 
to labor for a longer period than six hours per day, 
except in emergencies involving danger to life or 
property. 

3. Differentials: Differentials existing heretofore as 
affecting wage rates on sand boats shall be continued. 

4. Rig /it to Organize ami to liar gain Collectively (as 
provided in Section 7 of the Act): (a) Fmployees shall 
have the right to organize and bargain collectively 
through representatives of their own choosing, and 
shall be free from the interference, restraint, or coer- 
cion of employers of labor, or their agents, in the 
designation of such representatives or in self-organiza- 
tion or in other concerted aid or protection; 

(b) No employee and no one seeking employment 
shall be required as a condition of employment to 
join any company union or to refrain from joining, 
organizing, or assisting a labor organization of his 
own choosing; and 

(c) Employers shall comply with the maximum 
hours of labor, minimum rates of pay, and other con- 
ditions of employment, approved or prescribed by the 
President. 

5. Preference for Citizens: Citizens of the United 
States shall have preference in employment. 

6. Abolition of Blacklist Scheme: The blacklisting 
scheme known as the Lake Carriers' Association Wel- 
fare Plan, under which seamen employed or seeking 
employment on vessels enrolled in that association of 
employers are required to surrender their rights of 
collective bargaining and to carry the so-called dis- 
charge book issued by the aforesaid association of 
employers, shall be abolished forthwith. 

7. Complaints and Grievances: It is a condition of 
this code that accredited representatives of this organi- 
zation shall have the right of access to any vessel 
under American registry, operated upon the Great 
Lakes and the connecting tributaries, whenever said 
vessel is in port, to interview the members of the 
organization employed in and about the vessel, to 
ascertain whether the provisions of the code and the 
general requirements of the maritime law are being 



complied with in order that any justifiable complaints 
of infractions thereof may be taken up with the 
proper authorities, and to act as the representatives 
of said members in the adjustment of any disputes or 
grievances which may require attention. 
Marine Firemen, Oilers, Watertenders and Coal 

Passers' Union or the Great Lakes. 

(Signed) Ivan Hunter, 

General Secretary. 



Stewards' Department 

Submitted by Marine Cooks and Stewards' Union of 
the Great Lakes. 

Whereas, The Marine Cooks and Stewards' Union 
of the Great Lakes, a district organization of the 
International Seamen's Union of America, affiliated 
with the American Federation of Labor, is in accord 
with the principles of the National Industrial Recov- 
ery Act; and 

Whereas, Strict compliance with the purposes oi the 
aforesaid law is essential for the welfare of the nation 
as a whole and in the interest of the marine cooks and 
stewards as well as the shipping industry in general; 

Therefore, The following labor code is respectfully 
submitted to be incorporated in any final code which 
may be approved or prescribed for shipping on the 
Great Lakes in accord with the requirement- oi the 
National Industrial Recovery Act: 

1. Wages: The following minimum wage rate- pre- 
vailing on the Great Lakes prior to the season of 1932 
shall be immediately restored, namely: 

(a) The minimum wage rate for chief cooks and 
stewards employed on vessels of the bulk and pack- 
age freight type, under American registry, plying the 
waters of the Great Lakes and connecting tributaries, 
shall be One Hundred and Fifty-five Dollars ($155.00) 
per month. 

i '/>) The minimum wage rate for second cooks or 
waiters shall be Ninety Dollars ($90.00) per month. 

(c) The minimum wage rate for porters shall be 
Seventy-five Dollars ($75.00) per month. 

2. Working Hours: As a means of increasing em- 
ployment, no steward, cook, second cook or porter 
shall be required to work for a longer period than six 
hours per day, except in emergencies involving danger 
to life or property. 

3. Passenger Vessels: Wage rates and working con- 
dition- for the stewards' department on passenger 
vessels shall be adjusted in conferences to be held 
between representatives of the companies and the 
union. 

4. Differentials: Differentials existing heretofore as 
affecting wage rate- on -and boats shall be continued. 

5. Right to Organize and to Bargain Collectively (as 
provided in Section 7 of the let): (a) Employees shall 
have the right to organize and bargain collectively 
through representatives of their own choosing, and 
shall be free from the interference, restraint, or 

cion of employers of labor, or their agents, in the 
designation of such representatives or in self-organiza- 
tion or in other concerted aid or protection: 

(b) No employee and no one seeking employment 
shall be required as a condition of employment to join 
any company union or to refrain from joining, organ- 
izing, or assisting a labor organization of his own 
choosing: and 

(c) Employers shall comply with the maximum 
hours of labor, minimum rates of pay. and other con- 
ditions of employment, approved or prescribed by the 
President. 

6. Preference for Citizens: Citizens of the United 
States shall have preference in employment. 

7. Abolition of Blacklist Scheme: The blacklisting 
scheme known as the Lake Carriers' Association Wel- 
fare Plan, under which seamen employed or seeking 
employment on vessels enrolled in that association ^i 
employers are required to surrender their right- i^i 



October 1, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



147 



collective bargaining and to carry the so-called dis- 
charge book issued by the aforesaid association of 
employers, shall be abolished forthwith. 

8. Complaints and Grievances: It is a condition of 
this code that accredited representatives of this organi- 
zation shall have the right of access to any vessel 
under American registry, operated upon the Great 
Lakes and the connecting tributaries, whenever said 
vessel is in port, to interview the members of the 
organization employed in and about the vessel, to 
ascertain whether the provisions of the code and the 
general requirements of the maritime law are being 
complied with in order that any justifiable complaints 
of infractions thereof may be taken up with the 
proper authorities, and to act as the representatives 
of said members in the adjustment of any disputes or 
grievances which may require attention. 
Marine Cooks and Stewards' Union of the Great 

Lakes. 

(Signed) J. M. Secord, 

General Secretary. 



LLOYD'S REGISTER STATISTICS 



The new edition of Lloyd's Register contains, 
as usual, very complete particulars of all sea- 
going merchant vessels of the world of 100 tons 
and upwards, and also of steel and iron vessels 
trading on the Great Lakes of North America, 
and of other vessels classed with the society. It 
thus includes a detailed record of about 32,000 
steamers, motorships, sailing vessels and non- 
propelled craft. The volumes also contain many 
lists of great practical value to the shipping com- 
munity, such as shipowners and managers all over 
the world, with the names and tonnages of their 
respective vessels ; shipbuilders and marine engi- 
neers in all countries ; detailed particulars of dry 
and wet docks, ports, harbors, etc., in each coun- 
try ; telegraphic and postal addresses of some 
20,000 firms connected with shipping in all parts 
of the world ; steamers and motorships arranged 
according to nationality and gross tonnage; par- 
ticulars of the speed of merchant vessels capable 
of twelve knots and upwards ; particulars of dead- 
weight and cubic capacities of cargo steamers and 
motorships ; lists of vessels carrying oil in bulk ; 
lists of vessels fitted with refrigerating appliances ; 
signal letters assigned to all sea-going vessels, etc. 
The section of the book, however, which is prob- 
ably of greatest interest is that containing the 
statistical tables, which give extensive and precise 
information respecting the various merchant fleets 
of the world. The contents of these enable an 
exact comparison to be made of the number, 
material, description, size, age and type of vessels 
owned in the various countries. The number and 
gross tonnage of existing vessels recorded in the 



new edition of the Register Book which are now 
or have formerly been classed by the society, or 
for which classification is contemplated, is 15,092 
of 41,958,302 tons. Of the tonnage actually hold- 
ing the society's class, 44 per cent is registered in 
Great Britain and Ireland and 56 per cent in 
other countries. 

The tables show that during the last twelve 
months there has been a decrease of 1,902,632 tons 
in the steam tonnage owned in the world, an in- 
crease of 162,015 tons in the motor tonnage, and 
a decrease in the tonnage of sailing vessels and 
barges of 73,508 tons, making a net decrease of 
1,814,125 tons in the total tonnage for the world. 
Between June, 1931, and June, 1932, there was a 
net decrease of 396,730 tons. The only countries 
showing notable increases for the last twelve 
months are Soviet Russia (158,068 tons), Pan- 
ama (148,621 tons) and Finland (88,407 tons). 
In the case of Soviet Russia, owing to the diffi- 
culty experienced in obtaining precise information, 
the figures are probably not comprehensive, while 
the increases in the Panamanian and Finnish totals 
are not to be ascribed primarily to the require- 
ments of national trade. During the same period 
the largest decreases among the principal mari- 
time countries are the following: Great Britain 
and Ireland (970,936 tons), Germany (263,568 
tons), Italy (240,765 tons), Holland (198,383 
tons) and the United States (188,821 tons). 

Another table in the new Register Book shows 
that during the nine years from June, 1914, to 
June, 1923, the net increase in the world's steam 
and motor tonnage was 16,931,000 tons, equal to 
37.3 per cent of such tonnage in existence in 1914, 
and that the net addition since 1923 amounts to 
4,293,000 tons, equal to 6.9 per cent of the tonnage 
in 1923. A comparison of the figures for 1914 
and 1932 shows that the largest increases took 
place in the United States (11,336,000 tons), 
Japan (1,896,000 tons), France (1,531,000 tons), 
Italy (1,451,000 tons) and Holland (1,135,000 
tons). 



Make a great deal more of your right to praise 
the good than of your right to blame the bad. 
Never let a brave and serious struggle after truth 
and goodness, however weak it may be, pass un- 
recognized. Do not be chary of appreciation. 
Hearts are unconsciously hungry for it. — Phillips 
Brooks. 



148 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



October 1, 1933 



NEWS AND COMMENT 

Concerning Seamen the World Over 



The ballot of the membership of the Nor- 
wegian Stewards' Union has resulted in 85 per 
cent in favor of amalgamation with the Nor- 
wegian Sailors' and Firemen's Union. The latter 
had previously already decided in favor of amal- 
gamation, which will therefore be carried through 

in the near future. 

* * * 

For the period May 1 to < October 31, 1933, the 
( rerman government has placed 20,000,000 marks 
at the disposal of the shipowners. Each owner re- 
ceives daily a subsidy of three pfennigs per ton 
of freight carried plus an allowance equal to 20 
per cent of the pay of the crew. Wages are very 
low, an able seaman earning 105 marks a month. 
It must be said that the Nazis are favorably dis- 
posed toward the shipowners. 

:' : ■'.- '■',- 

Unexpected difficulties have arisen in connec- 
tion with the scheme to provide an up-to-date sea- 
men's institute in the heart of London's dock- 
land. It has been found necessary to drive in no 
fewer than 300 piles in order to make a secure 
foundation for the building, and the original esti- 
mated cost of nearly £35,000 will be exceeded 
by at least another £10,000. The new institute 
will have accommodation for about 150 seamen, 
in addition to recreation rooms and gymnasium 
and a seamen's church. 

* * * 

As stated in the editorial columns of the JOUR- 
NAL, a number of shipowners have of late years 
adopted the practice of transferring their ships 
to a "cheaper" flag. One of the flags chosen for 
the purpose has been that of Panama, with the 
result that the merchant marine of that country 
has suffered a real invasion by foreign ships. In 
consequence the government has been obliged to 
make the conditions of transfer more difficult. 
Any ship wishing to fly Panamanian colors in 
future will have to go to Panama for a careful 
inspection. If accepted, the ship will have to pay 
a license fee of $1.10 U. S. A., currency per ton 
displacement, plus a duty of 10 cents per ton and 
per annum. The captain and officers of such 
vessels may be foreigners, but at least 35 per cent 
of the crew must be of Panamian nationality. 



The Australian Minister of Commerce recently 
moved the second reading of the Navigation 
( Maritime Conventions) Bill, which, he explained, 
would enable the Commonwealth to ratify the 
conventions dealing with the minimum age for 
admission of children to employment at sea; mini- 
mum age for admission of young persons to em- 
ployment as trimmers and stokers; compulsory 
medical examination of children and young per- 
sons employed at sea; and unemployment in- 
demnity in the case of loss or foundering of ships. 

* * # 

The annual report of the Medical Officer of 
Health to the Manchester Port Sanitary Authority 
reports that during the past year 1,896 vessels 
were inspected and sanitary defects were found 
in only 357 cases, the number being a decrease 
of 2.72 per cent from that of the previous year. 
The same downward tendency is being noted at 
other British ports and hears gratifying testimony 
to the efficacy of cooperation between British 
seamen and shipowners in furthering the cause 
of health and cleanliness. 

* * * 

Applicants to the Royal Seamen's Pension 
Fund must be natural born or naturalized British 
subjects resident and domiciled in Great Britain 
or Northern Ireland, who are not less than 65 
years of age (50 years in the case of a blind 
person), and have long sea service in the British 
Mercantile Marine or in the British Sea Fishing 
Service. Women who have served at sea are eligi- 
ble. In the award of jK-nsions, preference is given 
to applicants who have served not less than 
twenty-four years in foreign-going ships. Forms 
of application may be obtained from any office 
of the British National Union of Seamen. 

* * * 

In the north of France a bargemen's strike has 
broken out. It affects some 5,000 tugs and barges, 
and for the first time unites small owner barge- 
men and journeymen, in a demand for abolition 
of privileges granted to motor barges when pass- 
ing through locks and introduction of a ten-hour 
working day and night rest. Several incidents 
have already occurred. The men have obstructed 
the rivers .Seine and Oise with their boats, jproops 
have intervened. The strike is at bottom a defen- 
sive measure of the small barge owners, who are 
being gradually ruined by the growing number 
of motor barges. 



October 1, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



149 



The French regulations relating to seamen's 
unemployment funds have hitherto stipulated that 
to be entitled to unemployment pay a seaman must 
have been registered at a maritime labor exchange 
for at least thirty days. A recent decree reduced 
the period to eight days. As a result of repre- 
sentations made by the French Seamens' Federa- 
tion, a new Maritime Sanitation and Safety Act, 
adopted by the French parliament early this year, 
provides for the representation of the lower rat- 
ings on the committees appointed to issue naviga- 
tion certificates to ships, and to watch over the 
enforcement of the regulations to which ships are 
subject. Of two new bills submitted to parlia- 
ment, one provides for a number of improvements 
in the seamen's superannuation scheme, and the 
other for giving seamen the right to vote at parlia- 
mentary elections while at sea. 

Elsewhere in this issue will be found details 
regarding the recent census of British seamen. 
In this connection the following extract from the 
London Daily Express is illuminating: "Four 
hundred colored men, not even members of the 
British Empire, are receiving the dole in Liver- 
pool. A floating population of Lascars, Chinese 
and Belgian West African natives, numbering 
nearly 5,000, lives in the dock area. More than 
200 Greek seamen are employed in the coastal 
trade in ships owned from this port. Three Liver- 
pool-owned vessels are chartered by the British 
Government for foreign troop service. Originally 
each carried a crew of 114 Liverpool men. To- 
day their crews consist of Lascars and Genoese, 
while the 342 men whom they have displaced draw 
the dole." The foregoing are but a few of the 
facts and figures revealed by the Daily Express 
regarding one of the most scandalous aspects of 
the British shipping trade. 

* * * 

The current issue of the German shipping jour- 
nal Hansa contains a hysterical outburst which 
shows how successful has been the action of or- 
ganized workers in other countries against Ger- 
man ships flying the swastika flag. In its help- 
less fury the journal unconsciously pays a tribute 
to the international solidarity of the workers : 
"That we have other worries everybody knows 
and need not be specially mentioned here, much 
though one is tempted, for instance, to say some- 
thing about the rabble who for years waxed fat 
at the expense of the taxpayers; but since these 



sources failed unceasingly throw with mud, from 
the other side of the frontier, everything which 
is German and would remain German. Of a kind, 
poisoned as they are by the contact, are those 
circles in foreign ports who vent their hate of the 
German state by ruffianly attacks on her official 
insignia. It is especially regrettable that here and 
there incidents occurred without the authorities 
being able to prevent them, as we should do if 
in our ports anybody tried to make the na- 
tional flag of a foreign country contemptible or, 
as in Denmark, the cause of a strike." 
* * * 

According to a communication, summarized in 
the International Transportworkers Federation 
journal, the Japanese Seamen's Union disclaims 
any nationalistic intentions in protesting against 
the employment of Chinese seamen on Japanese 
ships. In the course of its negotiations with the 
shipowners and the authorities the Union sug- 
gested that the Japanese shipping regulations 
should be on similar lines as those of certain 
other countries, and provide that not less than 
75 per cent of the crews of Japanese vessels 
should be of Japanese nationality, or be able to 
speak the Japanese language. As there was ob- 
viously no chance of getting this principle ac- 
cepted immediately, the Union proposed to the 
shipowners (a) that the Chinese members of their 
crews should be required to join the Union, and 
(b) that the Chinese members of the crew should 
be paid the minimum rates of wages provided for 
in the Japanese collective agreement. The Dairen 
Steamship Company, which is the principal em- 
ployer of Chinese, was willing that the Chinese 
members of the crew should join the Union, pro- 
vided that the matter was left to the discretion 
of each individual ; but refused to pay the stan- 
dard wage rates to Chinese. The Union was just 
about to declare a strike, when the company of- 
fered to substitute Japanese for Chinese crews on 
eight of the twenty-six vessels concerned. This 
was accepted as a compromise by the Union. 



The rights of property have been so much ex- 
tended that the rights of the community have al- 
most altogether disappeared, and it is hardly too 
much to say that the prosperity and the comfort 
and the liberties of a great proportion of the popu- 
lation have been laid at the feet of a small num- 
ber of proprietors who "neither toil nor spin." — 
Joseph Chamberlain. 



150 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



October 1, 1933 



Seamen's Journal 

Established in 1887 
Published on the first day of each month at 525 
Market Street, San Francisco, by and under the di- 
rection of the International Seamen's Union of 
America. 

PAUL SCHARRENBERG, Editor 

© 

Entered at the San Francisco Postofhce as second- 
class matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate 
of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of Oc- 
tober 3, 1917, authorized September 7, 1918. 

Subscription price $1.00 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 



NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will be 
published, provided they are of general interest, 
brief, legible, written on one side only of the paper, 
and accompanied by the writer's own name and ad- 
dress. The JOURNAL is not responsible for the ex- 
pressions of correspondents, nor for the return of 
manuscripts. 



October 1, 1933 



THE QUESTION OF UNION DUES 



About the only reason why certain seamen re- 
main outside the Seamen's Union is the foolish 
thought that they can thus evade the payment of 
union dues. Those who still have such notions 
should read the scale of wages proposed in the 
Code sponsored by the American Steamship Own- 
ers' Association. 

Seamen, and workers generally, who do not 
associate with their fellow men in a Union, usually 
pay dearly for remaining "independent." They 
pay their union dues to the employer in reduced 
wages. And they pay many times the amount of 
the union dues ! 

If there were no Seamen's Union to resist a 
low-wage Code the members of the American 
Steamship Owners' Association would have things 
their own way. And the poor benighted seafarer, 
who objects to paying dues to the Seamen's Union 
would then pay a year's dues to the shipowner — 
every month. Think it over, brothers, and let your 
conscience be your guide. 

Would you rather pay nominal dues to the Sea- 
men's Union to carry on your fight to higher 
wages and better working conditions ? Or do you 
prefer to pay exorbitant dues (in the shape of 
wage reductions) to the shipowner? Whether you 
like it or not, you will pay to either one or the 
other. Take your choice ! 



THE DANGER FROM WITHIN 



Minds are like parachutes. They only function 
when they are open. 



A current news item reports that the tomb of 
Attila. famous many centuries ago as the "scourge 
of God," has been found in a river bed in Czecho- 
slovakia. Whether the report is correct or not, 
the story at least performs the useful function of 
setting one thinking about the contrasting ways in 
which civilized society can be threatened with de- 
struction. 

In Attila's day. when the savage Huns came 
rolling up out of the darkness, the crumbling so- 
ciety of the time lived in constant fear of in- 
vasion of barbarians. Wave after wave of cruel 
destroyers came in over the borders, each one 
more destructive than the one before. Attila was 
the last and worst. The whole framework of civili- 
zation seemed to lie collapsing before him. It took 
society many centuries to pick up the pieces. 

When the historian Gibbon wrote his Decline 
and Fall of the Roman Empire he remarked that 
society no longer faced that kind of danger. The 
framework, he said, could never crumble again. 
There were no more barbaric hosts to menace the 
frontiers. But, a few years after Gibbon had com- 
pleted his memorable work came the French revo- 
lution, just to prove that society could be threat- 
ened with destruction even when its frontiers WCW 
completely peaceful. It left reverberations quite 
as profound as those put in motion by Attila's 
hordes. 

Today we have no barbaric hordes on our 
borders, and— in spite of the shivers of the timid 
— we are not in any real danger of an uprising 
from below. The threat that our society faces is 
entirely new, and because it is so new it is all the 
more insidious. 

Our danger is not that we shall be overwhelmed 
by external enemies or turned over by the down- 
trodden masses. But there is grave danger that our 
order of things may collapse of its own weight 
because the comparatively few men at the top 
have insisted upon maintaining a Crazy quilt social 
order — a system that has given us our army of 
unemployed and placed millions on the charity 
rolls— in a land where all could be happy if out 
bountiful resources were sanely distributed. 

What is going on at Washington now is simply 
an attempt to rearrange things so as to make in- 
telligent direction of our society more easy. It 
may look radical at first glance, but it essentially 
is deeply conservative 



We have neither an Attila 



October 1, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



151 



nor a Robespierre to fear; if trouble comes, it 
will be entirely our own fault. 



PROHIBITION ON THE ROCKS 



N. R. A. UPHELD IN COURT 



The National Recovery Act has successfully 
met its first challenge in the courts. The case arose 
out of an order by Secretary of the Interior Ickes 
prohibiting the shipment from one state to an- 
other of petroleum produced in violation of state 
regulations. F. W. Fisher of Tyler, Texas, a re- 
finer, asked an injunction holding up the order. 
It was alleged that the National Recovery Act, 
under which it was issued, violated the Federal 
Constitution in that it delegated to the President 
and his aids authority which belonged solely to 
Congress. 

The hearing of the case was held before Justice 
Joseph Cox of the District of Columbia Supreme 
Court. 

Upholding the order, he gave an opinion that 
is likely to win a permanent place in American 
judicial records. Among other things, the court 
said: 

In the law it is recognized that necessity confers 
many rights and privileges that without the necessity 
might net be conferred. It is said that self-preserva- 
tion is the first law, and this principle, in some degree 
at least, seems to extend to governments. 

There is another maxim, that "the safety of the 
people is the supreme law," and all these must be con- 
sidered in dealing with emergencies. All laws, includ- 
ing the Constitution, should be read in emergencies in 
the light of the law of necessity. Congress has de- 
clared that a great national emergency exists, and has 
invested the President with extraordinary power to 
meet that emergency. 

The authority of Congress to confer unusual 
and even unprecedented powers on the President 
during the time of war long has been recognized 
by the courts. 

But the emergencies of peace may not be less 
critical than the emergencies arising out of armed 
conflicts. This is the principle set forth in Justice 
Cox's decision along with the corollary that ex- 
traordinary situations, whether in peace or war, 
may demand extraordinary remedies. That is a 
common sense view of the matter. 

It is to be hoped that in other cases of like char- 
acter which may arise in the future, the courts 
will give the same primary consideration to living 
needs and less weight to dead precedents. 



A year ago, if anyone had been rash enough 
to venture the prediction that Maine would cast a 
two to one vote in favor of prohibition repeal he 
would have been regarded as a fit candidate for 
the mad house. 

For Maine was the Gibraltar of prohibition in 
the United States. It was the original home of 
the dry movement. Its people had stuck to prohi- 
bition through more than half a century before 
the eighteenth amendment was adopted. 

Yet the result of the election held showed that 
Maine, no less than her admittedly wet neighbors, 
is through with the ''noble experiment." And if 
any doubts had remained as to the certainty of 
repeal before the end of this year, the Maine vote 
dispelled them. 

The handwriting on the wall already was in 
evidence. The Maine balloting writes it in capital 
letters. The odds are now overwhelming that 
every one of the thirty-eight states which will hold 
elections on or before November 7, will ratify 
the repeal amendment. 

The last of the conventions to be chosen therein 
will be held on December 6, when the funeral 
obsequies of national prohibition will be in order. 

But for the overwhelming majority of the 
American people it will be a day of national re- 
joicing. 



CITIZEN SEAMEN INCREASING 



The smaller the calibre of mind, the greater 
the bore of a perpetually open mouth. — Oliver 
Wendell Holmes. 



According to reports by the Bureau of Navi- 
gation and Steamboat Inspection, covering the 
fiscal year ended June 30, 1933, the proportion of 
American born or naturalized seamen shipped 
and re-shipped by the United States shipping 
commissioners at the thirteen largest ports of the 
country and manning the American merchant 
marine, increased to 74.7 per cent as compared 
with 67.7 per cent in the period ending June 30, 
1932, and 64.3 per cent in the previous year. 

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1933, a 
total of 221,128 seamen were shipped and re- 
shipped on American vessels by these shipping 
commissioners. Of this total, 165,310, or 74.7 
per cent, either were American born or naturalized 
citizens. Those of other nationalities included 
12,780 British, 7,885 Spanish, 8,401 German, and 
all others totaled 26,752. 



152 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



October 1, 1933 



UNION SEAMEN COMMENDED 



The President of Eastern Steampship Lines, 
Inc., of Boston, Mass., recently sent the follow- 
ing self-explanatory letter to each member of the 
crew of the steamship Madison: 
Dear Sir : 

The storm of August 22 and 23. in which the S. S. 
Madison found herself, was one of great severity and 
the officers of this Company are gratified beyond 
words of commendation regarding the action of 
every member of the crew in this trying situation. 
The traditions of the Anglo-Saxon race were upheld 
nobly, and I want every man on the ship to know 
that his work was appreciated. 

Appreciation can best be expressed in words and 
thoughts and cannot be translated on a monetary 
basis; nevertheless, I am enclosing a small check, 
not as any payment for your services, but simply as 
an added token of our appreciation. 

We are certainly proud of the crew of the Madison. 
Very sincerely yours, 

(Signed) Georgk Handley, 

Acting President. 

The Journal is proud to announce that the 
Madison carried a 100 per cent union crew. It 
is also gratifying to know that the executive offi- 
cers of the Eastern Steampship Company are ap- 
preciative of the fact that the Madison's crew was 
composed of men who knew how to "carry on" 
under trying circumstances. 



THE LEAGUE AND THE WHALE 



The League of Nations has again demonstrated 
its inability to induce the nations affiliated with 
it to keep their word. As a result the 1,000-year- 
old whale industry is in danger and the whale is 
threatened with extermination. 

Some years ago the league drafted a treaty 
whereby the countries with whale fisheries agreed 
to stop killing this mammal solely for its oil and 
to attempt means of conservation. But like other 
treaties it became a mere scrap of paper. 

Now the United States Bureau of Fisheries 
reports there is danger of extermination because 
low prices make it unprofitable to utilize any of 
the various whale by-products except the oil. 

It would certainly be a calamity if the whale 
should fall a victim to man's greed and disappear. 
Besides being one of the most interesting of the 
mammals his history is as old as the human race. 
He is the last of the mighty monsters that 
swarmed land and sea in the dim, prehistoric past. 
He has survived only because of the vastness of 
his ocean home. 

Whale fishing always has been one of the most 
romantic and alluring of the industries. It has 



been particularly so since Herman Melville wrote 
his immortal story of Moby Dick. 

The conservationists of America and elsewhere 
should turn their attention to this problem. Per- 
haps they may succeed where the League of 
Nations has failed. 



WHO HAS THE CASH? 



The latest report of the Comptroller of the 
Currency contains some illuminating facts con- 
cerning the concentration of wealth as revealed 
by bank deposits. 

There are 30,556.105 deposit accounts in the 
more than 5,000 banks that are members of the 
Federal Reserve System. These deposits total 
$23,542,307,000. Of this staggering sum— suffi- 
cient to pay off the national debt and leave a hand- 
some balance — 45 per cent stands in the names of 
less than one per cent of the depositors. Their 
accounts average $224,000. 

The disparity between the few at the top and 
the many at the bottom is further emphasized by 
these figures: Only 3.5 per cent of the depositors) 
have accounts totaling $2,500 and over, but they 
represent 76.3 per cent of the total. 

The remaining 96.5 per cent of the depositors 
have only 23.7 per cent of the deposits, and their 
average is only $189. Putting it another way — 
less than one-twenty-fifth of the depositors have 
more than three- fourths of the deposits, while 
more than twenty- four-twenty-fifths of the de- 
positors have less than one-fourth of the deposits. 

As our illustrious contemporary Labor says : 
It is not necessary to "interpret" such figures. 
They speak for themselves. 



The Executive Board of the International Sea- 
men's Union of America has revoked the charter 
of the Marine Firemen, Oilers and Watertend-j 
ers' Union of the Pacific. At the same time the 
Executive Council has voted to grant a charter 
to a new union to be known as the Pacific Coasj 
Marine Firemen, ( filers, Watertenders and Wipj 
ers' Association, with headquarters in San Fran- 
cisco. Temporary officers of the latter organiza- 
tion are Joseph M. Morris. Secretary, and Joseph 
Stanley, Patrolman. 



If we fail, that failure shall not arise from a 
want of strict adherence to principle or attention 
and fidelity to the trust we assume. — Enquirer. 



October 1, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



153 



TRAVEL IN THE STRATOSPHERE 



There was something more to Lieut. Settle's 
recent attempt at Soldiers Field, Chicago, to reach 
a new altitude in the stratosphere than the mere 
desire to set a new record. 

Aviation experts for years have been turning 
longing eyes toward the little known regions far 
above the layer of atmosphere surrounding the 
earth. If some means of navigating it can be de- 
vised they believe air travel will become infinitely 
safer. Peculiarly enough, the stratosphere is not 
subject to the hazards of the air lanes closer to 
the earth's surface, and, paradoxical though it 
sounds, the higher the plane gets the safer it is. 

The lower depths of the atmosphere are subject 
to serious disturbances. Fogs and blankets of 
clouds are encountered by those who attempt to 
fly across oceans. Sharp currents of air occur 
constantly. Air pockets cause tragedies over lakes 
and rivers. These conditions do not prevail in the 
stratosphere. There are no squalls or storms of 
the kind that now terrify airmen in the lower 
levels. Moreover air resistance is so much lower 
that planes could travel at vastly greater speeds. 
Some scientists say speeds up to 500 miles an 
hour might be attained. 

Settle's attempt, no doubt will be repeated. Man 
has had a fling at the stratosphere and will not be 
content until he has conquered it. It is not in- 
conceivable that a new generation may see ships 
mounting into it to glide from one continent to 
another in a few hours. 



GENEROSITY OF JAPANESE SEAMEN 



The twelfth annual convention of the Japa- 
nese Seamen's Union held in Kobe recently, ap- 
proved the financial and other reports on the work 
of the Union submitted by the officers. Accord- 
ing to the reports, the total membership was 96,- 
168. The expenditure of the Union during the 
past fiscal year amounted to 469,528.95 yen, as 
against an income of 376,386.70 yen, the excess 
in expenditure being due to a gift of 100.000 yen 
which the Union made to the widow of the late 
president and founder of the Union, Mr. Nara- 
saki. The meeting adopted a declaration reaffirm- 
ing the loyalty of the Union to the International 
Labor Organization and containing a passage 
which pledged it to strive for the maintenance of 
the sound trade unionism pursued during the 



past twelve years, to improve labor conditions and 
to support the Japanese Trade Union Congress 
and the International Labor Organization, thereby 
promoting the organization and cooperation of 
the oppressed working masses of Japan and of 
the world. 



PRINCIPLES OF N. R. A. 



Here is a brief statement of the principles of 
the National Recovery Administration as issued 
last year by organizations representing over 1,- 
500,000 workers, says Donald R. Richberg, gen- 
eral counsel for the N. R. A., in which the back- 
ground of the administration is found : 

"We will lay down as our foundation principle 
that the primary service and primary obligation 
of every industry is to furnish a livelihood to 
those who have invested their lives in that in- 
dustry. It is the failure to recognize or apply this 
principle which in our judgment is the major cause 
of the present terrible depression in business. This 
depression has proved with unhappy force that in- 
terest can only be made on money investments, and 
that property values can only be maintained through 
the productive power and purchasing power of 
millions of workers who must be kept employed. 
This is the first demand which must be met by 
those who control industries and government. If 
this demand is not met, destitution for masses of 
the people and wholesale losses to property own- 
ers are inevitable. There is nothing destructive 
or antagonistic to the institution of private prop- 
erty in the demand that human beings must be 
kept alive, protected from want, and maintained in 
good health before properties can be made income 
producing." 



The balance sheet of the British National Union 
of Seamen for the year ending December 31, 
1932, duly audited and certified by accountants, 
is as follows: On January 1, 1932, the Capital 
Account showed the value of the Union to be 
£339,005 15s. 5^d., and on December 31, 1932, 
it was £335,516 7s. 10d., showing a depreciation 
of £3,264 7s. 7y 2 d. In other words, during a 
year of unparalleled world depression, the excess 
of expenditure over income on the year's busi- 
ness was only that amount. 



Our greatest glory consists not in never fall- 
ing, but in rising every time we fall. — Oliver 
Goldsmith. 



154 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL October 1, 1933 

UNITED STATES FISHING INDUSTRY CENSUS OF BRITISH SEAMEN 



While import and export trade in fish is falling 
off, the American public is eating more seafood, 
the United States Tariff Commission announced 
in making public a tariff survey covering fishery 
products. 

The investigation is the largest inquiry into 
this industry in more than a decade. Much of 
the data will serve as a basis for later reports 
under a Senate resolution which calls for new 
tariff data on fish with a view to tariff bargaining 
with other countries. Reviewing the industry in 
general, the Commission finds that this country 
produces about one-tenth of the world output of 
23,000,000,000 pounds a year. 

The future for the industry lies in presenting 
more attractive types of seafood to the public, 
the Commission says in pointing out the possibili- 
ties of using new methods of packing and freez- 
ing. In the last twenty years only four new sea 
products have been introduced to the American 
table on a large scale. They are Atlantic haddock 
fillets, Pacific pilchard, tuna, and herring. 

Trade in salt fish has been receding in recent 
years but canning and freezing has been expanded 
and waste fish, sheels, seaweed have been finding 
a better market in the form of by-products. 

American fisheries use largely high-speed vessels 
which can return to port with fresh fish. The 
same is true in foreign countries, but they have 
been developing large floating factories capable 
of freezing, canning, or rendering the catch at sea. 
The difficulty of recruiting factory hands and fish- 
ermen for long voyages at low wages is retarding 
this branch of the domestic industry, the Com- 
mission finds. 

The trend toward consumption of fish is slower 
in the United States than in many other countries, 
where grazing and crop areas are limited and 
fresh seafood is available at all times to all of the 
population. The amount of seafood consumed by 
the average American increased from fifteen to 
eighteen pounds a year between 1908 and 1930, 
the survey shows. 

One of the most important tariff problems 
affecting fisheries is the competition in obtaining 
fish from international waters, says the Com- 
mission, pointing out that most other countries 
encourage their vessels with cash bounties or 
other subsidies. 



A census of seamen on British ships who were 
employed on June 15, 1932, has been taken; and 
the results are analyzed in detail in the Board of 
Trade Journal. It should be noted that the par- 
ticulars given in the Journal do not show the total 
number of persons following the sea service, but 
only those actually employed on the specified day* 
on sea-trading vessels (t. e., sea-going vessels 
other than yachts and fishing vessels) registered 
under Part I of the Merchant Shipping Act, 1894, 
in the United Kingdom, in the Isle of Man, and 
in the Channel Islands. 

The following table shows the numbers of 
crews recorded at the 1931 and 1932 census dates 
(April 26, 1931, and June 15, 1932). It should 
be noted that there was a rapid increase in the 
tonnage laid up (and consequently in unemploy- 
ment among seamen) during the second quarter 
of 1932. which may have materially affected the 
1932 census figures. 

"Deck" department in the table includes navi- 
gating officers, able seamen, and all other persons 
whose duties relate directly to the navigation of 
the ship. Wireless operators are also included in 
the numbers in this group, and, in the case of 
vessels carrying cattle and other animals as cargo, 
the men attending to such animals. The "engine 
room" department includes engineer officers, fire- 
men, greasers, and all others employed in attend- 
ance on the main and auxiliary machinery. Re- 
frigerating engineers and electricians are also in- 
cluded. The "stewards' " department includes 
stewards, cooks, and all others employed in at- 
tending on the passengers or crew. All clerical 
staffs are included in this group, together with 
pursers, doctors, and musicians. 

EMPLOYED IX SEA-TRADIXG VESSELS 



April 26, 1931: Deck 

British 43,282 

Foreign 4,024 

Lascar 16,096 

Total 63,402 

June 15, 1932: 

British 39,070 

Foreign 2,634 

Lascar 15,073 

Total 56,777 



Engine 
Room 


Stewards 


All 
Depart- 
ments 


34,752 

5,011 

19,726 


30,848 

2,169 

13,303 


108,882 
11,204 
49,125 


59,489 


46,320 


169,211 


31,804 

3,833 

17,346 


28,268 

1,718 

10,984 


99,142 

8,185 

43,403 



52,983 



40,970 



150,730 



* The number of vessels of 100 tons gross and over 
employed at some time during the year 1932, though not 
on June 15, was 938; and the total number of the first 
crews of these vessels in 1932 was 45,909. Corresponding 
particulars in respect of trading vessels of under 10 
gross, and of fishing vessels, have not been ascertain--'! 
On June 15, only 915 persons were employed on sea- 
trading vessels of less than 100 tons gross. 



10 



October 1, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



155 



SHIPPING NEWS 



The directors of the Todd Shipyards Corpora- 
tion declared a quarterly dividend of 25 cents per 
share, payable on September 20, to stockholders 
of record at close of business, September 5. 

Under a Norwegian law now in effect, a tax of 
five crowns per hundred kilos is to be collected on 
exports of salmon and sea trout, in order to pro- 
vide funds for promotion of the fisheries con- 
cerned. Funds for the above purpose were form- 
erly obtained by a direct tax on these fisheries. 

According to a report issued by the Swedish 
Committee of Lloyd's Register, there are at pres- 
ent seventeen vessels of 82,330 tons gross now 
building in Sweden. A further three ships, totaling 
10,200 tons gross, have been ordered from Swed- 
ish yards, but their keels have not yet been laid. 
Approximately 66 per cent of the tonnage on order 
— ten vessels of 60,960 tons — is for the tanker 
trade and of this total eight ships aggregating 
53,900 tons are for Norwegian owners, the re- 
mainder being for domestic account. 

Salvage operations on the German warships 
sunk at Scapa Flow will probably continue, al- 
though the salvagers, Messrs. Cox and Danks, 
announced that the Von der Tann was the last 
they would raise. A Glasgow firm, Metal Indus- 
tries, have bought the plant, ship-raising equip- 
ment and craft formerly used by Messrs. Cox 
and Danks when operating from Stromness, and 
they are now considering the continuance of the 
salvage at Scapa Flow. A preliminary to any 
further operations, however, would be a survey 
of the thirteen wrecks still to be salved. These 
are of nine battleships and four cruisers, includ- 
ing the dreadnaught Grosser Kurfiirst / and the 
total tonnage is said to be in the region of 200,000. 
Metal Industries, Limited, have at their yard at 
Rosyth broken up all the capital ships salved by 
Messrs. Cox and Danks, and 300 men are now 
employed there in dismantling the Prins Regent 
Leopold and the Von der Tann. 

The new Danish training ship Danmark, which 
has now been delivered from the Nakskov Skibs- 
vaerft, is an interesting example of modern sail- 
ing ship construction. She is a steel built full- 
rigged ship with a spread of sail totaling 1,450 



square yards, the mainmast being 118 feet high. 
Her principal dimensions are 210 feet length over- 
all, 33 feet four inches beam, and 20 feet moulded 
depth, and the hull has a continuous double bot- 
tom. Accommodation is provided in the orlop deck 
for 120 cadets, the three main compartments into 
which it is divided being equipped with ham- 
mocks, steel lockers, tables and benches. The cap- 
tain and mates are housed in the poop, with a 
roomy saloon right aft, while a deckhouse imme- 
diately above contains the chartroom and the wire- 
less equipment. The navigating bridge, with its 
telegraph to the auxiliary engine, is placed amid- 
ships, and the main steering gear is on the for- 
ward end of the poop. 

A conference between representatives of rail- 
roads and those of water lines, looking toward a 
stabilization of rates and the end of cut-throat 
competition, has been held in the office of Federal 
Coordinator Joseph B. Eastman. The plan is to 
have a standing committee of both kinds of car- 
riers, which will notify either side of changes 
contemplated by the other, and give a chance for 
discussion before new rates are put into effect. 
The railroads expressed themselves ready to go 
ahead. The water lines were not fully represented, 
but those who had no spokesman at the confer- 
ence are being canvassed. Mr. Eastman expressed 
himself hopeful of good results. The understand- 
ing will not raise the level of water rates to that 
of rail rates. The railroads conceded that on 
port-to-port traffic, the water lines are entitled to 
a lower rate, and that this plan might be ex- 
tended. 

For the first time an American ship was the 
winner in the annual International Life Boat 
race, held in the narrows of New York harbor, 
off Bay Ridge, on September 4. The lifeboat crew 
of the tanker IV. C. T eagle of the Standard Ship- 
ping Company crossed the finish line over the 
two-mile course in 24 minutes and 16 seconds. 
Last year the crew of the Bergensfjord speeded 
over the same course in 17 minutes and 27 sec- 
onds, but did not have the same conditions to 
contend with. The General von Steuben crew of 
the North German Lloyd was second with a time 
of 26 minutes six seconds. The other entrants 
and their time follow : Third, Excalibur, Amer- 
ican Export Lines, 28 minutes flat ; fourth, Anna 
Maersk, Isbrandtsen-Moller Company, 28 min- 
utes 50 seconds ; fifth, Peten, United Fruit Com- 



11 



156 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



October 1, 1933 



pany, 29 minutes 50 seconds; sixth. New York, 
Hamburg-American Line, 30 minutes 50 seconds. 

Commenting on the report that the Soviet 
government is preparing to spend $1,000,000,000 
in the purchase of finished products outside its 
domains, Henry Herbermann, president of the 
American Export Lines, called attention to the 
direct benefits to American manufacturers and 
shipping by the United States recognition of the 
Russian government at this time. "Speaking with 
some knowledge of the situation, as our American 
Export Lines' ships reach the Russian Black Sea 
ports, our relations," said Mr. Hebermann, "with 
Russian officials, though handicapped as they have 
been, have always been conducted on a high 
business plane, and we have found them both 
courteous and fair in their dealings, and we have 
every reason to believe if given an equal chance, 
our trade with Russia will be an important factor 
in the very near future." 

Although she is not quite the oldest power- 
driven vessel afloat, the Hsin Tai holds the dis- 
tinction of being the oldest steamer in Lloyd's 
Register. She has had, moreover, an eventful 
and colorful career since she was launched ninety- 
three years ago. Her birthplace was the Lenin- 
grad (then St. Petersburg) yard of the Nevsky 
Shipbuilding Works, where a group of Clyde en- 
gineers, specially brought to Russia by the Tsar 
Nicholas I, built her to their own designs. She 
was the first iron steamer to be constructed in 
Russia, and one of the earliest in the world, yet 
even today her lines evoke the admiration of all 
who see her. Her original name was Tungus, 
and from the beginning she was employed in Far 
Eastern waters, trading between Siberian and 
Chinese ports. She then changed her home port 
from Vladivostok to Hong Kong, and for a good 
many years she was engaged in the rice trade from 
Saigon, while for some time past she has been a 
familiar sight in the China coasting trade. She 
passed into her present ownership, that of the 
Tung Shun Steamship Company, Limited, Tien- 
tsin, soon after the war, when her name was 
changed to Hsin Tai. She has a gross tonnage 
of 401, and her main dimensions are: Length, 
168 feet nine inches; breadth, twenty-six feet six 
inches, and depth, fifteen feet. Barring accidents, 
there would seem to be every chance of this 
sturdy veteran reaching and passing the century 
mark. 



LABOR NEWS 



"Dan" Hoan, dynamic Socialist, who has ruled 
Milwaukee for seventeen years, has scored 
another triumph. Some of his enemies started a 
recall movement against him recently, and they 
filed petitions which they said bore the names of 
46,000 citizens. But when the court scrutinized 
the lists so many bogus names were discovered 
that the opposition to 1 loan collapsed. 

Dictator Hitler has provided himself with a 
"General Economic Council" consisting ot four 
bankers, "representatives of international finance," 
eight industrialists, one shipowner, one large lease 
holder, one president of a chamber of commerce, 
and two "retired" gents. Not a single workman is 
represented in the General Economic Council of 
the leader of the National Socialist "Workmen's^ 
party. 

The call for the fifty-third annual convention 
of the American Federation of Labor has been is- 
sued by that body to all affiliated organizations. 
The convention this year will be held in the Wil- 
lard Hotel, Washington, D. C. beginning at 10 
o'clock, Monday morning, October 2. 1933, and 
will continue in session from day to day until the 
business of the convention shall have been com- 
pleted. 

General Smedley Butler, famous as commander 
of Uncle Sam's Marines, told the Veterans of 
Foreign Wars in convention at Milwaukee, that 
all wars are made by the Tories and fought by 
"the rest of us." He was speaking against the 
cuts in veterans' aid. "Every war ever fought was 
gotten up by the Tories," he said. "'When we go 
to war, the Tories promise us the moon, the sun,, 
everything. While we are still fighting, the loot-* 
ing begins behind us. The last war made over' 
6,000 millionaires who now won't pay the bill." 

Thousands of banks are still closed, tying up 
billions of dollars, though the national banking 
holiday was declared at an end more than four 
months ago. Latest Treasury Department figures 
show that on July 8 there were 976 national banks 
still unlicensed, with deposits of $1,090,088,010 
as of last December 31. Figures on other un- 
licensed banks were as follows: 117 belonging 
to the Federal Reserve system other than national 



12 



October 1, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



157 



banks, deposits of $312,000,000; 2,016 Federal 
Reserve non-member banks, deposits of $1,072,- 
883,000. 

Found — the one civilized country in the world 
that has virtually no unemployment. The country 
is the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg, which has 
only one person unemployed to every 600 in- 
habitants, or one-sixth of one per cent, according 
to a report by United States Consul George P. 
Walker. Not only is there sufficient work avail- 
able for the natives, but the Grand Duchy also 
is able to provide employment for more than 
6,000 aliens. Luxemburg has a population of ap- 
proximately 300,000. Its industrial activities are 
confined almost exclusively to iron ore mining and 
iron and steel production. 

Goaded to desperation because of the militant 
strikes of the hosiery workers in the Philadelphia 
region and in a desperate effort to forestall a Fed- 
eral investigation of sweatshop conditions which 
are mainly responsible for the recent walkouts of 
thousands of factory employees throughout Penn- 
sylvania, the board of directors of the Full-Fash- 
ioned Hosiery Manufacturers of America, Inc., 
voted a 25 per cent pay increase in piece work and 
daily wage rates. The manufacturers said 26,000 
employees would receive the wage boost. It was 
in line with the recent action taken by mill owners 
in Eastern Pennsylvania and Southern New 
Jersey. 

Fifteen years ago a proposal to pension Uncle 
Sam's superannuated employees was regarded as 
so "radical" that both houses of Congress refused 
to consider it. Organized labor continued the bat- 
tle and finally put over a decent retirement law. 
At present about 425,000 government employees 
are in a position to benefit. The workers have 
contributed $291,000,000 to the fund, while Uncle 
Sam has "chipped in" $214,450,000. On June 30, 
last, 32,825 were on the retirement rolls, drawing 
an average age annuity of $965.16. The balance 
in the fund is now approximately $250,000,000. 
With the passage of time the government's con- 
tributions will increase. 

Speaking on the need for wiping out our slums, 
Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes made some 
remarks the other day which every observer 
knows to be true, and which Henry George would 
have welcomed as a text. "Private enterprise has 
signally failed," said Mr. Ickes, "and has left the 
slums of American cities to stew in their own 



unhealthy juice. The entire community is paying 
the price of this failure — in higher taxes, in in- 
creased fire risks, in graver health problems, in 
greater costs for police protection." One wishes 
Mr. Ickes had gone a little farther. The prime 
cause of slums is the high cost of city land, and 
the high cost of city land is due largely to the 
fact that speculators can hold it until the growth 
of population forces somebody to pay their price. 

The love of iron and steel workers for "com- 
pany unions," "shop councils," and other yellow 
dog offspring, as proclaimed by the iron masters 
at the Washington NRA hearings and elsewhere, 
is beautifully exemplified on the front page of the 
Amalgamated Journal, official publication of the 
Amalgamated Association of Iron, Steel and Tin 
Workers. Here are spread the names of 47 new 
lodges of the Amalgamated recently organized by 
workers who so loved their employer-controlled 
unions that they renounced them as soon as they 
found they could be shielded from reprisals by 
their bosses under the sheltering wings of the 
"Blue Eagle." The employees of twenty-two steel, 
iron, and tinplate companies, including United 
States Steel Corporation, Youngstown Sheet and 
Tube, Republic and others of the big fellows, lo- 
cated in fifty-three towns and every important 
steel and iron center in the L nited States, are 
represented in this list. 

That despite the present unemployment, thou- 
sands of workers with jobs are putting in long 
hours comparable to those of the sweatshop days 
of the early 1900's, is emphasized in a recent re- 
port from the Pennsylvania Department of Labor. 
Stress is laid on the inability of a limited staff of 
sixty-five general factory inspectors to prevent 
such conditions in Pennsylvania through the en- 
forcement of existing laws. The officials are re- 
quired to investigate facilities for accident preven- 
tion, hours of women and children and general 
sanitation of 32,000 factories and 135,000 retail 
stores. "As long as the inspection service," the 
report says, "is so inadequate in numbers that 
fourteen-year old girls making children's dresses 
are found working as high as eleven and three- 
quarter hours a day, and fifteen-year old boys are 
found working twelve hours a night in any of our 
factories, we are but adding to industrial con- 
fusion. We are dynamiting the dams which have 
been built to hold up the standards of living in 
the Commonwealth." 



13 



158 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



October 1, 1933 



RULING ON N. R. A. LABOR CLAUSE 



Following is the text of the interpretation issued 
recently by the Recovery Administration, signed 
by Hugh S. Johnson and Donald E. Richberg, the 
general counsel, of the long disputed Section 7 
of the Recovery Act: 

"The plain meaning of Section 7 I a ) cannot be 
changed by any interpretation by anyone. It is 
the function of the Administrator and the courts 
to apply and to interpret the law in its administra- 
tion ; and no one else can assume this function 
and official interpretation can be circumscribed, 
affected or foreclosed by anyone writing his own 
interpretation into any code or agreement. Such 
an interpretation has no place there and cannot 
be permitted. 

"The words 'open shop' and 'closed shop' are 
not used in the law and cannot be written into 
the law. 

"These words have no agreed meaning and will 
be erased from the dictionary of the NRA. 

''The law requires in codes and agreements 
that 'employees shall have the right to organize 
and bargain collectively through representatives of 
their own choosing.' 

"This can mean only one thing, which is that 
employees can choose anyone they desire to rep- 
resent them, or they can choose to represent them- 
selves. Employers likewise can make collective 
bargains with organized employees, or individual 
agreements with those who choose to act individ- 
ually ; provided, of course, that no such collective 
or individual agreement is in violation of any 
State or Eederal law. Rut neither employers nor 
employees are required, by law, to agree to any 
particular contract, whether proposed as an indi- 
vidual or collective agreement. 

"The law provides that employees shall be free 
from the interference, restraint or coercion of em- 
ployers in the exercise of their rights established 
by the law. The conduct of employers which is 
here prohibited has been defined in the Supreme 
Court in the c ase entitled T. & X. I ). R. R. vs. 
Brotherhood of Railway Clerks. 281 U. S. 548. 
The rulings of the Supreme Court lay down the 
law which governs the NRA. 

"Under Section 7 (a), employers are forbidden 
to require 'as a condition of employment' that an 
employee shall either 'join a company union,' or 



'refrain from joining, organizing or assisting a 
labor organization of his own choosing." The law 
does not prohibit the existence of a local labor 
organization, which may be called a company 
union and is composed only of the employees of 
one company. But it does prohibit an employer 
from requiring, as a condition of employment, 
that any employee join a company union, and it 
prohibits the maintenance of a company union, 
or any other labor organization, by the interfer- 
ence, restraint or coercion of an employer. 

"If there is any dispute in a particular case 
over who are the representatives of the employees 
of their own choosing, the NRA will offer its 
services to conduct an impartial investigation and, 
if necessary, a secret ballot to settle tin- question. 

"The NRA will not undertake in any instance 
to decide that a particular contract should be 
made, or should not he made, between lawful 
representatives of employees and employer 
to decide that a contract which has been lawfully 
made should not he enforced. 

"Cooperation in all industrial relations depends 
largely on the making and maintenance of agree- 
ments. The NRA will promote and aid such co- 
operation." 

The text of Section 7 of the Act follows: 

"livery code of fair competition, agreement 
and license approved, prescribed, or issued under 
this title shall contain the following conditions: 
(1) that employees shall have the right to organ- 
ize and bargain collectively through representa- 
tives of their own choosing, and shall he free from 
the interference, restraint, or coercion of employ- 
ers of labor, or their agents, in the designation of 
such representatives or in self-organization or in 
other concerted activities for the purpose of col- 
lective bargaining or other mutual aid <>r protec- 
tion; (2) that no employee and no one seeking 
employment shall be required as a condition of 
employment to join any company union or to 
refrain from joining, organizing, or assisting a 
labor organization of his own choo>ing ; and ( 3 ) 
that employers shall comply with the maximum 
hours of labor, minimum rates of pay, and other 
conditions of employment approved and pre- 
scribed by the President." 



Persist and do not lose heart. Respect the 
opinions of others. 



14 



October 1, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



159 



Professional Cards 



Attorney for the Sailors' Union of the 
Pacific since its organization 

H. W. Hutton 

431 Pacific BIdg., Fourth and Market Sts. 

SAN FRANCISCO 

PHONE DOUGLAS 0315 



Albert Michelson 

ATTORNEY-AT-LAW 

Attorney for 

Marine Firemen and Watertenders' 
Union of Pacific 
Marine Diesel and Gasoline Engi- 
neers' Association No. 49 
611 Russ Bldg. Tel. SUtter 3866 

San Francisco, California 



ANDERSON 8C LAMB 

Attorney s-at-Law 

1226 Engineers Bank Building 

CLEVELAND, OHIO 

Personal Injury Attorneys for Seamen on 
the Great Lakes 



Frank Orwitz 

ATTORNEY-AT-LAW 

Room No. 630, Hearst Building 
Market Street and Third 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 

Telephone GArfield 6353 



INFORMATION WANTED 

Will the following seamen, or any 
persons knowing their whereabouts, 
relatives or friends, communicate 
with me or with Mrs. Ida Curry, 
widow of Robert J. Curry, of 6543 
Fifth Avenue, S. W., Seattle; for- 
merly second assistant engineer on 
the steamship Sagebrush, who died 
of burns in the Santiago Hospital on 
March 15, 1931, as a result of said 
accident: V. Segovia, P. I., Oiler; 
Bro. Donato, 85 Hamilton Avenue, 
Brooklyn, N. Y.; M. Vasaya, 12-4, 
P. I., Oiler; B. Comp, P. I., Oiler, 
606 Jackson Street, San Francisco; 
Joe Momal, P. I., Oiler; Father 
Philip, Helio, P. I.; C. Fidel, P. I., 
Fireman; Father Vicente, Davos, 
P. I.; Moses Va Saya, P. I., Fire- 
man; Joe Taturia, P. I., Wiper, 
416 Seventy-fourth Street, Seattle, 
Wash.; Felipe Gregorio, P. I., 
Wiper, 9 Goble Street, Newark, 
N. J.— Silas B. Axtell, Esq., 80 
Broad Street, New York City, N. Y., 
Room 3008. 



Some 16,000,000 bales of cotton 
were ginned in the United States in 
1931. 



Library of Congress 
275,000 volumes. 



DENTIST 




Plates and 
Bridgework 

DR. C. S. FORD 

702 Market Street 

At Market-Geary-Kearny Sts. 

Phone EXbrook 0329 

Daily Office hours, 8:30 a. m. to 7 p. l 

Sunday hours, 9 a.m. till noon 

"One Patient Tells Another" 



JENSEN & NELSEN 

Gents' Furnishing Goods 

Sayer's Oil Skin Clothing 
Uniforms, Caps, Hats, Shoes 

110 EAST STREET NEAR MISSION 

GArfield 9633 San Francisco 



SEATTLE, WASH. 
K. K. Tvete & Sons 

Established 1890 

MEN'S CLOTHING, SHOES, HATS, 
AND FURNISHING GOODS 

1300-1302 First Ave., cor. University 
SEATTLE, WASH. 



Westerman's 

UNION LABEL. 

Clothier, Furnisher & Hatter 

Alaska Outfitter 

TWO BIG STORES 

Store No. 1 — Cor. Main and First 

Store No. 2 — Westlake and Pine 

SEATTLE 



The Parthenon in Athens has a 
color scheme which includes red, 
blue and gold. 



In 1865 cotton sold at 43 cents a 
pound, which is believed to be the 
highest price established during the 
Civil War period. 



PROTEST 



To sit in silence when we should protest 

Make cowards out of men. The human race 

Has climbed on protest. Had no voice been raised 

Against injustice, ignorance and lust, 

The Inquisition yet would serve the law 

And guillotines decide our least disputes. 

The few who dare must speak and speak again 

To right the wrongs of many. Speech, thank God, 

No vested power in this great day and land 

Can gag or throttle ; press and voice may cry 

Loud disapproval of existing ills, 

May criticize oppression and condemn 

The lawlessness of wealth-protecting laws 

That let the children and child-bearers toil 

To purchase ease of idle millionaires. 

Therefore do I protest against the boast 

Of independence in this mighty land. 

Call no chain strong which holds one rusted link, 

Call no land free that holds one fettered slave. 

Until the manacled, slim wrists of babes 

Are loosed to toss in childish glee, 

Until the mother bears no burden save 

The precious one beneath her heart; until 

God's soil is rescued from the clutch of greed 

And given back to labor, let no man 

Call this the Land of Freedom. 

—Ella Wheeler Wilcox. 



15 



160 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



October 1, 1933 



Taylor's Nautical Academy 

FOR NAVIGATORS AND MARINE ENGINEERS 
Established 1888 

Consular Bldg., Corner Washington 
and Battery Sts., opp. New Custom 

House, San Francisco, Calif. 
THIS OLD AND NOTEWORTHY 
SCHOOL is under the direct and per- 
sonal supervision of CAPT. HENRY 
TA YLOR, and equipped with all mod- 
ern appliances to illustrate and teach 
any branch of Navigation. 

The class of teachers of Navigation 
in the past have been those having 
simply a knowledge of Navigation and 
Navigation only. Conditions have 
changed, and the American seamen 
demand a man as a teacher with 
higher attainments than one who has 
only the limited ability of a seaman. 
The Principal of this School, keeping 
this always in view, studied several 
years the Maritime Law. and is now, 
in addition to being a thorough teacher of Navigation and its kindred 
subjects, a regularly admitted Member of the Bar. 

There is no standard of education required of a pupil entering the 
School, for no matter how ignorant the seaman may be, even in the 
rudiments of common education, Captain Henry Taylor will teach and 
raise him from the depths of ignorance to the height of the average 
well Informed man, and in a comparatively short interval of time. 




Phone GARFIELD 2076 

DR. EDMOND J. BARRETT 

DENTIST 

Rooms 2429-30, 450 Sutter Building 

Hours: 9 A. M. to 5 P. M. and 

by Appointment 



Seamen's Furnishing Goods 

OTTO PAHL 

Shoes, Oilskins, Seaboots and Underwear 
Suits cleaned and pressed while you wait 

140 EMBARCADERO 
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 



Union-made Work Clothes and Shoes 

Uniform Caps, Oilskins and 

Seaboots, Belfast Cord 

and Buckles 



SAM'S 



Shore and Offshore Outfitting Store 
Formerly with Geo. A. Price 

4 Clay Street, San Francisco 
Phone GArftela 6784 



Hubby — If a man steals, he will 
live to regret it. 

Wifey — You used to steal kisses 
from me. 

Hubby — You heard what I said. 



A man brought some sausages 
and asked his landlay to cook them 
for his breakfast. 

"How'll I cook them?" she asked. 

"Fry 'em like fish," replied the 
lodger. 

The next morning, when the land- 
lady served them, she remarked: 
"I hope you'll enjoy your breakfast, 
sir; but there's not much in these 
things when they're cleaned out." 



Now in Our New Location 

"624 MARKET* 

Opposite Palace Hotel 




-BOSS- 

YOUR UNION TAILOR 



He — Can you make cakes like 
mother use to? 

She — Yes, but can you put up 
with the indigestion your father 
used to have? 



Waiter — How did you find your 
steak, sir? 

Patron — Just by accident. I hap- 
pened to move that small piece of 
potato and there it was. 



The gas companies use all sorts 
of materials in the manufacture of 
illuminating gas — they even make 
light of consumers' complaints. 



Diner (to waiter) — What's the 
name of the selection the orchestra 
is playing? 

Waiter — "Go Feather Your Nest." 
Diner — Go jump in the lake. I 
asked you a civil question. 



'Ever notice that skinny people 
live longer than fat ones? Wonder 
why it is?" 

"Must be because thev lead such 
narrow lives." 



16 



A Great Store 

Built Upon 

Successful 

Service to 

Millions 



°£ 



HALE BROS. 

INCL 

Market at Fifth 

SAN FRANCISCO 
SUTTER 8000 



THE 

James H. Barry Co. 

The Star Press 

Printing 



1122-1124 MISSION STREET 
SAN FRANCISCO 

We print "The Seamen's Journal" 



In San Francisco 

KODAKS 

Exchanged 1 Bought 
Sold 

at 

SAN FRANCISCO 
CAMERA EXCHANGE 

88 Third St. near Mission St. 

CAMERA SHOP 
145 Kearny St. near Sutter St. 




A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, FOR SEAMEN 



Our Aim: The Brotherhood of the Sea 



Our Motto: Justice by Organization 



Vol. XL VII, No. 11 



SAN FRANCISCO, NOVEMBER 1, 1933 



Whole No. 2038 



ATLANTIC CODE SUGGESTIONS 



THE two previous issues of the Journal 
contained Pacific Coast and Great Lakes sug- 
gestions for the Labor Section of the Shipping 
Code now in course of negotiations at Washing- 
ton, D. C, under the terms of the National Re- 
covery Act. 

Herewith are suggestions submitted by the 
Atlantic District Unions of the International 
Seamen's Union of America: 

PROPOSED LABOR CODE FOR ATLANTIC 
COAST AND GULF OF MEXICO SHIP- 
PING UNDER THE NATIONAL 
INDUSTRIAL RECOV- 
ERY ACT 

The following suggestions as to minimum wages 
and maximum hours of labor are submitted by the 
Eastern and Gulf Sailors' Association, Inc. (Atlantic 
and Gulf) the Marine Firemen, Oilers and Water- 
tenders' Union of the Atlantic and Gulf, and Marine 
Cooks and Stewards' Union of the Atlantic and Gulf; 
district organizations of the International Seamen's 
Union of America, affiliated with the American Fed- 
eration of Labor: 

It is our earnest desire to cooperate wholeheartedly 
with the Government of the United States and with all 
loyal citizens in the great movement for national in- 
dustrial recovery which is now going forward under 
the leadership of the President in accord with the 
power and authority vested in him by Congress 
through the passage of the National Industrial Re- 
covery Act. 

In order that the shipping industry of the Atlantic 
and Gulf Districts may perform its full duty in this 
great drive for the restoration of national prosperity, 
it is essential that all elements in that industry should 
act in harmony with the principles and purposes set 
forth in the Recovery Act. 

We believe that a strict compliance with the pur- 
pose of the aforesaid law is essential for the welfare 



of the people of the United States as a whole and is 
in the interest of the seamen as well as that of the 
shipping industry. 

Shipowners have during the past few years laid off 
a great percentage of the men formerly employed on 
vessels of the United States, and their vessels are leav- 
ing ports of the Atlantic with crews that are inade- 
quate to do the work required and are undermanned 
and grossly underpaid. We therefore demand that the 
crews of these vessels be increased in number to at 
least the 1919 manning scale, so that, for instance, a 
vessel of 8,000 tons gross will carry on deck fourteen 
seamen, able seamen and ordinaries included. 

We suggest that full crews be carried on all Ameri- 
can vessels engaged in merchant trade at all times, 
including the period of loading and discharging in 
port, and that no loading or discharging of these ves- 
sels shall be done after sunset or before sunrise. 

We demand on behalf of the employees' group the 
right of access to the men in their homes on the ships 
by authorized representatives of their Unions at all 
reasonable hours, and that representatives of the 
Seamen's Union shall be permitted to be present at 
the time the crews of these vessels sign on and when 
they are discharged and paid their wages. 

We respectfully suggest that if the purpose of the 
National Recovery Act is to be achieved, the hours of 
labor of seamen employed on merchant vessels of the 
United States must be reduced to forty-two hours per 
week. 

We also demand that citizens of the United States 
shall be given preference for employment on all Ameri- 
can ships; and we suggest a change in the law so that 
all American vessels, the owners of which receive 
mail subvention payment by the Postmaster General 
of the United States, shall carry American citizens 
exclusively. 

Proposed Minimum Wage Scale: 

Deck Department — Able seamen, $75; carpenters, $95; 
quartermasters, $80; boatswain, $90; boatswain's mate, 
$80; ordinary seamen, $60. 

Engineers' Department — Marine firemen, $75; firemen 
on coal burners, $90; deck engineers, $90; oilers and 
watertenders, $80; pumpman, $90; coalpassers, $60; 
wipers, $60. 



162 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



November 1, 1933 



Stewards' Department — Freight ship>: Chief steward, 
$135; chief cook, $110; second cook, ?85; messmen, 
$60; messboys, S3 5. 

The wages and working conditions applicable to 
skilled members of the Stewards' Department on pas- 
senger ships to be adjusted in conference held between 
the representatives of the owners of the said vessels 
and the Union representative- of the employees. No 
member of the Stewards' Department of any ship to 
be required to work more than six hours per day. 

On behalf of unskilled members of the Stewards' 
Department employed on passenger ships, the Atlan- 
tic, Gulf and foreign trade, we demand a minimum 
wage of $60 per month and forty-two hours a week. 

INTERNATIONAL SEAMEN'S UNION 
OF AMERICA. 
(Signed) PERCY J. PRYOR, 

Third Vice-President. 

MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS AND WA- 
TERTENDERS 1 UNION OF THE AT- 
LANTIC AND GULF. 
(Signed) OSCAR CARLSON, 

General Secretary. 
ERNEST MISSLAN1). 

Treasurer. 

EASTERN AND GULF SAILORS' ASSO- 
( [ATION, INC. 
(Signed) PERCY J. PRYOR, 

General Secretary. 
G. H. BROWN, 

New York Agent. 

MARINE COOKS AND STEWARDS' 
UNION OF THE ATLANTIC AND 
GULF. 
(Signed) DAVID E. GRANGE, 

Secretary. 
C. H. ANGELLS. 



GERMAN SHIPPING 



The annual reports of the Hamburg-American 
Line and the Xorddeutscher Lloyd, recently pub- 
lished, provide an illuminating commentary on 
shipping affairs in Germany at the present time. 

The Hamburg-American Line reports a de- 
crease in passenger traffic on all routes, but the 
decline in receipts, owing to reductions in the 
fares, was much greater. In the North American, 
Canadian and North Pacific trades there was a 
decrease of 11 per cent in the westerly direction 
and 2 per cent eastwards. In the South Atlantic 
the decline was relatively higher, but the middle 
class accommodation was well patronized. The un- 
favorable conditions account for a similar reduc- 
tion in traffic receipts on the routes to the west 
coast of South America, Central America, the 
Dutch Indies and Australia, but the total number 
of passengers carried to the Orient, despite a 
restricted schedule of sailings, showed an advance 
of 20 per cent. With regard to pleasure cruises 
from European ports, the results have exceeded 
all expectations, both as regards the number of 
bookings and the receipts. Cruises from American 



ports, on the other hand, underwent a slight con- 
traction. 

The Xorddeutscher Lloyd reports an increase 
in gross earnings for the year, though the net 
result was a loss. As compared with 1931, the 
tonnage of cargo carried fell by about 18 per cent, 
while freight receipts dropped by 28 per cent. 
The decline in the number of passengers amounted 
to 5.4 per cent, while the receipts therefrom fell by 
about 27 per cent. Approximately 75,147 tons 
gross are due for scrapping under the Govern- 
ment scheme, from which the company are to 
receive 2,254,410 marks, and the fleet will then 
total 710,206 tons gross. It is noteworthy that 
the company's figures for the North Atlantic trade 
remain substantially the same as for 1931 ; more- 
over, their share of the total traffic increased 
slightly to 18.2 per cent, a result, no doubt, of the 
popularity of the Bremen and Euro pa. The year 
saw a remarkable influx of returning emigrants 
from the United States, almost double the number 
of third-class passengers being carried eastwards 
as compared with westwards. Satisfactory results 
were achieved in the cruising trade, but elsewhere 
the passenger bookings showed an all-round 
decline. 



CEMENT FROM OYSTER SHELL 



All industries, when making surveys, endeavor 
to locate their mills at strategic points where raw 
materials can be obtained at low delivered costs, 
and the importance is multiplied according to the 
relationship which the transportation cost bears to 
the value of the commodities. 

One of our largest Pacific Coast industries, in 
its search for an adequate and cheap source of 
supply of the basic materials entering into the 
manufacture of its products, made a singular 
discovery beneath the waters of San Francisco 
Bay. 

During the natural formation of the harbor 
through the past ages, clay and silt have been 
washed down from the Coast Range mountains 
into the lower reaches of the bay upon which 
oysters found favorable conditions for growth. 
The accumulation of silt, however, interfered with 
the prolific development of the oysters and for 
many years the struggle between oysters and silt 
finally resulted in the extinction of the oysters, 
leaving their remains deposited over a large area 
of lower San Francisco Bay. 



^ 



November 1, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



163 



The uniformity of the chemical composition of 
oyster shells is universally recognized as being 
high in carbonate of lime and low in magnesium, 
which, together with clay and silt deposits, con- 
stitutes an ideal supply of raw materials for the 
manufacture of Portland cement. 

The shell deposits cover many thousands of acres 
and extend to a depth of twenty or thirty feet, 
which insures an inexhaustible supply of the in- 
gredients required for the manufacture of cement. 

The oyster beds were of no known commercial 
value until the Pacific Portland Cement Company, 
in its search for cement-making materials adjacent 
to the bay area, discovered their extent and value 
through extensive surveys, following which a 
modern cement mill was constructed on deep 
water at Redwood harbor. 

The plant at Redwood harbor is unique, being 
the only plant in existence manufacturing cement 
entirely from oyster shells, as the necessary clay 
and silt are found intermixed with the shells re- 
covered. The shells are pumped from the bay by 
suction dredges and transported in open barges to 
the mill at Redwood harbor, which is ideally lo- 
cated with railway, water and highway trans- 
portation facilities available. 



LIFEBOAT CREWS IN DENMARK 



Details regarding the introduction of a manning 
scale in Danish ships appeared in a recent issue 
of the Journal. The same government has now 
made an announcement relating to the manning 
of lifeboats, as follows : 

Article 1. — Candidates for a rower's certificate 
must prove to the satisfaction of a person author- 
ized to issue such certificates that they are experi- 
enced in the launching of lifeboats and use of the 
oars, that they are accustomed to the practical 
maneuvering of such boats and further able to 
understand and answer the instructions of the 
lifeboat service. They must further be 17 years 
of age and have at least twelve months' sea ex- 
perience. 

Article 2. — The provisions contained in Article 
1 are automatically complied with by 

(a) Holders of the certificate of mate or cap- 
tain. 

(b) Those with at least four years' service as 
engineer on a seagoing ship. 

(c) Those who have served at least twelve 
months as boatswain or able seamen in a Danish 



seagoing ship or in a corresponding capacity in 
a foreign ship. 

(d) Officers and voluntary seamen of the navy. 

Article 3. — Lifeboat certificates are issued by 
ships' inspectors and ship supervisors appointed 
by the State Shipping Inspection authorities and 
by other persons with knowledge of the sea au- 
thorized by the shipping department. The cer- 
tificates for the persons covered by Article 2 may 
be issued by signing on authorities. 

Article 4. — The certificates are supplied free of 
charge. 



OUR PLANET THAWS 



Submission of conclusive evidence of a rise in 
temperature during the last half century in north- 
ern Siberia does not astonish geologists. The 
story told by rocks, the ten thousand lakes -of 
northern America and Europe, the gorge of Ni- 
agara, the clay banks that were once river beds, 
is plain to him who has the skill to read it. We 
are living in the melting period of an Ice Age 
which began about 55,000 years ago — one of sev- 
eral Ice Ages which can be traced back a million 
years. To convince ourselves that despite the 
perspiration of summer and the waving palms 
of Florida we are still in the grip of cold we have 
but to cast an eye over the thawing earth. Five 
million square miles of ice in the Antarctic, a mil- 
lion elsewhere — the total is still but half what it 
was when glacial sheets last swept down into the 
United States and buried northern Europe. If 
the immense deposit that still remains were to 
melt in a few decades, a civilization would be de- 
stroyed. For the oceans would rise nearly 200 
feet and inundate the capitals of the world. 

Will the white sheets at the Poles be stripped 
away and earth stand forth naked in the sun as it 
did a million and more years ago? Or, as some 
believe, will the blanket of snow and ice thicken 
and bury a culture which began 35,000 years ago, 
when Neanderthalers roamed from Palestine to 
Spain? The questions are of importance to the 
human race. If we can predict the future we can 
guard against its perils. Thirty-five thousand 
years is a long time to look ahead, but it is only a 
fleeting second in the history of a planet which is 
3,000,000,000 years old. So the strange studies of 
scientists have their uses for all their seeming 
remoteness from the issues of daily life. 



164 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



November 1, 1933 



NEWS AND COMMENT 

Concerning Seamen the World Over 



The ocean library service of the British Sailors' 
Society distributes in the course of a year a quan- 
tity of literature equivalent to the entire stock of 
one of the larger public libraries. Each library 
consists of thirty volumes, of which fifteen are 
modern and popular fiction, five standard novels, 
and each of the others a representative work in 
theology, biography, science, essays, travel, his- 
tory, poetry and education. A bible and an ency- 
clopedia complete this remarkable comprehensive 
library in panto, of which eighty-nine new ones 
were issued and 1,235 exchanged during last year. 
The establishment of one of these collections cost 
only £5 (complete with a cabinet in which the 
donor's name is inscribed), a very modest sum 
to ensure a little recreation for the seamen in their 
watch below. 

A photostatic copy of a circular letter issued 
by Mr. Hitler's personally conducted Seamen's 
Union has come to hand. Mr. Hitler's henchmen 
insist that German seamen must not spend a single 
penny in a foreign country, and are directed par- 
ticularly to boycott merchants in New York and 
Brooklyn. Mr. Hitler's confidence men ( spies 
and under-cover sneaks ) are instructed to report 
all violations of the order. German ships in the 
transatlantic trade could not continue in busi- 
ness without the patronage of Americans, yet 
Mr. Hitler proposes to bite the hands that feed 
him and his sadly misguided people. Just press 
your American boycott, Mr. Hitler, and you will 
discover that boycotting is a two-edged sword. 
It can be carried on very effectively by both sides 
in a controversy. 

♦ * ^ 

The Swedish Board of Trade have been investi- 
gating the question of the proposed treaty of the 
International Labor Office at Geneva and the pos- 
sibility of adopting the eight-hour day in the 
Swedish mercantile marine. The convention, it 
will be remembered, suggests an eight-hour day 
in all cargo vessels over 3,000 tons gross and in 
passenger ships of 2,000 tons and upwards, and 
also for engineers and firemen in all ships of more 
than 400 tons. The Board finds that the additional 



cost of the three-watch system in wages and 
victualing alone would be between two and one- 
half and three million kroner per annum, an esti- 
mate which does not include extra overtime, shore 
help or the expense of providing additional living 
accommodation. In these circumstances the con- 
clusion has been arrived at that the adoption of the 
eight-hour day is not possible until such time as 
the convention has been generally agreed by other 
maritime states. 

■■:■■ ■■■ ■■■■■ 

The facts elieited at the prosecution in Liver- 
pool of three stowaways emphasize the serious- 
ness of this nuisance to shipowners, especially 
during the present depression in trade. The cul- 
prits were a Yugoslavian, a Roumanian and a 
Spaniard, who concealed themselves in the boiler- 
room of the British steamer Induna while she was 
at lluelva. They were put to work when discov- 
ered, and were carried to Baltimore. Savannah. 
New ( Irleans, Mobile and thence to Liverpool, 
their trip extending over 10.000 miles and occupy- 
ing forty- four days. The owners were put to the 
expense of feeding and also guarding them in the 
various ports. These unwelcome guests were each 
sentenced to a month's imprisonment, after which 
the shipowners will have to repatriate them. 

* * * 

A movement to look after unemployed seamen 

during this winter has been started in Liverpool. 
A meeting was held at which were present repre- 
sentatives of the Admiralty, Board of Trade, Im- 
perial Merchant Service Guild, ( )fhcers' (Mer- 
chant Marine | Federation, Marine Engineers' 
Association, National Union of Seamen, Council 
of Social Service and Ministry of Labor, with 
Rear-Admiral Miller (training ship Indefati- 
gable), Captain 1). Agnew (Lancashire and Na- 
tional Sea Training Homes) and Captain F. E. 
Storey. The matter was fully discussed, and it 
was decided to form a finance committee consist- 
ing of Captain Storey and representatives of the 
Shipping Eederation, 1. M. S. G., Seamen's Union 
and City Council; and a technical sub-committee, 
comprising YV. A. Tolputt, Captain Agnew and 
representatives of the Admiralty, Board of Trade, 
Officers' Federation and Seamen's Union. The 
object of these bodies will be to organize and 
maintain centers for vocational and recreational 
pursuits for idle seamen. 



November 1, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



165 



A politically minded correspondent has directed 
the Journal's attention to the fact that one of the 
important decisions taken at the recent Annual 
Conference of the British National Union of Sea- 
men was that taken to include political objects in 
the scope of its activities. This was followed by 
a unanimous decision to seek reaffiliation to the 
Labor Party, and to make a contribution of £200 
from the political fund of the Union to the Labor 
Party. * * * 

As a result of a decision of the Executive Com- 
mittee of the Finnish Seamen's Union, and of gen- 
eral meetings held in the chief ports, the Finnish 
seamen's strike was called off, after having lasted 
about four months. The strike was called for a 
collective agreement and an increase of wages. 
While the strike was in progress the shipowners 
were obliged to raise the wages, and they have 
since promised to maintain the new rates and not 
to victimize any man for taking part in the strike. 
The Finnish seamen received financial assistance 
from the Scandinavian seamen's unions during 
the conflict, while due to the boycott declared by 
the Swedish and Norwegian unions no Finnish 
ship had been able to put in at the ports of these 
two countries. The internal situation in Finland 
made it comparatively easy for the shipowners to 
obtain strikebreakers. In consequence it was de- 
cided to raise the strike. The Scandinavian 
Transport Workers' Federation has approved this 
decision, but has reserved the right to boycott 
Finnish ships if there is any victimization for par- 
ticipation in the strike. 

* * * 

A London shipping contemporary congratulates 
the responsible authorities in China on the success 
of their efforts to secure the release of the three 
British officers of the steamer Nanc Jiang, who 
were captured by Chinese pirates nearly six 
months ago and held for ransom. Until this out- 
rage, British merchant marine officers had been 
spared this added peril. The risk of death or 
wounds during piratical attacks has been theirs 
for years past, but this was the first case of cap- 
ture for ransom. Previously such a fate had been 
reserved for passengers or Chinese compradores. 
The most satisfactory features of the whole affair 
are, first, that the three officers were returned un- 
harmed and in good health, and, secondly, that no 
ransom was paid. We understand that those re- 
sponsible for effecting their release — including 



Japanese officials, who cooperated wholeheartedly 
— employed an ingenious method of retaliation by 
themselves capturing relatives of the bandits and 
then bringing about an exchange of prisoners. 



ECONOMIC JUSTICE 

Economic freedom and justice for the wage- 
earners so far achieved has been the result of 
trade-union activity. Social and economic justice 
for labor is the direct result of cooperation, for- 
bearance, judgment, and collective bargaining in 
our union. 

Starting from the brightening curse of serfdom, 
the rise to economic freedom has been one long, 
continuous struggle. Labor has had to fight every 
inch of the way over the rough road of relentless 
opposition by the entrenched money-mad, self- 
appointed overlords of industry. The overlords 
of the workers' destiny pompously said. "This is 
my property, and I propose to run it without any 
interference from workmen." It was sacrilegious 
for poorly paid long-hour workers to dispute. In 
the early struggle to establish our trade-union 
movement, the press, the preachers, and the ma- 
jority of the politicians were, with few excep- 
tions, on the side of and backing the employers. 
Fifty or sixty years ago a worker who was known 
to be a member of a union was looked upon by 
many as a renegade, a sort of outcast. What few 
rights, economic freedom and justice we now 
have was and is due to organization in our trade- 
unions. All beneficial factory, mine, and mill 
laws are the direct result of constant petition and 
pleading and were gingerly given by reluctant 
politicians. Improved working conditions, higher 
wages, shorter hours of labor, better health, and 
better homes and better living conditions are the 
result of trade-union activity. To protect and re- 
tain these beneficial results it is necessary to keep 
our unions and increase the membership. 



WORLD'S MOTOR VEHICLES 



Nearly three-fourths of all the motor vehicles 
in the world are in the United States, where there 
is one to every five persons. The ratio of automo- 
biles to world population is one to every sixty 
persons. At the beginning of this year there were 
33,568,295 automobiles registered throughout the 
world, and of this number 24,317,020 were regis- 
tered in continental United States. The total 
world registration included 27,813,201 passenger 
cars, 358,528 buses, and 5,396,566 trucks. 



166 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



November 1, 1933 



Seamen's Journal 

Established in 1887 
Published on the first day of each month at 525 
Market Street, San Francisco, by and under the di- 
rection of the International Seamen's Union of 
America. 

PAUL SCHARRENBERG, Editor 

© 

Entered at the San Francisco Postoffice as second- 
class matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate 
of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of Oc- 
tober 3, 1917, authorized September 7, 1918. 

Subscription price $1.00 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 



NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will be 
published, provided they are of general interest, 
brief, legible, written on one side only of the paper, 
and accompanied by the writer's own name and ad- 
dress. The JOURNAL, is not responsible for the ex- 
pressions of correspondents, nor for the return of 
manuscripts. 



November 1, 1933 



THE SHIPOWNERS' CODE 



After months of needless delay the American 
Steamship ( Owners' Association has finally sub- 
mitted to the National Recovery Administration 
a "General Code of Fair Competition and Trade 
Practice for the Shipping Industry." 

Published in a pamphlet of twelve pages the 
shipowners' code allots less than two pages to 
labor, including seamen and longshoremen as well 
as clerical and office employees. The other ten 
pages are devoted to profits — such as stabilization 
and regulation of rates, fares and charges, the 
elimination of rebates, the prevention of false 
classification, false weights and measures, false 
report of weight or split receipt. 

The labor section of the code complies with the 
terms of the National Industrial Recovery in 
so far as it grants workers the right to organize, 
etc., but aside from that enforced concession there 
is nothing in the shipowners' code to indicate that 
they have heard of such a thing as a "new deal.'' 

In Section 10 of the proposed code it is pro- 
vided that "hours of labor and conditions of em- 
ployment on board American vessels shall be as 
prescribed by the navigation laws of the United 
States." 

In Section 12 it is provided that "hours of 
labor and conditions of employment shall not 
apply to seagoing personnel on ships in the for- 
eign trade." 



In other words, the shipowners' code does not 
aim to give more than is already provided by law, 
but rather to take away what the seamen have 
gained after many years of struggle in the halls 
of Congress. 

Of course no one in Washington believes that 
the organized shipowners are quite serious in 
presenting this first draft of their code. It is 
generally regarded as a mere feeler or a kite sent 
into the sky to ascertain which way the wind is 
blowing. 

Well, we shall perforce have to wait and see! 
This much is certain: The National Recovery Act 
was not written merely to stabilize and regulate 
profits. The law is. in fact, predicated upon a 
new deal, upon the principle that throughout in- 
dustry i including the transportation industry I the 
change from starvation wages and starvation em- 
ployment to living wages and living employment 
can be made a covenant to which all employers 
shall subscribe. President Roosevelt, in his recent 
book Look'nuj Forward, truly appraises the value 
of service rendered by the men in the transporta- 
tion industry. To quote just one brief paragraph: 

"Transportation is not a mechanized service. 
It is a service of human beings whose lives are 
worthy of even more intelligent care than that 
necessary to preserve the physical mechanisms 
which they operate. And it is clear to me that all 
the men and women who are employed in our 
great transportation systems are entitled to the 
highest possible wages that the industry can afford 
to pay." 

LABOR POINTS Till-: WAY I >UT 



Organized Labor has pointed the way out of 
this depression in its demand that the work day 
be shortened, that wages be increased, and that 
everyone be put back to productive employment. 
To the despairing question, "How in the world 
can this be done?" Labor answers that the in- 
creased productive capacity of industry makes 
it possible. For one hundred and fifty years the 
inventors, scientists, engineers and managers 
have been making the world over, so that our 
wealth producing capacity has been multiplied 
thousands of times. To quote the American Fed- 
eration of Labor's report on the shorter work 
period : 

The story of the long fight for shorter labor hours, 
over intense and uncompromising opposition during 



November 1, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



167 



the past fifty years, is an inspiring one. Time was 
when the shorter workday was primarily the concern 
of the labor movement alone. It had few friends and 
fewer adherents of its underlying philosophy in any 
other quarter. This is and need be so no longer. In 
the light of the glaring paradox of plenty causing want 
that now besets a perplexed world, the thoughts of 
men are advancing and have advanced to a realization 
that the heart and center of the existing economic 
upset, with its long trail of idle workers and stagger- 
ing social losses, lies in the long continued and steady 
expansion of productive efficiency and in the failure 
of society to master the machine and make it serve 
the public welfare. There is no longer a problem of 
production. Mass production, standardized operations, 
the elimination of competitive wastes and new means 
and methods, have solved this problem and in its stead, 
and in every line of human endeavor,, has created a 
problem of surplus and the disposition of that surplus 
that now demands an answer. Summing up this entire 
situation in a single sentence, we declare that society 
must adapt itself to the new economic, social and in- 
dustrial environment that expanding productive effi- 
ciency has wrought, or we must be prepared to accept 
the sad consequences. 

Your committee strongly insists that the universal 
acceptance of their prompt translation into practical 
application is no longer a matter of choice if we are to 
restore our highly interdependent social structure to 
an orderly and balanced basis. The logic of the situa- 
tion, reinforced by relentless economic pressure, com- 
pels it. With the welfare of all the people as our 
supreme concern, we declare there is no safe alterna- 
tive course. 

Your committee therefore recommends that this 
convention strongly reaffirm its indorsement of the 
five-day, six-hour work week without reduction in pay, 
which it now declares to be our paramount objective, 
and that the Executive Council of the American Fed- 
eration of Labor be instructed to give the utmost force 
and direction to this program in order to secure its 
universal adoption at the earliest possible time. We 
further recommend that the Executive Council be di- 
rected to resolutely continue their efforts until the 
five-day, six-hour work week, without any reduction 
in pay, is included in every code adopted under the 
National Recovery Act. 

It is hardly necessary to add that the demi- 
gods of business cannot think in terms like these. 
They can think only in terms of speculative 
market values and in the capitalization for private 
gain of any improvement in production. But 
those who work for their daily bread can see 
the possibilities of a great forward movement in- 
stead of the present movement of aimless and in- 
discriminate retrenchment. Theretore, Labor is 
destined to lead the way out, for progress has 
always sprung from the fundamental needs of 
the masses. 



ATLANTIC SPEED RIVALRY 



They did not understand that war, which 
trained the courage and founded the cities of bar- 
barous and ignorant men, brings to the victor 
himself but ruin and misery, and is nothing but a 
horrible and stupid crime when nations are united 
together by common bonds of art, science, and 
trade. — Anatole France. 



The announcement that the Rex, of the Navi- 
gazione Generale Italiana, the largest ship yet 
built in an Italian shipyard, has made the Atlantic 
crossing in four days thirteen hours fifty-eight 
minutes at an average speed of just upon twenty- 
nine knots has revived international interest in the 
question of speed supremacy on the North Atlan- 
tic. Until a few years ago the traveling public 
had become accustomed to regard the Mauretania 
as the leader. Then came the successful chal- 
lenge of the Bremen and Euro pa and the gallant 
struggle of the old Cunarder to recover her lost 
laurels. Although she did not succeed in this 
heroic effort, she made the passage at an average 
speed of 27.22 knots, the best performance of her 
long career. This was in September, 1929, after 
which the German pair were regarded as having 
firmly established themselves as holders of the 
record, though in the opinion of some experts the 
product of the Ansaldo yard was likely to deprive 
them of the honor. In spite of the fact that this 
view was discounted by the performance of the 
Rex on her first voyage, when, through over- 
anxiety no doubt, it was attempted to get too 
much out of a new ship, these judges still main- 
tained that the Italian vessel could successfully 
compete with the German liners, and the sequel 
would appear to show that their estimation of her 
steaming powers was correct. The passage was 
from Gibraltar to the Ambrose Channel, New 
York, and the average speed was 28.92 knots, the 
distance travelled being 3,181 nautical miles. The 
record westward run of the Bremen, from Cher- 
bourg to the Ambrose Lightship, is given as four 
days, sixteen hours forty-three minutes, the dis- 
tance being 3,090 miles, so that she took two 
hours forty-five minutes longer on a run ninety- 
one miles shorter. It is interesting to note that 
neither of these passages represents the shortest 
crossing of the Atlantic from Europe to New 
York. If we include the Irish Free State as a part 
of Europe, then the honor of making it belongs to 
the Mauretania, which in 1909 ran from Queens- 
town to New York in four days ten hours forty- 
one minutes. Meanwhile, the performance of the 
Rex will focus attention upon the new French 
70,000-ton Normandie and the still uncertain time 
when the new Cunarder "No. 534" is brought 
into commission. 



168 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



November 1, 1933 



THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES 



have underwritten the treaty of Versailles must 
shoulder responsibility. 



The American Federation of Labor, in conven- 
tion assembled, has decided to boycott German 
goods and German service. Hitlerism and the 
Nazi movement are blamed for the frenzy that is 
sweeping the German nation. But Hitler and his 
compeers are, after all, mere opportunities taking 
advantage of a condition created for them. 

Behind Hitler are fifteen years of humiliation 
and despair, engendered by the abominable treaty 
of Versailles, which reduced a nation to a con- 
dition of servitude and degraded the lives of mil- 
lions with its impossible conditions. 

What, then, is the explanation of this mad spirit 
of nationalism sweeping through Germany that 
threatens to light all Europe again with the flames 
of battle? 

Trace quickly the history of Germany since the 
war and it will be seen that the German people 
were confident of a peace based on President 
Wilson's fourteen points. Instead they were 
forced to accept a peace that was utterly devoid 
of economic or political common sense and justice. 

Treaty revision was talked about. But France 
and her allies took it out in talk, meanwhile de- 
manding their pound of flesh. Germany joined 
the League of Nations out of a desire for peace. 
It expected to be treated as an equal in the family 
of nations. But, as in everything else, the league 
was impotent. It turned out to be but a feeble 
anachronism, utterly incapable of assisting ( Ger- 
many or of keeping away the wolf pack at Ger- 
many's throat. 

Meanwhile France was building more airships, 
training more soldiers — at home and in her vast 
colonial empire. 

Germans watched the unsuccessful outcome of 
disarmament conferences with growing impatience 
and exasperation. It seemed to the German peo- 
ple that they could expect no help from their late 
enemies ; that while other nations were arming 
they were being left helpless and were being 
milked of their substance in unjust reparations. 
The Lausanne conference helped, but it came too 
late. Germany had already turned to nationalism 
in desperation. 

Only one conclusion may be drawn. The Allies, 
and particularly France, have themselves to blame 
for the dangerous situation in Germany today. 
And if the fires of war are lighted again, all who 



THE GAME OF POKER 



New figures on entertainment expenditures by 
holders of Government ocean mail contracts have 
been brought to light by Senate investigators. 
In their record is a statement by Senator Black 
of Alabama that the Export Steamship Corpora- 
tion paid its president, Henry Herberman. $1 1,360 
for entertainment expenses in one month of 1927, 
and that between 192ft and 1932 Herberman re- 
ceived over $1,000,000 in salaries and expenses. 
Herberman, who thinks all union seamen are 
bolsheviks, said much of the money went for 
propaganda, that he had backed a magazine to 
tell about the glory of the merchant marine. 
Herberman said his shipping board contacts were 
all through T. V. O'Connor, former chairman, 
and that "I've been playing poker with him for 
twenty-five years." 



lllS'ft )RY REPEATS ITSELF! 



The recent finding of a bust of the Roman Em- 
peror Augustus in Athens may serve as a peg on 
which to hang the observation that times haven't 
changed very much since the year 19 B. C. 

In that year Augustus, who by the way, did not 
call himself an emperor, but only the "first citi- 
zen"' of Rome, wrote that he lived in a world 
"wearied of war," and that his problem was to 
establish a government — 

which should, as far as possible, respect the forms and 
traditions of a public without sacrificing that centrali- 
zation of authority which experience has shown to be 
necessary for integrity and stability. 

How up-to-date that sounds! But Augustus, 

after having been invested by the Senate with ex- 
traordinary powers, managed to do a very good 
job of bringing order out of chaos. And it was 
not until a good deal later that the Caesars chose 
to disregard the "forms and traditions of a re- 
public" while arrogating to themselves imperial 
and divine prerogatives. 

Xow let us look at the recent events, particu- 
larly at a war that was to make the world safe for 
Democracy ! 

In August, 1914. there were at least four ap- 
parently well established autocracies in Europe, 
and when they fell we rejoiced because we thought 



November 1, 19oJ 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



169 



it was a triumph for democracy. But in August, 
1933, at least four dictatorships have taken their 
place, dictatorships ruling by force, and, what is 
worse, getting the approbation of people who are 
influenced and perverted by a new and dangerous 
religion of race. 

The fact is that we are living in a different age 
from that in which Jefferson gave us what is 
called democracy. And our concern today is to 
learn how effectively to work the principles of 
democracy. But the governing of men and na- 
tions is not an easy thing. Only the other day a 
distinguished scientist contrasted politicians with 
physicists to the disadvantage of politicians. But 
the material with which the politicians and physi- 
cists work is not the same. Metals always respond 
to the same stimuli, they never sulk in corners, 
they never refuse to play ball, they have not a 
variable personality. With them the same results 
follow from the same causes. But with politicians 
it is quite a different thing. When the French 
philosopher Diderot presented to Catherine of 
Russia a learned memorandum on the better gov- 
ernment of her people, that august lady replied : 
"Yes, you philosophers work on paper which will 
put up with anything ; but I, a poor empress, have 
to deal with human nature, a very different thing." 
It is so in politics. We have to proceed by the 
methods of trial and of error. 

There is an Eastern proverb which says : "Ex- 
perience is a comb which God gives to men when 
they are bald," and that expresses our condition 
exactly. And that is why history not only repeats 
itself now and then ; it goes on doing so forever ! 



THINKING THINGS THROUGH 



One of the wise men of the East gave some 
advice the other day that deserves to be brought 
to the attention of thinking men and women. In 
the course of an address, while visiting the 
United States, Dr. Hu Shih, professor of philoso- 
phy in the National Peking university and ac- 
knowledged as China's outstanding scholar and 
philosopher, uttered these words : 

Every man should think out all the possible conse- 
quences of the theory he advocates or the institution 
he supports and should be prepared to hold himself 
morally and intellectually responsible for the conse- 
quences. 

People too often merely read and accept. A 

phrase catches the fancy and the whole thesis 



is swallowed. Thereafter the latest apostle is 
ready to go out and convert all and sundry. True 
such may be tripped easily enough, but those to 
whom they speak are, like themselves, too ready 
to accept without thinking. 

Thinking things through to the bitter end is a 
difficult task for most men and women, but how 
much saner and logical the result when it is done. 
It is a habit that should be cultivated by all and 
especially by those who are or would be leaders. 



THE CALIFORNIA SARDINE 



Mrs. Sardine may arrive on the table neatly 
and conveniently packed in a tin can, but she is 
not otherwise orderly in her domestic affairs. In 
fact, she might even be accused of carelessness. 

For when her annual nests of eggs are laid, she 
not infrequently leaves them caught in the Cali- 
fornia current, with which they drift hundreds of 
miles from home. Then the sardine youngsters 
have to swim all the way back. 

Her progeny are small, to be sure ; but are they 
numerous ! Even a small sardine family boasts an 
increase of 100,000 members annually, according 
to Mr. Eugene C. Scofield, marine biologist for 
the California Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, 
who for the past four years has been studying 
the peculiar customs of sardines. 

Even so, the sardine supply has not been equal 
to the demands of an expanded fish canning indus- 
try on the Pacific Coast, and fishermen have had 
to work harder and harder for their catches dur- 
ing recent years. With this possibility of a scarcity 
of sardines in sight, the state bureau is anxious 
to discover conservation measures by which the 
fishing industry can be assured stability. 

Accordingly, Mr. Scofield and a crew of six 
men, combing 2000 miles of sea, have discovered 
that adult sardines move in great schools, of from 
500 to 1000 tons of fish, up and down along the 
Pacific Coast between Alaska and Panama, screen- 
ing the microscopic plants and animals for their 
food from the waters through which they pass. 

In spite of their extended range, however, the 
fish spawn chiefly in the warm waters off the coast 
of Southern California and Lower California, 
Mexico, occasionally drifting to other localities. 
The eggs are laid in the upper fifty fathoms of 
water as far as 200 miles from land. Here they 
are often caught in the California current, which 
carries them southward at an average rate of 12 



170 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



November 1, 1933 



miles a day so that the young spawn sometimes 
hatch in a nursery many miles from home. 

Most important of California food fishes, the 
sardine contributed 470,000,000 pounds of his 
rank and file to fisheries in 1930. In California, 
four communities have found it profitable to in- 
terest themselves in sardine canning. All told, 
it is estimated that 10.000 workers are employed 
in this activity and its associated branches. 



Labor's prime duty now, to make its dreams 
come true, is to organize with all of the fervor and 
zeal and determination of a crusading army. That 
won't suit those that like easy times, but these are 
new times and the future of the wage earners de- 
pends upon the vigor and wisdom of those who 
lead and fight today to lay a sound flooring upon 
which to rear the new walls and upon which to 
superimpose a new roof. 



LAKE SUPERIOR'S MYSTERY 



Lake Superior recorded a few days ago one of 
those singular happenings that have given it the 
name of a mystery lake. Suddenly, by an un- 
accountable rising of the waters, what on the 
ocean front would have been called a tidal wave 
swept away wharves of the fishing village of 
Rossport and flooded the streets. There had been 
no gale to explain the wall of water. When it re- 
ceded the surface of the lake was soon as calm 
as a millpond. 

The cause of such convulsions on Lake Su- 
perior is supposed to be seismic, but it is difficult 
to supply the evidence. There was the remarkable 
case of the freighter Leafield, which was almost 
overwhelmed by "boiling waters" in the vicinity 
of the Lake Superior "Shoal" in 1913. The ship, 
loaded with rails, was preparing to unload at 
Fort William. Hatches had been removed. Im- 
mense waves rose about her and swept over her 
side. When she finally docked at Fort William 
her officers read of an earthquake recorded dur- 
ing her voyage, and concluded that the ship had 
passed over an extinct volcano and had felt the 
disturbance. 



If you leave yourself to drift you always drift 
the wrong way. — Archbishop Temple. 



Gossiping and lying go hand in hand. 



JAPAN'S SOCIAL POLICY 

It is reported that the Bureau of Social Affairs 
of the Japanese Government has drafted a pro- 
gram for the development of the social policy of 
the Government. The most important items of 
this program are the following: 

Collective Agreements and Welfare. — In the 
opinion of the Bureau of Social Affairs, the con- 
clusion of collective agreements between employ- 
ers and workers should be encouraged. Workers' 
cooperative societies should be assisted by grant- 
ing state subsidies for the erection of schools, 
dining halls, or housing accommodation. 

Relief and Prevention of Unemployment. — One 
of the chief causes of industrial disputes in recent 
years has been the demand for the payment or 
increase of discharge allowances to dismissed 
workers, especially in small or medium-sized un- 
dertakings. It is suggested, therefore, that the 
payment of discharge allowances should be made 
a legal obligation or should be provided for by 
insurance. It is also proposed that, in the absence 
of unemployment insurance, the mutual aid sys- 
tems set up by some large municipalities should 
be encouraged by granting state subsidies. 

A "positive plan" is proposed not only for the 
relief of actual unemployment, but also for the 
development of industry and trade as a means of 
preventing unemployment in the future. The 
scheme includes the improvement of roads, con- 
struction of harbors, and flood control under- 
takings. 

As the result of negotiations between the De- 
partment of the Interior and the Department of 
Finance, it is agreed that the estimated expendi- 
ture for the entire period will be 365,290,000 yen, 
of which 55,340.000 yen will be allocated for the 
first year. 

The number of unemployed reached 485,886 
early this year, the highest figure reported since 
unemployment statistics were inaugurated in Sep- 
tember, 1929. This number constitutes 6.94 per 
cent of the persons covered by the statistics. 

Extension of Social Insurance. — The Health 
Insurance Act now in force should be amended 
so as to include in its field of application workers 
engaged in civil engineering, building, transport, 
and other outdoor occupations, as well as primary 
school teachers and salaried employees in general. 
An investigation is also contemplated with a view 
to introducing invalidity, old age. and widows' 
and orphans' insurance. 



10 



November 1, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



171 



SHIPPING NEWS 



Braverv-at-sea medals have been awarded offi- 
cers and crew of steampship President Madison 
for rescuing seamen and passengers of the 
grounded steamer Nevada. 

The Institute of London Underwriters has 
given due and serious consideration to the ques- 
tion, and has decided, now that motorships are 
such an established feature in the shipping world, 
to alter the wording of the usual clause which 
covers a vessel ''under steam or sail," and in 
future it is to read "under steam, motor power or 
sail." 

A new shipping company has been formed in 
Iceland to engage in the carriage of fish to Medi- 
terranean ports. It will be known as Eimskipaf- 
jelag Isafold, and the first vessel to be acquired, 
the Edda, of 1,350 tons gross, has just been pur- 
chased at Hamburg. She was built at Weser- 
munde in 1921. It is hoped to build up a fleet 
large enough to dispense with the chartering of 
foreign vessels. 

The revised code of international signals, 
which provides the standard means of communica- 
tion at sea, comes into use on January 1 next. In 
the aphabet of the new code all pennants are elimi- 
nated, while important innovations are numeral 
pendants and "substitute" flags. 

During the first six months of this year 1,296 
ocean-going vessels of 4,711,925 tons net arrived 
at Argentine ports. Those under the British flag 
totaled 448 of 1,768,452 tons, the nearest rivals 
being the Italians, Greeks and Germans, with 111 
of 504,848 tons, 163 of 449,390 tons and 57 of 
317,321 tons respectively. 

The Maryland, Mississippi and Missouri, steel 
steamers, three decks and shelter deck and all 
about 7,000 tons gross, built Harland and Wolff, 
Limited, Govan, the Maryland in 1913, and the 
other two in 1914, owned by the Atlantic Trans- 
port Company, Limited, have been sold to P. and 
W. Maclellan, Glasgow, for about £15,500 the 
three and will be broken up. 

The U. S. S. Galveston, 3200 tons displacement, 
built at Richmond, Va., in 1902; U. S. S. Denver, 
3200 tons displacement, built at Philadelphia in 
1899, and the U. S. S. Niagara, 2600 tons dis- 



placement, built at Brooklyn in 1898, all located 
at the Navy Yard, Philadelphia, were sold to the 
Northern Metal Company, Inc., Pier 64, South 
Philadelphia, for $16,680, $15,680 and $3500, re- 
spectively. 

The Italian salvage experts who have been re- 
covering the bullion and specie from the Egypt 
intend, we read, to employ a specially designed 
suction pump to draw up the comparatively small 
quantity remaining in the ship's strong room. 
Thus, as it is written in Daniel, "they will have 
(according to their expectations) power over the 
gold and silver and all the precious things of 
Egypt." 

Cristedo Mirasal had signed regular shipping 
articles on board the steamship SoutJiern Sword 
of the Sword Steamship Company as a third as- 
sistant engineer. He worked for two days and 
was then summarily discharged with no reason 
being given for the action. After a hearing before 
the United States Shipping Commissioner at New 
York, that official decided that Mr. Mirasal was 
entitled to be compensated to the extent of one 
month's wages, namely $100. 

The British Trade Commissioner for New- 
foundland and the Martitime Provinces of Can- 
ada records an interesting case of barter on a 
large scale. The Newfoundland Railway and some 
Welsh collieries are the parties concerned, and 
under the agreement the former will receive 48,- 
000 tons of coal in exchange for 90,000 tons of 
pit props. The contract is said to favor the coal 
owners, but at the same time it will serve the use- 
ful purpose of relieving unemployment among 
lumbermen. 

President Roger D. Lapham of American-Ha- 
waiian Steamship Company has issued the follow- 
ing announcement regarding company earnings: 
"For the eight months ending August 31, 1933, 
the net profit from operations was $722,390.10, as 
compared to a net loss of $199,241.51 for the 
same period in 1932. The net profit, after allow- 
ing for depreciation and after capital gains or 
losses, for the first eight months in 1933 was 
$399,096.80, as compared to a net loss of $535,- 
318.84 for the same period in 1932." 

Both intercoastal and offshore ship lines are 
turning to ''dry ice," or carbon dioxide crystals, 
as a new means of water-borne refrigeration, it 
was revealed when two experimental shipments 
left Los Angeles harbor. American-Hawaiian 



11 



172 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



November 1, 1933 



Line's motorship Missourian took 70 tons of eggs 
in such refrigeration to New York and Boston, 
while the Danish East Asiatic motorship Jutlandia 
took out 500 boxes of oranges for Shanghai, pro- 
tected by the same method. American- Hawaiian 
Line plans similar shipments for meats, poultry 
and fresh vegetables. Success of these experi- 
ments, shipping authorities believe, may revolu- 
tionize present methods of water transportation of 
perishable cargoes. 

In the latest Department of Overseas Trade 
report on Germany it is stated that the pro- 
visional figures show that traffic at the more im- 
portant ports on German inland waterways 
amounted to 95.8 million tons in 1932, against 
108.2 million tons in 1931. Of this total, 45.3 
million tons were incoming and 50.5 million tons 
outgoing cargoes. Traffic in the Rhine district fell 
off by 7.6 million tons, or 14 per cent ; for Duis- 
burg-Ruhrort alone the decrease was 29 per cent, 
mainly due to the diversion of overseas coal trans- 
port from Rotterdam to Emden. There was a de- 
cline of 1.1 million tons, or 17 per cent in traffic 
in the Oder district, and of 1.3 million tons, or 
9 per cent, in the Elbe district. The figures for 
the Elbe-Weser district increased by 300,000 tons, 
or 5 per cent, and for the East German water- 
ways by 66,000 tons, or 7 per cent, compared 
with 1931. Both Berlin and Hamburg suffered 
heavy losses in their inland water transport. 

The Senate committee investigating ocean mail 
contracts discovered that nothing wa s done about 
a Department of Justice report in 1930 which said 
that favors granted a Merchant Fleet Corpora- 
tion official by a ship line head "might constitute 
criminal acts." Henry Herberman. president of 
the Export Steamship Corporation of New York, 
was the ship line head. R. D. Gatewood, former 
head of the Merchant Fleet Corporation's division 
of repair and maintenance, was the government 
official. Mr. Hughes of the Department of Jus- 
tice, read extracts from his report on the Herber- 
man-Gatewood affair, declaring that ships sold 
to Henry Herberman by the Shipping Board were 
maintained in the best of repair by the board, 
Gatewood being in charge of the repairs, at a cost 
to the Shipping Board of SI, 496,897 in five years. 
The report also dealt with Herberman's paying 
off a mortgage on a California farm owned by 
the father-in-law of Gatewood, evidence of which 
had been previously presented to the committee. 



LABOR NEWS 



A few months ago we were glad to recount 
the fact that the state of Wisconsin, habitually 
a leader in social legislation, had passed an un- 
employment insurance law. The law still stands — 
but stands still. After being attacked, in the legis- 
lature, by a number of bills, its application has 
been postponed "until employment is 20 per cent 
greater or payrolls 50 per cent greater than in 
December, 1932." Under no circumstances can 
the law become effective until July 1. 1934. 

The Filipinos have until January 7 to accept 
independence on the terms laid down by Congress. 
Manuel Quezon, most influential political leader 
in the Islands, is opposed to ratification unless 
important amendments are adopted, and the Fili- 
pino legislature is supporting him. Quezon, who 
is noted for his eloquence, is coming to this coun- 
try to argue his case before President Roosevelt 
and Congress. The situation is very puzzling to 
an American. The Filipino people are undoubt- 
edly sincere in their demand for the right to run 
their own affairs, but how about these quibbling 
leaders? Are they acting in good faith — or do 
their economic interests outweigh their love of 
national independence? 

"So long as unemployment remains a reality * » f 
life, I shall favor compulsory unemployment in- 
surance in every state, assisted by such Federal 
aid as may be necessary." said United States Sena- 
tor Wagner of New York in an address before the 
American Federation of Labor convention here. 
Wage reserves charged largely to employers will 
provide a stringent incentive to the stabilization of 
industry. They will remove from the earnest 
worker the sense of insecurity which limits his 
freedom to seek advancement. They will curl) 
those employers who seize large profits in good 
times and attempt to shift all the burdens of de- 
pressions to the laborers. Most important, such 
reserves emphasize the human element in industry. 
They focus attention upon the prime responsibility 
of business toward those who labor." 

Membership in the American Federation of 
Labor was boosted 130,000 at "one clip" when the 
Amalgamated Clothing Workers became formally 
affiliated with the Federation. The announcement 
was made to the American Federation of Labor 



U 



November 1, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



173 



convention in session at Washington by President 
William Green. It was greeted by applause from 
the delegates. The Amalgamated has never been 
in the Federation. It was organized in 1914, and 
is headed by Sidney Hillman. Questions of juris- 
diction involving the Amalgamated and the United 
Garment Workers were settled by the two organi- 
zations. The convention voted an ''expression of 
appreciation" to the officers of the Amalgamated 
and the United, and to the American Federation 
of Labor Executive Council for their efforts in 
bringing about the affiliation. 

One of the most audacious relief programs ever 
attempted by any government has been launched 
by Harry F. Hopkins, director of the Federal 
Emergency Relief Administration. If plans go 
through, it will be in operation within a month. 
Uncle Sam is determined to feed, clothe and shel- 
ter between 1.250,000 and 1.500,000 homeless 
men, women and children who are milling about 
the country in a desperate struggle against starva- 
tion. Incidental to this stupendous job of human 
salvage will be the wiping out of soup kitchens, 
breadlines, "jungles," flop-houses and panhan- 
dling. Hundreds of thousands of human beings 
are to be taken off the highways and railroads and 
placed in homes, boarding houses and camps and 
cared for in decent fashion for "the duration of 
the depression," or until Congress calls a halt. 

A pathetic illustration of the way thousands of 
railroad workers are overworked and underpaid 
was related by the Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion. About 160 crossing watchmen are employed 
on the Coast division of the Southern Pacific. All 
of them work 365 days in the year, save when 
off for sickness. They have no Sundays, and no 
holidays. The shorter work-week is something 
which they hear and read about — it doesn't come 
into their experience. None of them work less 
than eight hours a day. That is the work-time 
for the majority ; but quite a number work 10 
hours and some 12 hours a day; and this, let it 
be remembered, for seven days in each week. The 
standard pay of crossing watchmen on the S. P. 
is $70 a month. Ten per cent of this is deducted 
under the agreement which now has been in effect 
for more than a year. The actual net wage of a 
crossing watchman for anywhere from 240 to 372 
hours' work a month is $63. 

The Wisconsin State Federation of Labor filed 
a request in the circuit court at Milwaukee for an 



injunction to compel the Simplex Shoe Company 
to cease its efforts to prevent labor from organiz- 
ing and thus obtain the benefits accorded the 
workers under the National Industrial Recovery 
Act and the NRA codes. This is said to be the 
first court action taken by organized labor in the 
United States in its battle for the full rights to 
organize contained in Section 7 (a) of the Re- 
covery Law. The injunction seeks to enjoin the 
Simplex Shoe Company from: 1. In any way 
whatsoever intimidating by language or sugges- 
tion of loss of employment to those of its workers 
who may want to help organize or join labor or- 
ganizations of their own choice. 2. Threatening, 
compelling or endeavoring to compel any of its 
employees as a condition of employment to join a 
"company union" by threats of discharge or loss 
of employment. 



STATEMENT OF OWNERSHIP, MANAGEMENT, CIR- 
CULATION, ETC., REQUIRED BY THE ACT OF 
CONGRESS OF AUGUST 24, 1912. 

Of Seamen's Journal, published monthly at San Francisco, Calif., 
for October 1, 1933. 

State of California, \ 

County of San Francisco, j 

Before me, a Court Commissioner in and for the State and 
county aforesaid, personally appeared Paul Scharrenberg, who, 
having been duly sworn according to law, deposes and says that 
he is the Editor of the Seamen's Journal and that the following is, 
to the best of his knowledge and belief, a true statement of the 
ownership, management (and if a daily paper, the circulation), 
etc., of the aforesaid publication for the date shown in the above 
caption, required by the Act of August 24, 1912, embodied in 
section 411, Postal Laws and Regulations, printed on the re- 
verse of this form, to wit : 

1. That the names and addresses of the publisher, editor, man- 
aging editor, and business managers are : Publisher, International 
Seamen's Union of America. Editor, Paul Scharrenberg, 525 
Market Street, San Francisco, Calif. Managing Editor, Paul 
Scharrenberg. Business Managers, None. 

2. That the owner is: (If owned by a corporation, its name 
and address must be stated and also immediately thereunder the 
names and addresses of stockholders owning or holding one per 
cent or more of total amount of stock. If not owned by a corpo- 
ration, the names and addresses of the individual owners must be 
given. If owned by a firm, company, or other unincorporated 
concern, its name and address, as well as those of each individual 
member, must be given.) International Seamen's Union of 
America, Andrew Furuseth, President, A. F. of L. Bldg., Wash- 
ington, D. C. ; Victor A. Olander, Secretary-Treasurer, 666 Lake 
Shore Drive, Chicago, 111. 

3. That the known bondholders, mortgagees, and other security 
holders owning or holding 1 per cent or more of total amount of 
bonds, mortgages, or other securities are: (If there are none, so 
state.) None. 

4. That the two paragraphs next above, giving the names of 
the owners, stockholders, and security holders, if any, contain not 
only the list of stockholders and security holders as they appear 
upon the books of the company but also, in cases where the stock- 
holder or security holder appears upon the books of the company 
as trustee or in any other fiduciary relation, the name of the 
person or corporation for whom such trustee is acting, is given ; 
also that the said two paragraphs contain statements embracing 
affiant's full knowledge and belief as to the circumstances and 
conditions under which stockholders and security holders who do 
not appear upon the books of the company as trustees, hold stock 
and securities in a capacity other than that of a bona fide owner ; 
and this affiant has no reason to believe that any other person, 
association, or corporation has any interest direct or indirect in 
the said stock, bonds, or other securities than as so stated by him. 

5. That the average number of copies of each issue of this pub- 
lication sold or distributed, through the mails or otherwise, to paid 
subscribers during the six months preceding the date shown above 
is (This information is required from daily publications only.) 

PAUL SCHARRENBERG, Editor. 
Sworn to and subscribed before me this 26th day of September, 
1933. 

CARL W. MUELLER. 
(My commission expires with life.) 
Court Commissioner, of the City and County of San Francisco., 
State of California. 



13 



174 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



November 1, 1933 



International Seamens' Union of America 

Affiliated with the American Federation of Labor 
and the International Seafarers' Federation 

EXECUTIVE BOARD 

President: ANDREW FURUSETH, 59 Clay St., 
San Francisco, Calif. Vice-Presidents: P. B. GILL., 
84 Seneca Street, Seattle Was i.; PERCY J. 
PRYOR. iy 2 Lewis Street, Boston, Mas.-.: OSCAR 
CARLSON, 70 South St., New York, N. Y.; PAT- 
RICK O'BRIEN, 71 Main St., Buffalo, N. Y. ; PETER 
E. OLSEN, 49 Clay St., San Francisco. Calif; IVAN 
HUNTER, 1038 Third St., Detroit, Mich. Editor: 
PAUL SCHARRENBERG, 525 Market St., San 
Francisco, Calif. Secretary-Treasurer: VICTOR A. 
OLANDER, 666 Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, 111. 



DISTRICT UNIONS AND BRANCHES 
ATLANTIC DISTRICT 

EASTERN AND GULF SAILORS' ASSOCIATION 
Headquarters 

BOSTON, Mass PERCY J. PRYOR, Secretary 

1% Lewis Street. Phone Capitol 5178 
Branches 

NEW YORK, N. Y ADOLF KILE, Agent 

70 South Street. Phone John 4-1637 

BALTIMORE, Md JOHN BLEY, Agent 

723 S. Broadway. Phone Wolfe 5630 

NORFOLK, Va FRED SORENSEN, Agent 

54 Commercial Place. Phone 23S68 Norfolk 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, AND W ATERTEN DERS' 

UNION OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters 

NEW YORK, N. Y OSCAR CARLSON, Secretary 

70 South Street, Telephone John 0975 
Branches 

BOSTON, Mass JOHN FITZGERALD, Agent 

6 Long Wharf 

BALTIMORE, Md JOHN BLEY, Agent 

723 S. Broadway. Phone Wolfe 5630 

NORFOLK, Va FRED SORENSEN, Acting Agent 

54 Commercial Place. 2386S Norfolk. 

MARINE COOKS AND STEWARDS' UNION OF THE 

ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters 

NEW YORK, N. Y D. E. GRANGE, Secretary 

til Whitehall Street. Phone Bowling Green 1297 

Branches 

NEW YORK (West Side Branch)— JAMES ALLEN, Agent 

61 Whitehall St. Phone Bowling Green 1297 

BOSTON, Mass JOHN MARTIN, Agent 

288 State Street 

BALTIMORE, Md JOHN BLEY, Agent 

723 S. Broadway. Phone Wolfe 5630 



NOVA SCOTIA SEAMEN'S UNION 

HALIFAX, N. S SAMUEL C. CONNELL, Sec'y-Treas. 

285% Gottingen Street 



FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE ATLANTIC 

BOSTON, Mass PERCY J. PRYOR, Secretary 

J. M. NICKERSON, Agent 
l l / 2 Lewis Street. Phone Richmond 0827 

HARBOR BOATMEN'S UNION OF CAMDEN, 
PHILADELPHIA AND VICINITY 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa J. T. MOLLIS, Secretary 

303A Marine Bldg., Delaware Ave. and South St. 
FRANKLIN COUNTY BOATMEN'S UNION 

APALACHICOLA, Fla R. T. MARSHALL, President 

P. O. Box 213 

GREAT LAKES DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 
Headquarters 

CHICAGO, 111 VICTOR A. OLANDER, Secretary 

CLAUDE M. GOSHORN, Treasurer 

810^4 North Clark St. Phone Superior 5175 

Branches 

BUFFALO, N. Y TOHN W. ELLISON, Agent 

71 Main S 

CLEVELAND, Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

1426 West Third Street. Phone Main 1S42 

MILWAUKEE, Wis CHAS. BRADHERING, Agent 

234 South Second Street. Phone Dailv 0489 

DETROIT, Mich IVAN HUNTER, Agent 

1038 Third Street 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, WATERTENDERS AND 

COAL PASSERS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters 

DETROIT, Mich IVAN HUNTER, Secretary 

JAS. HAYMAN, Treasurer 
1038 Third Street. Phone Cadillac 8170 



Branches 

BUFFALO, N. Y JOHN W. ELLISON, Agent 

71 Main Street. Phone Cleveland 7391 

CLEVELAND, Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

Rm. 211, Blackstone Bldg., 1426 W. 3rd St. Ph. Main 1842 

MILWAUKEE, Wis ERNEST ELLIS, Agent 

234 South Second Street. Phone Daily 0489 

CHICAGO, 111 JOHN McGINN, Agent 

156 W. Grand Ave. Phone Superior 2152 



MARINE COOKS AND STEWARDS' UNION 
Headquarters 

BUFFALO, N. Y J. M. SECORD, Secretary 

71 Main Street 
Branches 

CHICAGO, 111 O. EDWARDS, Agent 

64 West Illinois Street. Phone Delaware 1031 

CLEVELAND, Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

Room 211, Blackstone Bldg., 1426 W. 3rd St. Ph. Main 1842 

MILWAUKEE, Wis OTTO EDWARDS, Agent 

234 South Second Street. Phone Broadway 489 

DETROIT, Mich 410 Shelby Street 

Phone Randolph 0044 



PACSFIO DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal GEORGE LARSON. Act. Sec'y 

59 Clay Street. Telephone Kearny - 
Branches 

SEATTLE, Wash P. B. GILL, Agent 

86 Seneca St., P. O. Box 65. Phone Elliot 6752 

PORTLAND, Ore JOHN A. FEIDJE. Agent 

242 Flanders Street. Telephone Beacon 4336 

SAN PEDRO, Cal I. A. HAARKLAU. Agenl 

430 South Palos Verdes Street. P. O. Box 68. Phone 2491J 



MARINE FIREMEN. OILERS, AND WATERTENDERS' 

UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

Headquarters 

SAX FRANCISCO, Cal 

58 Commercial Street. Telephone Kearny 3699 

MARINE COOKS AND STEWARDS' ASSOCIATION 

OF THE PACIFIC COAST 

Headquarters 

SAX FRANCISCO, Cal EUGENE BURKE, Secretary 

86 Commercial Street. Phone Kearny 5955 
Branch 

SEATTLE, Wash J. L. NORKGAUER. Agent 

Room 203, Grand Trunk Dock. Phone Main 2233 



ALASKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 
Headquarters 

s.\.\ FRANCISCO, Cal 49 Clay Street 

PETER E. OLSEN, Secretary. Phone Sutter 6452 

Branches 

SEATTLE, Wash. CHARLES F. HAMMARIN, Agent 

86 Seneca St., P. O. Box 4:'. Phone Elliot 3425 

PORTLAND, Ore PAUL GEPHARDT, Agent 

242 Flanders Street 



EUREKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 

EUREKA, Calif <;. a SVENSON, Secretary 

P. O. Box 541. Phone 8-R-5 



COLUMBIA RIVER FISHERMEN'S PROTECTIVE 
UNION 
ASTORIA, Ore ARVID MATTSoX, Sec'y, P. O. I- 

COQUILLE RIVER FISHERMEN'S UNION 
BANDON, Ore F. REIMANN, Secretary 



TILLAMOOK COUNTY FISHERMEN'S UNION 
BAT (MTV, Ore EARL BLANCHARD, S< 



ROGUE RIVER FISHERMEN'S UNION 
GOLD BEACH, Ore WARREN H. HOSKINS, Sec'y-Tr. 

DEEP SEA FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters 

SEATTLE, Wash P. B. GILL, Secretary 

86 Seneca St., P. O. Box 65. Phone Elliot 6752 

Branch 

KETCHIKAN, Alaska ...GUST OLSEN, Agt., P. O. Box A17 



FISHERMEN'S UNION OF PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND 

AND VICINITY 
CORDOVA, Alaska... X. SWANSON, Sec'y, P. O. Box 597 



FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal C. W. DEAL, Secretary 

Room "B," Ferry Building; Phone Douglas 8664 



FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION OF PUGET SOUND 

SEATTLE, Wash JOHN M. FOX, Secretary 

220 Maritime Bldg. 



14 



November 1, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



Professional Cards 



Attorney for the Sailors' Union of the 
Pacific since its organization 

H. W. Hutton 

431 Pacific BIdg., Fourth and Market Sts. 

SAN FRANCISCO 

PHONE DOUGLAS 0315 



Albert Michelson 

ATTORNEY-AT-LAW 

Attorney for 

Marine Firemen and Watertenders' 
Union of Pacific 
Marine Diesel and Gasoline Engi- 
neers' Association No. 49 
611 Russ Bldg. Tel. SUttcr 3866 

San Francisco, California 



ANDERSON 8C LAMB 

Attorney s-at-Law 

1226 Engineers Bank Building 

CLEVELAND, OHIO 

Personal Injury Attorneys for Seamen on 
the Great Lakes 



Frank Orwitz 

ATTORNEY-AT-LAW 

Room No. 630, Hearst Building 
Market Street and Third 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 

Telephone GArfield 6353 



INFORMATION WANTED 

Will the following seamen, or any 
persons knowing their whereabouts, 
relatives or friends, communicate 
with me or with Mrs. Ida Curry, 
widow of Robert J. Curry, of 6543 
Fifth Avenue, S. W., Seattle; for- 
merly second assistant engineer on 
the steamship Sagebrush, who died 
of burns in the Santiago Hospital on 
March 15, 1931, as a result of said 
accident: V. Segovia, P. I., Oiler; 
Bro. Donato, 85 Hamilton Avenue, 
Brooklyn, N. Y.; M. Vasaya, 12-4, 
P. I., Oiler; B. Comp, P. I., Oiler, 
606 Jackson Street, San Francisco; 
Joe Momal, P. I., Oiler; Father 
Philip, Helio, P. I.; C. Fidel, P. I., 
Fireman; Father Vicente, Davos, 
P. I.; Moses Va Saya, P. I., Fire- 
man; Joe Taturia, P. I., Wiper, 
416 Seventy-fourth Street, Seattle, 
Wash.; Felipe Gregorio, P. I., 
Wiper, 9 Goble Street, Newark, 
N. J.— Silas B. Axtell, Esq., 80 
Broad Street, New York City, N. Y., 
Room 3008. 



Women should always precede es- 
corts down a receiving aisle. 



The salary of a civil service em- 
ployee cannot be garnished, accord- 
ing to the Civil Service Commission. 



175 



SEATTLE, WASH. 



K. K. Tvete & Sons 

Established 1890 

MEN'S CLOTHING, SHOES, HATS, 
AND FURNISHING GOODS 

1300-1302 First Ave., cor. University 
SEATTLE, WASH. 



Wester man's 

UNION LABEL. 

Clothier, Furnisher 8C Hatter 

Alaska Outfitter 

TWO BIG STORES 

Store No. 1 — Cor. Main and First 

Store No. 2 — Westlake and Pine 

SEATTLE 



JENSEN 8c NELSEN 

Gents' Furnishing Goods 

Sayer's Oil Skin Clothing 
Uniforms, Caps, Hats, Shoes 

10 EAST STREET NEAR MISSION 

GArfield 9633 San Francisco 



SHADOWS 



At night, when I go down the street, 
Queer shadows sprout beneath my 

feet, 
And shrivel up and lengthen out, 
And jerk, and throw themselves 

about; 
And not a soul would recognize 
Me in this singular disguise. 

And shadows, shadows are we all, 
Shadows projected on the wall 
Of Time, strange shapes of mockery, 
Imps of a light we cannot see; 
How shall we know, from near or 

far, 
What sort of things we really are? 
— By an unknown author. 



Train porters never have to pre- 
pare berths for Congressmen be- 
cause politicians make up their own 
bunk. 



Toads quench their thirst by ab- 
sorbing moisture through the skin. 



THE CHURCH OF MAN 



Beneath the high cathedral roof 

Which lights the growing Church of Man — 
The Church where none need stand aloof, 

But each serves each, as all men can — 
Beneath this blue, resplendent arch 
What joy and sorrow daily march, 

In hopeful, gay processional, 

In sad despair's recessional ! 

Its altar is the human heart, 

And priests around that altar stand 

Whose eager promptings would impart 
Relief for every groaning land. 

They probe no more the Far and Vast, 

But, building wiser than the Past, 
They toil for present peace and good, 
And sound the charming word "Brotherhood" ! 

Within that Church, as incense, float 

Unselfish deeds that glow and gleam ; 
And Hope's appealing organ-note 

Swells loud and wide love's lofty theme. 
Oh why do nations stand apart 
And still deny the human heart ! 

Join hands, O peoples — one, yet Free! — 

And end earth's age-long misery. 

— James Harcourt West. 



15 



176 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



November 1, 1933 



Taylor's Nautical Academy 

FOR NAVIGATORS AND MARINE ENGINEERS 
Established 1888 

Consular Bldg., Corner Washington 
and Battery Sts., opp. New Custom 

House, San Francisco, Calif. 
THIS OLD AND NOTEWORTHY 
SCHOOL is under the direct and per- 
sonal supervision of CAPT. HENRY 
TAYLOR, and equipped with all mod- 
ern appliances to illustrate and teach 
any branch of Navigation. 

The class of teachers of Navigation 
in the past have been those having 
simply a knowledge of Navigation and 
Navigation only. Conditions have 
changed, and the American seamen 
demand a man as a teacher with 
higher attainments than one who has 
only the limited ability of a seaman. 
The Principal of this School, keeping 
this always in view, studied several 
years the Maritime Law. and is now, 
in addition to being a thorough teacher of Navigation and its kindred 
subjects, a regularly admitted Member of the Bar. 

There is no standard of education required of a pupil entering the 
School, for no matter how ignorant the seaman may be, even in the 
rudiments of common education, Captain Henry Taylor will teach and 
raise him from the depths of ignorance to the height of the average 
well informed man, and in a comparatively short interval of time. 




Phone GARFIELD 2076 

DR. EDMOND J. BARRETT 

DENTIST 

Rooms 2429-30, 450 Sutter Building 

Hours: 9 A. M. to 5 P. M. and 

by Appointment 



Seamen's Furnishing Goods 

OTTO PAHL 

Shoes, Oilskins. Seaboots and Underwear 
Suit* cleaned and pressed while you wait 

140 EMBARCADERO 
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 



Union-made Work Clothes and Shoes 

Uniform Caps, Oilskins and 

Seaboots, Belfast Cord 

and Buckles 



SAM'S 



Shore and Offshore Outfitting Store 
Formerly with Geo. A. Price 

4 Clay Street, San Francisco 

Phone GArfidd 6784 



Jones — How do you manage with 
your salary? 

Smith — I spend 30 per cent for 
shelter. 30 per cent for clothing, 40 
per cent for food and 20 per cent for 
amusement. 

Jones— Why, that adds to 120 
per cent. 

Smith — I know it. 



Japan was the leading customer 
for American airplane parts in 1932. 



Blackfish and porpoise oil has 
been found especially good in lubri- 
cating delicate mechanisms. 



Now in Our New Location 

"624 MARKET" 

Opposite Palace Hotel 




-BOSS- 

YOUR UNION TAILOR 



SENTENCE SERMONS 



A Person Who Derives — 

— All his knowledge from books 
is still an ignorant man. 

— All his opinions from the candi- 
dates is a poor citizen. 

— All his income from others' la- 
bors is a parasite. 

— All his pains from his imagina- 
tion lives a life of misery. 

— All his faith from other men 
finds his world has unstable founda- 
tion. 

— All his religion from his wife's 
church membership is in a poor 
spiritual condition. 

— All his courage from drugs is a 
coward. 



Poor Old India 
London Answers 



Forty polo ponies which have just 
been brought to England by the 
Maharajah of Jaipur are valued at 
£1.000 each. This Indian Prince's 
fortune, including his wonderful col- 
lection of jewelrv, is estimated at 
more than £100.000,000. 



16 



A Great Store 

Built Upon 

Successful 

Service to 

Millions 



% 



HALE BROS. 

INC 

Market at Fifth 

SAN FRANCISCO 
SUTTER 8000 



THE 

James H. Barry Co. 

The Star Press 

Printing 



1122-1124 MISSION STREET 
SAN FRANCISCO 

We print "The Seimen's Journal" 



In San Francisco 

KODAKS 

Exchanged i Bought 
Sold 

at 

SAN FRANCISCO 
CAMERA EXCHANGE 

88 Third St. near Mission St. 

CAMERA SHOP 
145 Kearny St. near Sutter St. 




A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, FOR SEAMEN 



Our Aim : The Brotherhood of the Sea 



Our Motto: Justice by Organization 



Vol. XLVII, No. 12 



SAN FRANCISCO, DECEMBER 1, 1933 



Whole No. 2039 



NATIONAL MARITIME BOARD 



T THE public hearing on the pending Ship- 
ping Code, held under the auspices of the 
National Recovery Administration in Washing- 
ton, D. C, on November 9 and 10, the proposals 
and suggestions of the organized seamen of Amer- 
ica outlined in previous issues of the Journal 
were formally presented. 

By unanimous decision of the Executive Coun- 
cil of the International Seamen's Union of Amer- 
ica there was also submitted for inclusion in the 
Shipping Code a draft plan for the establishment 
of a National Maritime Board. 

Both Great Britain and Japan, our principal 
competitors on the seas, have for a number of 
years demonstrated the practical application of 
such a plan with respect to mercantile shipping. 
The proposal has been taken under advisement 
by the Administrator for the Shipping Code, Wm. 
H. Davis: 

NATIONAL MARITIME BOARD 
Rules and Regulations 

1. Objects. — The National Maritime Board is hereby 
created to establish harmonious relations between 
shipowners and seamen and to secure the cooperation 
of associations of shipowners and trade unions of the 
ships' personnel, in accord with the National Indus- 
trial Recovery Act. 

The objects and purposes of the Board shall be: 

(a) The development of seamanship, skill and ef- 
ficiency. 

(b) The prevention and adjustment of differences 
between shipowners and seamen of all ratings. 

(c) The establishment, revision and maintenance of 
standard rates of wages and approved conditions of 
employment in the merchant marine. 



(d) The selection, and when possible the operation, 
of employment offices for seamen in cooperation with 
the United States Departments of Commerce and 
Labor. 

In the operation of employment offices, it is under- 
stood that: 

(1) The shipowner shall have the right to select his 
own crew. 

(2) The seaman shall have the right to select his 
ship. 

2. Constituent Sections. — The National Maritime 
Board shall consist of the following sections: 

(a) Navigating Officers' Section. 

(b) Engineer Officers' Section. 

(c) Sailors' Section. 

(d) Firemen and Oilers' Section. 

(e) Stewards, Cooks and Waiters' Section. 
Number of Representatives in Section. — Each section 

shall consist of representatives on each side. 

3. Representatives. — The representatives on the em- 
ployers' side shall be selected by: 

(a) American Steamship Owners' Association. 

(b) (Include such other associations of shipowners 
as may be desirable.) 

The representatives on the personnel side shall be 
selected by: 

(a) Navigating Officers' Section — 

By (Insert name of organization of deck officers.) 

(b) Engineer Officers' Section — 

By (Insert name of organization of engineer offi- 
cers.) 

(c) Sailors' Section — 

By the Sailors' Division of the International Sea- 
men's Union of America. 

(d) Firemen and Oilers' Section — 

By the Firemen and Oilers' Division of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America. 

(<?) Stewards, Cooks and Waiters' Section — 

By the Cooks and Stewards' Division of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America. 

And in the case of any Section, by such other or- 
ganization as may hereafter be agreed by the particu- 
lar Section or Sections concerned. 

4. National Maritime Board Meetings. — Number of 
Representatives. — Each Section shall sit separately and 



178 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



December 1, 1933 



independently to determine matters appertaining to 
the ratings and grades for which the Section is consti- 
tuted, but sitting jointly shall constitute the National 
Maritime Board, meetings of which shall be held as 
hereafter provided. For the purposes of the meetings 

of the Board, each side shall be entitled to 

representatives. 

5. Meetings of the National Maritime Board. — Meet- 
ings of the National Maritime Board shall be held at 
least once in each year, and oftener when in the opin- 
ion of either side of any section a question has arisen 
which it is desirable should be submitted for the dis- 
cussion of the whole Board. 

6. Quorum of Board. — A quorum shall be 

members on each side of the Board. 

7. Special Committees — Finance. — The Board shall 
have power to appoint special committees for special 
purposes, including a management committee, whose 
sole duties shall be the appointment and control of the 
office staff and the control of the finance of the Board. 

8. Chairman of the National Maritime Board. — There 
shall be two chairmen, one elected by and from either 
side of the Board, one of whom shall take the chair 
at alternate meetings. In the absence of the chairman 
whose turn it is to preside, the chairman for that 
meeting shall be appointed by the side which ap- 
pointed the absent chairman. The chairman at any 
meeting shall hold office until the following meeting. 

9. Secretaries and Staff. — The Board shall maintain 
a general secretary and such clerical staff as it may 
deem necessary. 

10. Duties of General Secretary. — It shall be the duty 
of the general secretary to convene all meetings of the 
Board, to take proper minutes of the proceedings 
thereof, to attend all Section and committee meetings, 
in person or by deputy, taking minutes of the pro- 
ceedings thereof, and to carry out such other duties 
as may be assigned to him by the National Maritime 
Board. 

11. Voting. — The voting, both in the National Mari- 
time Board and the Section meetings, shall be by 
show of hands or otherwise as each meeting may 
determine. No resolution shall be regarded as carried 
unless it has been approved by a majority of members 
present on each side of the Board or Section. A ma- 
jority vote on either side shall be regarded as a vote 
binding on all members of that side. 

In the event of a tie vote, the disputed question shall 
be submitted to an arbitrator who shall be selected by 
the meetings of the Board from a group of ten per- 
sons named by the President of the United States. 
The decision of such arbitrator shall be final. The 
President of the United States shall, upon the approval 
of the Shipping Code, be requested to name ten such 
persons, and to fill vacancies as they may occur. 

12. Finance. — Each organization of employers and 
each employees' organization represented on the Board 
shall be responsible for the expenses of its members 
attending meetings of the Board, but all other ex- 
penses, unless otherwise determined, shall be met by 
the two sides of the Board in equal proportion. 

13. Functions of Sections. — The functions of the Sec- 
tions shall be to define the limits of operation of the 
District Sections, as provided for in Paragraph 24; 
to regulate their procedure; to adjust differences and 
disputes in regard to which the District Sections are 
unable to come to a decision; to draw up such rules 
as may be found desirable for adoption by the re- 
spective organizations for the purpose of securing the 
observance of the decisions of the Board; and gen- 
erally to take such steps as they deem conducive to 
the attainnient of the objects of the Board. 

14. Chairman of Section Meetings. — There shall be 
two chairmen, one elected by and from either side of 
each Section, one of whom shall take the chair at 
alternate meetings. In the absence of the chairman 
whose turn it is to preside, the chairman for that meet- 
ing shall be appointed by the side which appointed the 



absent chairman. The chairman at any meeting shall 
hold office until the following meeting. 

15. Secretaries of the Sections.— There shall be ap- 
pointed by each Section two joint secretaries, one to 
be nominated by each side. 

16. Duties of Secretaries of the Sections. — The secre- 
taries shall perform such duties as may be assigned 
to them by the Sections. 

17. Quorum of Section.— A quorum of any Section 

shall be formed' if there is not less than of 

the full representation on each side. When a member 
of any Section cannot attend a meeting, the organiza- 
tion by which he is appointed may appoint a deputy 
for that meeting. 

18. Cooperative Members. — Any Section shall have 
power to summon by general consent such additional 
approved representatives, not necessarily members of 
either side, who may be brought into cooperation with 
the Section when in the opinion of the Section this 
course would be likely to contribute to the fuller at- 
tainment of their objects. 

19. Meetings of Sections. — Each Section shall meet 
for the transaction of business upon date- to be 
agreed, the general secretary, after consultation with 
the joint secretaries, giving at least ten days' clear 
notice of the time and place of such meeting. On the 
written application of the majority of either side of 
any Section, the general secretary shall, within ten 
days, convene an extraordinary meeting of the Sec- 
tion, and after consultation with the joint secretaries 
shall decide upon the time and place most convenient 
for such meeting, having regard to the nature and 
urgency of the business to be transacted. An applica- 
tion for an extraordinary meeting shall state clearly 
the object for which such meeting is to be held. 

20. Minutes of Section Meetings. — Minutes of the 
proceedings of each Section shall be taken by the gen- 
eral secretary, or his deputy, which, after being agreed 
by the joint secretaries, shall be circulated to the joint 
secretaries of the other Sections within seven days and 
be presented to the next meeting for confirmation. 
Copies of these minutes, when duly signed by the 
chairman, shall be furnished to each of the joint sec- 
retaries. 

21. Disagreement. — When a proposal is not carried 
by the requisite majority as laid down in Paragraph 11, 
it shall be competent for the Section to take no further 
action in the matter or for cither side of the Section 
alternatively to refer the proposal to the National 
Maritime Board for decision or to the independent 
arbitrator hereinafter mentioned. When one side of a 
Section desires to refer a proposal to the Board while 
the other desires to refer it to the arbitrator herein- 
after mentioned, the proposal shall be referred to 
the Board. 

22. Reference to Independent Arbitrator. — If a refer- 
erence to an independent arbitrator be agreed, and 
such arbitrator has been selected by the Section, the 
general secretary shall prepare a statement of the 
point or points in difference, which shall be submitted 
to the joint secretaries, who shall either intimate that 
they are satisfied that the case is fully and clearly 
stated or shall add thereto any notes which, in the 
opinion of either or both of them, tend to more closely 
define the issue. 

23. Decision of Independent Arbitrator. — The decision 
of the independent arbitrator shall go into effect, pend- 
ing appeal to the National Maritime Board. 

24. District Sections. — There shall be district com- 
mittees for each Section, which shall be known as 
District Sections. The composition, function, manner 
of election and area to be covered by such committee 
shall be settled by the respective Sections. 

25. Port Consultants. — There shall be appointed by 
the District Sections, at agreed ports as may be mu- 
tually agreed, one or more representatives of each 
side of each Section to be called port consultants. 



December 1, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



179 



26. Duties of Port Consultants. — The duties of the port 
consultants shall be to cooperate for the purpose of 
assuring that within the limits of their operation ves- 
sels are not delayed owing to the personnel with which 
they are concerned not being available to facilitate 
their engagement, and, when necessary, their dis- 
charge, and to endeavor to bring about a settlement 
of any difference in connection therewith, and gen- 
erally to secure the prompt manning of vessels. 

Any difference in connection with engagements or 
discharges shall be referred, in the first instance, to 
the port consultants within whose limits of operation 
such difference arises. 

The port consultant shall have no power to alter, 
vary or amend any rules, rates scale, principles or 
procedure formulated by the National Maritime Board. 

If the port consultants are unable to bring about a 
settlement of a difference they shall intimate to the 
parties that the question will be referred to the Dis- 
trict Section and, if necessary, to the appropriate Sec- 
tion of the National Maritime Board. 

In the event of it becoming necessary to refer the 
question in dispute to a District Section, the port con- 
sultants shall obtain statements in writing concerning 
the dispute from the representatives of both parties, 
and forward the same, with their joint or separate 
comments thereon, to the District Section. 

27. Amendment of Rules and Regulations. — The Board 
shall have power from time to time to amend or add 
to these Rules and Regulations in such way as it may 
deem proper, one month's notice of the actual pro- 
posed alteration to be given before the date of the 
meeting. 

28. Obligation of Parties. — No stoppage of work or 
lockout shall take place until any difference or dis- 
pute between shipowners and seamen has been re- 
ferred to and dealt with by the port consultants, the 
District Sections, the Sections, and, if necessary, by 
the National Maritime Board, as circumstances may 
require. 

29. No indemnity, strike pay, assistance or encour- 
agement, direct or indirect, shall be afforded by either 
organization or by any official or individual members 
thereof to any person or persons failing to submit a 
difference or dispute for adjustment as herein pro- 
vided or acting in violation of any decision made in 
accord with these Rules and Regulations. 



ENFORCEMENT OF NRA 



THE STRUGGLE FOR EXISTENCE 



If the bulk of the human race are always to re- 
main as at present, slaves to toil in which they 
have no interest, and therefore feel no interest — 
drudging from early morning till late at night for 
bare necessaries, and with all the intellectual and 
moral deficiencies which that implies — without re- 
sources either in mind or feeling — untaught, for 
they cannot be better taught than fed ; selfish, for 
all their thoughts are required for themselves ; 
without interests or sentiments as citizens and 
members of society, and with a sense of injustice 
rankling in their minds, equally for what they 
have not and what others have ; I know not what 
there is which should make a person of any ca- 
pacity of reason concern himself about the des- 
tinies of the human race. — John Stuart Mill. 



The first drastic step by a government agency 
under the NRA to enforce the collective bargain- 
ing provision of the National Recovery Act was 
taken by the regional labor board against two 
shipbuilding corporations and three of their sub- 
sidiaries in the New York area. The board in- 
formed General Hugh S. Johnson, National Re- 
covery Administrator, and Senator Robert F. 
Wagner, chairman of the National Labor Board, 
that the United Dry Docks, Inc., and Todd Ship- 
building Corporation had refused persistently to 
negotiate with representatives of their 4,000 em- 
ployees, on strike for the last seven weeks, and 
had declined also to accept the mediation of the 
labor board. The subsidiaries in question are the 
Robbins Dry Dock and Repair Company, the 
Tietjen and Lang Dry Dock Company, and the 
Fletcher Dry Dock Company. In letters to Gen- 
eral Johnson and Senator Wagner the regional 
labor board asked that the corporations be sum- 
moned before the National Labor Board and that 
RFC loans said to have been granted to them be 
withdrawn unless they agreed to abide by the 
law and negotiate with their employees. 



NO MORE WORKAWAYS 



Resolutions adopted by the New York port 
committee of the International Seamen's Union 
of America recommend that in addition to basic 
wages and working conditions the Shipping Code 
should specify that "no employer shall be per- 
mitted to hire as a member of the crew of any 
American ship any student or part-time workers ; 
that the jobs on American vessels should be 
given to the men who have chosen to make the 
sea their life work and who plan to follow the 
sea continuously for a living." A demand for a 
survey of sanitary conditions on seagoing vessels 
made by the same wide-awake committee, is based 
on the report of the Public Health Service that 
about 1,000 cases of tuberculosis a year were 
found among the merchant seamen of the United 
States and that more than 250 deaths resulted. 



Greatness comes only to those who seek not to 
avoid obstacles, but to overcome them. — Theodore 
Roosevelt. 



180 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



December 1, 1933 



NEWS AND COMMENT 

Concerning Seamen the World Over 



As a result of negotiations between the Fascist 
Union of Mercantile Marine Officers and the 
Italian shipping company "Cosulich," a collective 
agreement has been signed definitely regulating 
conditions of employment. In future officers will 
be appointed and enter into enjoyment of the 
regulation conditions after a probationary period. 
The compensation payable in case of dismissal has 
been increased, to one and a half times the last- 
earned monthly salary. All officers come under 
the new agreement, except wireless operators for 
whom negotiations have still to take place. 

■',-• ■■';■■ # 

The French Dockers' Federation (affiliated to 
the International Transport workers' Federation) 
held their congress at the end of September, when 
a number of questions affecting inland naviga- 
tion were dealt with. The congress unanimously 
adopted a program of demands, including repre- 
sentation of the workers on the different navi- 
gation committees, regulation of freights, schools 
for bargemen's children, vote by correspondence 
for bargemen, abolition of preferential treatment 
of railway companies, coordination of the systems 
of transport, revision of the quota system. 
granting of credits for the maintenance and im- 
provement of the waterways. 
* * * 

The strike of Latvian seamen was called off 
when the following agreement had been reached : 
( 1) Wages to be raised by 10 to 15 per cent as 
from August 1 ; (2) regulations relating to food, 
etc.. to be revised; (3) wages to be paid at cur- 
rent rates of exchange; (4) men dismissed for 
strike activity to be reengaged as soon as possible. 
In view of the extremely bad conditions prevail- 
in- on Latvian ships the agreement may be con- 
sidered a favorable one. According to a communi- 
cation from the Latvian Federation of Trade 
Unions the strike was declared premature by 
Communists, this leading to a dispute between 
the Seamen's Union and the Engineers' ( Donkey- 
men's) l'nion, the latter refusing to take part in 
a badly prepared strike and siding with the own- 
ers. The Seamen's Union had planned to strike 
at a later date, but its hands were forced by the 
Communists. The shipowners were quick to take 



advantage of the split in the seamen's ranks, 
and concluded with the "yellow" unions an 
agreement raising wages 10 to 15 per cent, an 
action which had paralyzing effect upon the strike. 

:j: :): * 

In British shipping circles voices have recently 
been raised calling for a ten per cent reduction 
in wages. A recent issue of The Seaman, the 
journal of the British National Union of Seamen, 
deals with the present situation in the shipping 
trade, and arrives at the conclusion that the out- 
look seems to be improving. There is observed a 
decline in the amount of idle tonnage, and the 
improvement is expected to persist. The journal 
goes on to write: "Yet, despite these indications 
that the world depression is coming to end, we 
are told that the only means of saving the ship- 
ping industry is by a reduction in seamen's wages. 
There are approximately «>70 shipping companies 
in this country, governed by over 2,000 directors, 
who number among them some of the best brains 
in the country, in the political and industrial 
world; yet, this is the only contribution they can 
make toward the solution of our difficulties. 
I nanimity of action or thought seems impossible, 
and yet there are many avenues through which 
action might be taken if all the owners were 
agreed. 1 want to say very clearly that seamen's 
wages must not be touched, and that any pro- 
posal to do so will be resisted, not because our 
faith in collective bargaining has waned, but be- 
cause the wages level of seamen has reached bed- 
rock. We trust the owners concerned will give 
this statement their most careful consideration: 
it is not made in any spirit of defiance, but simply 

as a statement of fact." 

* * * 

An incident occurred recently at Gothenburg 

characteristic of the methods of the Red Indus- 
trial Opposition. We give the account published 
in the journal of the Swedish seamen. Sjihmui- 
nen: "The swastika was torn down on board the 
German ship Gertrud immediately after the stop- 
page of work. The following day it could be 
read in the papers that a 'young man' had lowered 
the flag, had seized and run off with it. but a boat- 
swain had gone in pursuit, had overtaken him and 
forced him to surrender the flag. A police car 
was called on, but it was only possible to capture 
another young man. Suspected of having been in 
company of the 'thief.' though he denied all con- 
nections with the culprit. In spite of close cross- 



December 1, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



181 



examination, he even denied knowing him. Ny 
Dag, the political organ of the Red Industrial 
Opposition, did not fail to turn the incident to 
account and expressed approval of the treatment 
of the evil flag. For after all, it was something 
different from the cowardice of the damned re- 
formist union bosses. The police proceeded to 
search for the culprit, at the premises of the 'Inter- 
klub,' where they found a Danish seaman who 
was unable to give a satisfactory account of his 
presence on the premises. Certain custom officials 
thought they recognized in him the hero of the 
incident. So the Danish seaman was arrested and 
photographed. His photo, together with thirteen 
others, was sent to Kalman, where the Gcrtrud 
was at berth. One of the crew immediately rec- 
ognized the Dane among the photographs as the 
culprit. So the matter was cleared up. The Dane 
was kept in arrest, in spite of all his protests. 
For there was so much evidence against him, to 
say nothing of the witnesses who recognized him. 
The sequel of the affair shows what the testi- 
mony of witnesses is often worth. For the real 
'culprit' was our comrade Valentine Eliason, edi- 
tor of Sjomannen, and 'reformist' leader. He de- 
livered himself to the police. Far from being a 
young man as described, Eliason is near fifty and 
could be the father of the unfortunate Dane. The 
trial which took place the following day was 
rather funny than grave. The Dane was ac- 
quitted of course. Eliason, who had defended his 
action in writing, was sentenced to a fine of 140 
crowns. The public prosecutor had asked for a 
verdict for outrage of a foreign flag, but the 
court, presumably thinking that the present Ger- 
man government had no honor to be outraged, 
only found Eliason guilty of high-handed con- 
duct." 

There certainly is nothing new under the sun. 
Parables similar to those of Jesus Christ were nar- 
rated by Buddha some 600 years before Christ 
was born. Confucius gave to the world, in some- 
what different words, the Golden Rule 500 years 
before Christ. And now comes testimony from 
archaeological records in Babylon showing that 
King Hammurabi compiled a code of laws con- 
taining the Ten Commandments nearly a thousand 
years before Moses. 



VANISHING WAR DEBTS 



Writing from Paris, Michael Wilson, Interna- 
tional News Service correspondent, says France 
is now preparing to build a number of large com- 
bat airships for use of the French army. 

The construction work is to be done at Mau- 
beuge hangars, used during the war as a base for 
bombing raids by German Zeppelins. The cost 
is not given. But since large combat planes cannot 
be built for a song it probably will mount into 
millions of francs. The frugal French govern- 
ment, it seems, cannot find funds to pay off its 
just debts to America, but has no trouble finding 
the money when expensive equipment to feed the 
flames of French ambition is wanted. 

Albert Shaw, editor of Review of Reviews, 
visiting in London, writes that the English press 
has just about convinced the English people that 
America never loaned Britain any money. The 
same is true in France. 

And in both France and England the news- 
papers have been aided in spreading this false 
notion by the international bankers and by so- 
called "Americans'' of the lounge lizard variety. 



Tom Mooney's long fight for freedom will be 
carried to the United States Supreme Court, the 
Mooney defense committee announces. He will 
base his appeal on the contention that he has been 
deprived of his constitutional rights through con- 
tinued imprisonment. The acquittal last May of 
Mooney on an old murder indictment growing out 
of the Preparedness Day parade bombing in 
1916 is expected to be used in the new appeal. 
The indictment on which Mooney was convicted 
after the bombing charged him with the death of 
Hetta Knapp, one of those killed in the explosion. 
He was acquitted in May on the charge of mur- 
dering another victim. "Mooney is either guilty 
of all deaths or guilty of none of them," the de- 
fense committee says. 



It requires less philosophy to take things as they 
come than to part with things as they go. 



Italian Line officials deny allegations made 
by David Warshauer of Brooklyn, in a suit 
against the Lloyd Sabaudo Line for $200,000, 
that the liner Conte Biancamano ignored distress 
signals made while he was drifting in an open 
boat in October, 1931. The Italian Line denied 
that any one on board had seen the signals or 
that the boat was anywhere near the course of 
the liner. 



182 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



December 1, 1933 



Seamen's Journal 

Established in 1887 
Published on the first day of each month at 525 
Market Street, San Francisco, by and under the di- 
rection of the International Seamen's Union of 
America. 

PAUL SCHARRENBERG, Editor 

® 

Entered at the San Francisco Postoffice as second- 
class matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate 
of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of Oc- 
tober 3, 1917, authorized September 7, 1918. 

Subscription price 51.00 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 



NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will be 
published, provided they are of general interest, 
brief, legible, written on one side only of the paper, 
and accompanied by the writer's own name and ad- 
dress. The JOURNAL is not responsible for the ex- 
pressions of correspondents, nor for the return of 
manuscripts. 



December 1. 1933 



PROGRESS OF THE SHIPPING CODE 



Xo one knows how many more weeks or 
months will pass before the pending Code for the 
shipping industry will be perfected and approved. 
There is no doubt, however, that progress is being 
made. The public hearing during the month de- 
veloped the fact that, aside from the labor sec- 
tions, there are many differences of opinion as to 
the points at issue. Great Lakes shipping and 
navigation on rivers and harbors present prob- 
lems not easily covered by a blanket code. Again, 
the question of regulating foreign shipping, en- 
gaged in direct competition with American vessels, 
is complex and runs squarely into international 
treaties which may or may not be construed so as 
to prevent NRA regulation. 

So far as the labor provisions of the Shipping 
Code are concerned, Deputy Administrator Davis 
has already clearly stated that no modification of 
the right to collective bargaining will be permitted. 
That this is a bitter pill for certain shipping inter- 
ests may be gleaned by an analysis of current 
events. 

The proposal for the establishment of a Na- 
tional Maritime Board has been favorably received 
in many quarters. Of course, there are the "die- 
hards" and these men, realizing that some form 
of union organization is bound to come, are des- 
perately attempting to establish their own, pri- 
vately conducted, unions. 



On the Great Lakes, a company union plan for 
seamen has been inaugurated by the Lake Car- 
riers' Association which, as is well known, is 
dominated by the Pittsburgh Steamship Com- 
pany, a subsidiary of the U. S. Steel Corporation. 
Under this peculiar plan, the crews of the various 
ships were given a choice of three alleged ballots, 
as follows: The first was marked "A" and pro- 
vided for the selection of a "delegate" to repre- 
sent the crew at a "convention" to meet in Cleve- 
land, after the close of navigation, the expenses 
and salary of the "delegate" and the cost of the 
"convention" to be paid by the shipowners. The 
second was marked "B" and provided for indi- 
vidual dealing without representation of any char- 
acter. The third was marked "C" and contained 
the names of the various unions. Those who 
marked the "C" ballot, according to reports re- 
ceived, quickly found themselves in disfavor and 
were immediately impressed with the danger of 
being blacklisted. The International Seamen's 
Union of America has filed a vigorous protest 
against the whole scheme with Deputy Adminis- 
trator Davis. 

From New York comes information to the ef- 
fect that the United Fruit Company, a concern 
which draws liberal subsidies from the Federal 
Government, is also flirting with a company union 
plan. It seems that a few shipowners are willing 
to do almost anything for the seamen as long as 
these seamen will consent that the adjustment of 
wages, hours and working conditions shall be at 
the discretion of the shipowner. 

The company union plan, no matter how dis- 
guised, is obviously contrary to the letter and 
spirit of the National Industrial Recovery Act and 
it behooves the organized seamen of America to 
be on the lookout for schemes of a similar nature 
in other divisions of the shipping industry. The 
International Executive Board held a meeting at 
Washington, D. C, immediately following the 
Shipping Code hearing and has taken the steps 
necessary to render the most effective service. 
From the membership of the International Sea- 
men's Union of America, everywhere, the Execu- 
tive Board confidently expects wholehearted co- 
operation. There is real opportunity to make 
progress under the terms of the National Recov- 
ery Act. We must not fail to take every possible 
advantage of this opportunity. Only by unity of 
action can we succeed. We must all pull together! 



December 1, 1933 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 183 

BUILDING FOR THE FUTURE COMPETITION IN TRANSPORTATION 



Walter C. Teagle is president of the Standard 
Oil Company of New Jersey and one of the few 
outstanding captains of industry in America with 
enough vision to realize that the future of 
America depends upon our ability to balance pro- 
duction and consumption. 

Recently Mr. Teagle was a speaker before the 
Academy of Political Science in New York. And 
on that occasion he took severely to task his die- 
hard conservative associates in the business world 
who already have commenced heaving bricks at 
President Roosevelt and doing everything they 
dare to hamper the President's recovery plans. 

Teagle bluntly told his fellow capitalists that 
"we are on a new road — a one-way street, by 
which we can never return." 

As to his own position and convictions, Teagle 
said : 

In the background of all of our troubles is the need 
for a more equitable distribution of the rewards of 
industry. Our productive capacity over the past three 
decades has run ahead of consumption because pur- 
chasing power has not broadened sufficiently to take 
in all classes. Farmers and the lower-paid wage- 
earners should have participated more liberally in the 
enjoyment of benefits from the release of man power 
by the machine. 

The president has the determination to drive ahead 
on lines that many critics told him were dangerous. 
He will have the courage to recede from positions that 
are untenable. It is apparent that President Roose- 
velt is feeling his way by trial and error to a more 
equitable distribution of the national income, and more 
power to him! It is the one ultimate insurance of 
human welfare and community prosperity. . . . 

Labor troubles, discontent in the agricultural sec- 
tions, protests of consumers over price increases and 
delays in completing codes are all symptoms of the 
difficulties of readjustment. They do not prove it a 
failure. We must meet these troubles and strive to 
correct them, without mistaking their correction for 
the larger objective of a better planned and balanced 
industrial system under which we can build for the 
future. 

Some of Teagle's hearers must have thought 
of him as did those by-standers of old who said 
of one of Christ's disciples : "Is he also among the 
Nazarenes?" 

Yet, if Big Business be wise it will heed the 
counsel of the Teagles. For the day may well 
come, if the Roosevelt recovery program should 
fail, when the present self-appointed pillars of 
society will bitterly rue their short-sightedness. 



At last the railroads have agreed to lower pas- 
senger fares throughout the nation. If they had 
reduced fares years ago, even during the period 
of so-called prosperity, they would have made 
friends and might have continued to hold many 
who have turned to other means of transportation. 
Lower fares now will very likely help railroad 
traffic, but they will not undo all the harm 
wrought by years of unduly high rates. 

The modernized bus, the ever more comfort- 
able private automobile, luxurious travel by water 
via the Panama Canal, and last but not least, the 
airplane, have made heavy inroads on railroad 
passenger revenue and a large part of that business 
will never be recovered. Take, for instance, travel 
by plane. The United Air Line System starts 
three high-powered modern planes at New York 
each day for the cross country flight, arriving at 
San Francisco in twenty-two hours. The same 
number of planes start each day from San Fran- 
cisco bound for New York. A competing line fur- 
nishes similar service with the western termination 
at Los Angeles. These planes carry mail and pas- 
sengers on schedules virtually as reliable as the 
railroads, which still require four days and nights 
to complete the cross country haul. So far as cost 
of passenger travel is concerned, there is little 
difference between air and rail transportation 
when allowance is made for Pullman berth, meals, 
tips, etc. And if "time" of the passenger is an 
important factor, then the railroads can scarcely 
be considered as active competitors. Of course, 
time is not always a factor in selecting means and 
routes of transportation, otherwise the passenger 
traffic through the Canal could not have reached 
its present proportion. 



Every person has two educations : one which 
he receives from others, and one more important, 
which he gives to himself. — Gibson. 



The Alaska Fishermen's Union is keenly alive 
to the importance of the pending Fisheries Code 
and has at various times sent specially qualified 
representatives to participate in Code negotiations. 
Among these are Secretary Peter E. Olsen, Abe 
Letho and Andrew Vigin. Secretary Olander of 
the International Seamen's Union of America has 
also rendered every possible assistance in drafting 
and improving proposals for the Alaska Fisher- 
men's Union. 



Rome was not built in a day. 



184 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL December 1, 1933 

WORK FOR THE .MIDDLE-AGED THE END OF PROHIBITION 



It is said to be almost impossible for an unem- 
ployed man of 50 nowadays to get employment, 
no matter how skilled he may be. In industry it 
is hard for a man of 40 to get a job. 

In some places, when closed factories reopen 
and employers can have their pick of all ages, 
they refuse those over 30 years. Not so long ago 
the spokesman for a Pacific Coast shipowner tes- 
tified under oath that his firm never hired anyone 
over 35 years of age. This may be a natural policy. 
if vigor and freshness are preferred to experience 
and steadiness, and if the matter is looked at from 
the usual standpoint of "private capital" doing 
business for "competitive profit." 

It may be the "business-like" thing to choose 
employees in the same impersonal way that one 
would choose horses, cows or sheep. It creates, 
however, awkward social complications. There 
are limits to human patience. 

It becomes a practical question how patiently 
the growing numbers of men and women between 
30 and 60 will endure this situation. And aside 
from any direct action on their part, there can be 
no doubt that society as a whole, somehow, will 
have to carry the burden of its unemployed and 
unemployable members. 

How will it be done? Will the young workers 
between 20 and 30 have to provide old-age pen- 
sions for all the rest? Or will wealth be taxed 
out of existence to support this vast idleness? Or 
will our economic order decide, after all, to pro- 
vide living jobs for workers at least until middle 
age? 



M. Yonekubo, vice-president of the Seamen *s 
Union of Japan, made a hurried visit to San 
Francisco on November 22. Our old friend called 
at the Journal office and explained that he was 
en route to Paris, France, on business in connec- 
tion with the International Maritime Commis- 
sion. Under the strong and capable management 
of President Hamada, the affairs of the organized 
Japanese Seamen, at home and abroad, are al- 
ways receiving due and proper attention. 



When America's dry leaders were making opti- 
mistic statements and enthusiastic predictioi 
years ago. everyone sat up and took notice. Pro- 
hibition would be everlasting, the drys said, for 
two reasons: 

First, it was in the constitution and no force on 
earth could root it out. 

Second, the nineteenth amendment, giving wo- 
men the vote, was an automatic seal on the eight- 
eenth. 

I low time changes all things is illustrated by 
the fact that on November 7, enough states voted 
for the repeal of the prohibition amendment to 
bring the total up to 36. the number required to 
strike the amendment from the Federal Consti- 
tution. 

This decision of the voters is a complete justi- 
fication of the American Federation of Labor's 
position on this question. In their report to the 
1933 convention of the American Federation of 
Labor, the Executive Council of that organiza- 
tion, in discussing the progress made in ratifica- 
tion of the repeal of the amendment said : 

From the inception of this legislation we have op- 
posed the enactment of the Eighteenth Amendment 
and after its adoption manifested clearly that it wa> an 
unwarrantable attempt in the enactment of organic law 
and would prove to be a failure. The experience under 
the operation of tin- law has fully demonstrated our 
claims. We are happy to note that the consistent atti- 
tude of the American Federation of Labor in oppo- 
sition to the Eighteenth Amendment i- about to be 
realized in its complete repeal. 

The convention was right. The final verdict of 
the American people in repealing the Eighteenth 
Amendment reflects the persistent agitation which 
organized labor has carried on for years and again 
exemplifies the broad, constructive and correct 
views of Labor when expressed through its re- 
sponsible organizations. 



Don't condemn the Labor Movement because 
you know of "objectionable features." Every man 
and every human institution has some imperfec- 
tions. 



The American Federation of Labor convention 
unanimously adopted three resolutions presented 
by Delegates Andrew Furuseth and Victor A. 
( Wander in behalf of the International Seamen's 
Union of America, as follows: (1 ) Against rati- 
fication of the Treaty on Safety of Life at Sea; 
(2) urging passage of bill relating to deportation 
of alien seamen, and (3) favoring passage of the 
La Follette Bill. 

When you bury animosity, don't set up a head- 
stone over its grave. — Emerson. 



December 1, 1933 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 

INHERITED FORTUNES FREEDOM OF SPEECH 



185 



The other day a granddaughter of F. W. Wool- 
worth, founder of the "five and ten cent" stores, 
came into one-third possession of a fortune esti- 
mated at $60,000,000. In celebration of that event, 
she and her husband, a former subject of the 
Georgian Republic, who claims to be a prince, 
gave a big party. At this party the American 
heiress frankly stated her intention of spending 
her $20,000,000 share of the estate in having a 
good time in her prince's company. At the same 
time, she stated she had taken a foreign husband 
because American men are "too much swallowed 
up in their business affairs." 

Another young heiress, Doris Duke, took over 
the main part of the estate left by her father, 
James B. Duke, the "tobacco king," and estimated 
at more than $50,000,000. 

It would be hard to find two more flagrant in- 
stances of social folly. Probably neither of these 
young ladies ever earned a dollar ; certainly they 
have not earned millions. The benefits of such a 
system, even to the heirs, are more than doubtful. 

Somehow, in these days when such vast multi- 
tudes of honest, hard-working Americans are hav- 
ing the greatest difficulty to find the means of 
a bare subsistence ; when their children cry for 
the bread they are unable to give them ; when 
they see their homes and their farms taken from 
them through no fault of their own — the spectable 
of any American girl having placed at her dis- 
posal untold millions to be squandered in having 
a "good time" with the mercenary alleged scion 
of a discredited aristocracy leaves many people 
feeling, like Hamlet, that "the times are out of 
joint." 

We applaud the thought expressed by our con- 
temporary Labor — "America does not allow the 
inheritance of political power. Then why should 
America allow the inheritance of such blocks of 
economic power?" 



If we remind ourselves that all law and eco- 
nomics are predicated on the preservation of hu- 
man life and the protection of property, we shall 
readily find the solution of our problems. It is 
obvious that the first of these is the more im- 
portant, and where the laws pertaining to the 
second conflict in any way with the first, they will 
have to be annulled, or at least suspended. 



One way to measure freedom of speech is by 
the number of telephones. India has a population 
of 355,000,000; the United States has over 120,- 
000,000 people. India has 220 separate and "mu- 
tually unintelligible languages," while the United 
States has virtually one universal language, spoken 
by all. Fifty years ago there were 526 telephones 
installed in India ; and today there are 57,000 tele- 
phones in the whole country. At the end of 1930 
there were over 20,000,000 telephone instruments 
in the United States. 

In India 250,000,000 people are so far below 
the poverty line that they could not dream of pay- 
ing for telephone service; and another 75,000,000 
with larger incomes could not afford it. For the 
30,000,000 whose incomes might afford telephone 
service, there is only one phone for every 526 
persons. Only 10 per cent of India's population 
is urban. 

In the light of what we have gained in America 
as to freedom of utterance, there are areas in 
which we sometimes say we do not have freedom 
of speech. But it may help us to appreciate our 
blessings, if we take a good look at such places 
as India. 



HITLER'S MISTAKE 



The suppression of information and opinion is 
one of the foundations of autocratic government. 
The encouraging thought for any people subjected 
to it is that if they have any stamina autocracy al- 
ways fails. Weak people have expired under it and 
their dictatorship along with them. But in the case 
of Germany we are not dealing with a weak 
people. Here the autocrat Hitler has strength- 
ened his immediate position but has written his 
own end more legibly because suppression 
of the freedom of opinion drives opposition 
underground for the time being. The critical press 
takes to the cellars. Yet, neither Cromwell nor 
the Stuarts, nor the French autocracy could sup- 
press underground channels of information. In- 
stead of dealing with conservative, honestly stated 
criticism of government acts, the dictator must 
deal with conspiracies. 



Be not too busy to remember favors, but be too 
busy to remember wrongs. 



186 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



December 1, 1933 



CRITICS OF THE NRA 



Read what Cornelius Vanderbilt, a son of a 
very rich family, has to say about those who are 
knocking the National Recovery Act. He al- 
ludes to them as the "Slicker and Slacker Bri- 
gade." 

Cornelius Vanderbilt, Jr., owner of a name 
which is a by-word for wealth — arrogant, trucu- 
lent wealth — delivered over the radio recently a 
speech in defense of the New Deal and the NRA 
that fairly crinkled Wall Street's hair. 

"It is plain to everyone," said Air. Vanderbilt, 
"that the NRA does not lack its quota of enemies. 
Who are those enemies? 

"There is nothing mysterious about them. They 
are the money changers — you remember them, 
don't you? Those men who unloaded on this 
country billions and billions of dollars of. now- 
defaulted foreign bonds. Those men who made 
the crash of 1929 inevitable. Those men who 
first shoveled over to Europe the billions en- 
trusted to them by their clients, and then, when 
these billions became frozen, started to call in 
domestic loans to cover up the shortage. 

"Their first name is Greed, is and always has 
been. Their middle name is Stand Patism. A 
deadly combination, responsible for the greatest 
calamities in our history." 

Mr. Vanderbilt described the lines now drawn 
in the battle against depression. On the one side, 
the enormous mass of the nation ; on the other, 
"hoarders who would rather see the whole world 
perish than sacrifice a cent of their fixed income. 

"Nothing is too low, nothing too treacherous, 
nothing too cruel in the estimation of the men 
who lead the forces of reaction," he declared. 

"Not long ago," said Mr. Vanderbilt, "a bril- 
liant man, known for his broad-minded liberal- 
ism, was appointed to coordinate one of our most 
important industries. An elderly financier of my 
acquaintance roared out in complete disgust: 

" 'Anything would have been better than to 
take orders from that fellow!' 

"'Anything?' I asked. 

"' 'Anything, even bankruptcy,' he repeated. 

"This being the mentality of the Old Guard of 
Destruction, we must expect to see them stop at 
nothing. Whispering campaign. Banking sabotage. 
Boring from within." 



Air. Vanderbilt points out that these creatures 
were known before. 

"In the days of Washington, they were called 
Tories ; they danced while Washington's soldiers 
were freezing and starving at Valley Forge. 

"In the days of Lincoln, they were Copper- 
heads: too cowardly to come out in the open, 
doing exactly what their descendants are doing 
today. 

"Theodore Roosevelt called them the 'Slicker 
and Slacker Brigade.' They snapped at his Square 
Deal as today they are snapping at the New Deal. 
Why? Simply because both the Square Deal and 
the New Deal stand for an Honest Deal, and 
Greed and Stand I'atism cannot march to the 
measure of honesty. 

"It is amusing to hear a crowd of stock 
manipulators demand 'more respect for the Con- 
stitution.' It is amusing to see a bunch of gold 
hoarders shed large tears over the loss of 'Ameri- 
can liberties.' But only for those who know them. 
There is a chance that someone, unaware of the 
real personality of these new apostles of Free- 
dom, rhight mistake the yells of a Wall Street 
wolf for a sermon by Patrick I lenrv." 

Mr. Vanderbilt believes the New Deal will 
win out, but summons all to help in the light. 
The fact that most of his old friends regard him 
as a traitor to their so-called caste does not seem 
to worry him. In fact, he makes only a slight 
change in the well-known remark of his ancestor, 
and puts it: "The plutocracy be damned!" 



AN ENDORSEMENT OF NRA 



It is patent that in our days not alone is wealth 
accumulated but immense power and despotic eco- 
nomic domination are concentrated in the hands 
of a few and that these few are frequently not 
the owners but only the trustees and directors 
of invested funds, who administer them at their 
good pleasure. This power becomes particularly 
irresistible when exercised by those who, because 
they hold and control money, are able also to 
govern credit and determine its allotment, for that 
reason supplying, so to speak, the lifeblood to the 
entire economic body and grasping, as it were. 
in their hands the very soul of production, so 
that no one dare breathe against their will. This 
accumulation of power, the characteristic note of 
the modern economic order, is a natural result of 
limitless free competition. — Pope Pius XI. 



10 



December 1, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



187 



SHIPPING NEWS 



The granting of a subsidy to two Italian ship- 
ping lines by the South African government has 
led to a strong letter of protest being addressed 
by the British Empire Union to the Prime Min- 
ister of South Africa, General Hertzog. 

The first cross-Channel ship for service between 
Dover and Ostend to be equipped with oil en- 
gines instead of steam machinery has recently 
been launched. She will be faster than any of the 
turbine steamers now engaged on this run, her 
trial trip speed being 2Zy 2 knots and her service 
speed 22 knots. 

French laid-up tonnage is decreasing in vol- 
ume. On October 15 the idle fleet comprised 364 
vessels of 846,233 tons gross, compared with 390 
of 940,147 tons on September 1. The main dif- 
ference is in respect of cargo steamers, of which 
there are now only 179 of 639,934 tons laid up, 
against 202 of 740,263 tons two months ago. 

Report of American-Hawaiian Steamship Com- 
pany for nine months ending September 30, 1933, 
shows that the net profit from operation was 
$900,120.33, as compared to a loss of $181,036.19 
for a similar period in 1932. The net profit, after 
allowing for depreciation and after capital gains 
or losses for the first nine months of 1933, was 
$548,168.87, as compared to a loss of $543,781.49 
for a like period of 1932. 

Stanley Dollar, president of the Dollar Steam- 
ship Lines, was paid $410,493 in commissions 
from the Dollar company on its purchase of 
twelve "President" liners from the Shipping- 
Board in return for his extraordinary services 
and personal assumption of obligations amount- 
ing to $6,000,000. This was brought out at the 
Senatorial ocean mail contract investigation, at 
which Mr. Dollar testified regarding deals of his 
company. 

During the month of September, 810 seagoing 
vessels of 1,617,974 tons entered the port of 
Antwerp, compared with 768 of 1,506,348 tons 
in the corresponding month of last year, an ad- 
vance of 42 vessels, and 111,626 tons. Of the total 
entries during the month, 249 were British, 179 
German, 85 Dutch, 52 Norwegian, 48 French, 41 



Belgian, 40 Swedish, 32 Danish, 12 Italian, 11 
Finnish, 10 Greek, 9 American, 6 Japanese, 6 
Polish, 6 Russian, 5 Portuguese, 5 Yugoslav, 4 
Brazilian and 3 Esthonian. 

Development of a new type of cargo vessels 
was discussed by the Superior Council of the 
Italian Merchant Marine at its recent meeting in 
Genoa, but it is not indicated whether this will 
represent any radical departure from present de- 
signs. The discussion, it is stated, was the result 
of a survey which showed that foreign vessels 
are carrying the major share of cargo moving to 
and from Italian ports. It has been suggested 
recently that Italian shipowners should be aided 
by the government either to purchase cargo ships 
abroad or to build new cargo ships in Italian 
yards in order that the Italian cargo fleet may 
attain the same prestige as has already been at- 
tained by the passenger fleet of the nation since 
the advent of the Rex and Conte di Savoia. 

The race to build larger and faster steamships 
for the North Atlantic routes may have come to 
an end. The future may see passengers travel- 
ing between the United States and Europe mak- 
ing use of 21 -knot cabin ships instead of the huge 
vessels capable of making 30 to 35 knots an hour. 
This possibility is indicated by the attitude of an 
important element in British shipping circles, as 
set forth in a report received by the Department 
of Commerce from its London office. Since Brit- 
ish shipping interests occupy a most important 
position in world shipping, their position is con- 
sidered significant. The smaller ships are be- 
lieved by some of the leading British operators, 
according to the London report, to be more logi- 
cal and profitable than larger vessels capable of 
higher speed. 

Belgium has decided to solve its shipping prob- 
lems by going out wholeheartedly for subsidies. 
It will be recalled that the Belgian government 
was deliberating for some time an elaborate 
scheme known as the Credit Maritime, and that 
this was finally rejected about a year ago. Accord- 
ing to an Antwerp contemporary, the position is 
now so serious that the Credit Maritime would 
be of little practical assistance. M. Forthomme, 
the Belgian Minister of Transport, has accord- 
ingly stated that direct subsidization is the only 
remedy. Our contemporary believes that the gov- 
ernment will contribute to the replacement of old 
vessels, the work being done in Belgian shipyards, 



11 



188 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



December 1, 1933 



while grants would be made to shippers using 
Belgian vessels. They would even go so far. it 
is thought, as to allow an amount at least equal 
to, if not more than, the difference in freight 
rates between Belgium and foreign tonnage. 

Shipping men throughout the nation paid trib- 
ute to the work of Edward N. Hurley, former 
head of the United States Shipping Board, who 
died during the month in Chicago. As chairman 
of the Shipping Board, Mr. Hurley launched dur- 
ing the World War the most colossal ship-build- 
ing program in history. Overnight, he threw 
across the Atlantic a "Bridge of Ships." That 
"bridge" involved the building of some 2500 ves- 
sels, at a total cost of more than $3,000,000,000. 
"American shipping lost one of its staunchest 
supporters in the death of Edward N. Hurley," 
said R. J. Baker, secretary of the American 
Steamship Owners' Association. "Although he 
resigned from his post in 1919, Mr. Hurley 
remained until the day of his death an energetic 
exponent of an adequate American Merchant 
Marine. He was the author of an important plan 
for the preservation of ships in foreign trade, 
and contributed three volumes to the literature of 
the sea. 

The recent action of the Xorddeutscher Lloyd 
and Hamburg- American Line in accepting reg- 
istered marks as passage money, thereby enabling 
German passengers to effect a saving of 15 per 
cent, compared with what they would have had to 
pay if they had traveled by a foreign ship, has 
had a dramatic sequel. Herr E. Lederer, the 
North Atlantic Passenger Conference "arbiter," 
was appointed only a few months ago and whose 
headquarters are in New York, has not allowed 
any national feelings to influence his judgment, 
and he has inflicted a fine of 182,000 dols. (ap- 
proximately £36,400) on the two lines concerned. 
The money, if and when it is paid, will be di- 
vided up among the other members of the Con- 
ference. The position is somewhat complicated 
by the fact that the N. D. L. and Hapag were 
influenced in their decision to accept registered 
marks by the German government, and they are 
therefore entitled, to some extent, to feel ag- 
grieved if they have to pay a fine for so doing. In 
the circumstances, they have referred the ques- 
tion to the German government and the Confer- 
ence is now waiting to learn what the official atti- 
tude may be. 



LABOR NEWS 



A strong protest against age limits was voiced 
by the American Federation of Labor convention. 
"There is no more tragic picture than that of a 
competent, able and well man or woman barred 
from employment for no other reason than that 
they have reached the age of 45 years, and in 
many cases only 35 years," the convention de- 
clared. "The practice must be stopped. It is cruel, 
it is unreasonable, uneconomic and brutal." 

The Joint Council of the British Trade Union 
Congress and the Labor Party is issuing a new 
monthly magazine instead of the three journals 
hitherto published (one of which was the In- 
dustrial Review. ) The new periodical is excel- 
lently equipped for general reading and propa- 
ganda. It contains important contributions on 
the British movement and articles on interna- 
tional subjects, illustrations and caricatures. 

Working men and women throughout the 
country are joining the American Federation of 
Labor in unprecedented numbers to get the bene- 
fits of unionization under the NRA program, 
Frank Morrison, secretary of the organization, 
said: "Since the National Industrial Recovery 
Administration started operations, the American 
Federation of Labor has issued charters to 3,000 
new unions. Men and women are affiliating with 
the American Federation of Labor by the thou- 
sands and all Government employees should enroll 
under the banner of organized labor at this time." 

Labor has begun a fight to secure incorpora- 
tion in NRA codes of the principle that provision 
be made for workers displaced by introduction of 
machinery. The issue was raised by the Cigar 
Makers' International Union at a hearing on the 
proposed code for the cigar manufacturing in- 
dustry and immediately was given the strong 
support of President William Green of the Amer- 
ican Federation of Labor. Mr. Green notified 
President I. M. Ornburn of the Cigar Makers 
that he would do everything possible to back the 
union's proposal for meeting the problem - of 
technological unemployment by regulated contri- 
butions from the profits earned by machines. The 
Cigar Makers' Union is calling for contributions 
from the machine to carry workers "through the 



12 



December 1, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



189 



period of readjustment and replacement," though 
not to pension displaced workers permanently. 

A demand for the dismissal of Albert H. Wig- 
gin, banker advocate of wage cutting, from the 
board of directors of the Brooklyn-Manhattan 
Transit Corporation, has been placed before the 
corporation's directors by Paul Blanshard, execu- 
tive director of the City Affairs Committee and a 
stockholder in the BMT. Blanshard also demanded 
the dismissal of Gerhard M. Dahl, chairman of 
the BMT board. Blanshard charged Wiggin and 
Dahl were guilty of "faithless profiteering at the 
expense of their own stockholders" and urged 
that a special /neeting of the directors be called 
to send the two "into the oblivion which they so 
richly deserve." Both Wiggin and Dahl figured 
prominently recently in the banking investigation 
conducted by the Senate Committee on Banking 
and Currency. 

The company union scheme was given a black 
eye in Denver when employees of the Denver 
Tramway Corporation voted 353 to 325 to substi- 
tute the Amalgamated Association of Street and 
Electric Railway Employees for a "company rep- 
resentative committee" as their agency for col- 
lective bargaining under the NRA code. Joseph S. 
Meyers, Conciliator of the United States Depart- 
ment of Labor, presided over the election. The 
election was called at the request of tramway em- 
ployees who had organized a union under the 
leadership of P. J. O'Brien, representing the 
Amalgamated Association, in a membership cam- 
paign of only a few weeks. Howard S. Robert- 
son, president of the tramway firm, a signatory of 
the national transit code, agreed to the election 
and announced that the company would abide 
completely by the result, both in letter and spirit. 

President Roosevelt is to be commended for 
dismissing William E. Humphrey from the Fed- 
eral Trade Commission. Humphrey has been in 
Washington for about thirty years. During all 
that time, whether on or off the Federal payroll, 
he has served the "predatory interests" — brazenly, 
ably, vigorously. It is said that President Roose- 
velt wants the Commission to enforce Uncle 
Sam's new "blue sky" law which, among other 
things, compels promoters to tell the truth about 
the securities they offer American investors. It 
may also be entrusted with an important part in 
administering NRA codes. Humphrey is about 
the last man who should be entrusted with that 



kind of a job. "Old Guard" Republicans will at- 
tempt to capitalize the Humphrey case — already 
they are planning an appeal to the courts — but 
Progressive Republicans of the Norris type, and 
all other fair-minded citizens who are familiar 
with Humphrey's wretched record, will rejoice. 

Secretary of the Interior Ickes, as head of the 
Public Works Administration, has prepared plans 
for a government corporation to go into the hous- 
ing business, without being compelled to wait for 
the unwinding of red tape by state and local au- 
thorities. He believes it possible to build good 
housing to rent for from $7 to $9 a room per 
month. Recognizing the lion in the path of this 
improvement, namely, the landlord, Mr. Ickes de- 
clares his belief that by using the power of "emi- 
nent domain," the right of the Federal govern- 
ment to take land for public use, any gouging on 
land prices can be avoided. The need for more, 
cheaper and better housing is almost unlimited. 
Social workers estimate that barely one-third of 
the population of this country is properly housed. 
Much as we hear about the east side of New York, 
bad housing can be found everywhere. There 
are blocks on blocks of disgraceful ramshackle 
structures in Washington, the nation's capital. 
In Chicago the area which needs rebuilding must 
be measured by square miles ; and other cities are 
in a similar plight. 

Representative Blanton of Texas has resumed 
his reactionary attacks on the living standards of 
government employees. A sample of his "argu- 
ment" for lower pay for Federal workers is con- 
tained in a letter he wrote to Claude E. Babcock, 
president of the American Federation of Govern- 
ment Emloyees, affiliated with the American Fed- 
eration of Labor. He said: "If you will send me 
a list of your members who are dissatisfied with 
their government pay and are willing to give up 
their positions I will furnish from my own dis- 
trict 500 qualified applicants for each position, 
who will gladly take the job at a lower salary. 
You had better let well enough alone." That is to 
say, Representative Blanton proposes to put gov- 
ernment jobs up at auction and sell them to the 
lowest bidder. This scheme in the present period 
of hard times and unemployment would reduce 
wages and salaries to a starvation basis. Blanton's 
proposal is nothing but blatant demagoguery. His 
trick can be turned against him. He draws the 
comfortable salary of $8,500 a year. 



13 



190 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



December 1, 1933 



LLOYD'S REGISTER STATISTICS 



We have had, and are still having, a bad time, 
but the worst is over. That is briefly the evi- 
dence of the annual report of the operations of 
Lloyd's Register of Shipping issued today. This 
authoritative review of shipbuilding experience 
covers the twelve months ended June 30 last, and 
shows it to have been the most dismal year in a 
half-century's history of the industry. In a table 
of the new tonnage completed and classed in each 
year of the past two decades it is brought out 
that 1932-33 was far and away the poorest in pro- 
duction. Only in five of these twenty years did 
the totals fall below seven figures and of the five 
the past year is the only one with an aggregate 
under half a million tons. The tonnage classed 
by the society in the twelve months, representing 
approximately 60 per cent of the world tonnage 
completed, was only 449,751 tons, compared with 
920,902 tons in the previous year. The classifica- 
tions are the lowest recorded for nearly fifty 
years, and are especially significant of the de- 
pression in shipbuilding in Great Britain. Only 
153.420 tons of the shipping dealt with by the 
society was constructed in Great Britain and Ire- 
land, the remaining 296,331 tons having been 
built elsewhere. That is, happily, the darkest 
aspect of the review. In its examination of all 
the other factors of the situation it offers gleams 
of hope of steadily gathering improvement, even 
if the process has not gained much impetus so far. 
Plans of new vessels submitted and intended to 
be classed by the committee of the Register 
showed a slight increase over the figure for the 
previous twelve months — 323,600 tons as against 
25S. 110 tons. 

Signs of a slight revival in shipbuilding, it is 
added, are apparent from the figures now avail- 
able for the three months ended September 30. 
During that quarter plans were approved by the 
committee of 55 vessels of 111,950 tons. The re- 
port notes that there has been little, if any, 
amelioration of the depressed condition of ship- 
ping. The volume of goods carried has been 
less and the low levels of the freight market 
have resulted in ships still being operated in many 
cases without profit or proper provision for de- 
preciation. The shrinkage in tonnage laid up is 
ascribed to the increase in the scrapping of old 
ships rather than to absorption into commerce. 



The fact that shipbuilding has reached its low- 
est ebb within living memory is not to be 
wondered at. says the report, for under present 
conditions the world is largely overstocked with 
tonnage and the disposal of this surplus must 
necessarily be a slow process. It is pointed out 
that shipbreaking, in the absence of the usual re- 
placements, is now cutting down this tonnage t<> 
a considerable extent. Since June of 1932 over 
3,300,000 tons ni shipping have either been sold 
for demolition or lost through casualty, and there 
is every indication that a similar or even greater 
reduction will be effected in the next twelve 
months. The assumption is made that by June, 
1 ' '34. tlie world's available shipping tonnage will 
have shrunk to the \ {> 27 level of approximately 
65,000,000 tons, compared with over 70,000,000 
tons in 1931. Lloyd's statistics show that up- 
wards of 18.500,000 tons of the shipping at pres- 
ent afloat is over twenty years old, thus, "'the ces- 
sation in shipbuilding can only be of a temporary 
nature." Indeed, it is added, the plans passed for 
new orders in the September quarter of this year 
indicate that "the bottom of the shipbuilding 
slump has already been reached." The big ships 
assigned classification in the twelve months in- 
cluded eleven vessels of over 10.000 tons gross, 
only one of which, the Queen of Bermuda, was 
of British ownership. Tanker tonnage lias de- 
clined a little during the year, bin motor shipping 
has continued to go ahead, the aggregate of the 
tonnage with this type of propelling machinery 
in the Register Book being now 10,200,392 tons. 
A table of particular interest is that illustrating 
the progress being made in the use of electricity 
for ship propulsion. Here it is shown that in the 
past four years the number of turbo-electric units 
has increased from 24 of 171,150 tons to 43 of 
448,434 tons, while Diesel-electric ships have ad- 
vanced in the same period from 36 to 88,317 tons 
to 48 of 117.184 tons. In a reference to the two 
electrically propelled motor-tugs recently pro- 
duced, the Ackldtn Cross and the Lectro, the re- 
port states that "these are the first electrically 
propelled tugs to be built for use in British waters 
and having in mind the advantages likely to be 
gained by the utilization of electrical propulsion 
in this sphere of service, their subsequent per- 
formance will be the object of general interest." 



If you are agitated over small things you 
haven't the capacity to think through big things. 



M 



December 1, 1933 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



191 



Professional Cards 



Attorney for the Sailors' Union of the 
Pacific since its organization 

H. W. Hutton 

431 Pacific Bldg., Fourth and Market Sts. 

SAN FRANCISCO 

PHONE DOUGLAS 0315 



Albert Michelson 

ATTORNEY-AT-LAW 

Attorney for 

Marine Firemen and Watertenders' 
Union of Pacific 
Marine Diesel and Gasoline Engi- 
neers' Association No. 49 
611 Russ Bldg. Tel. SUttcr 3866 

San Francisco, California 



ANDERSON 8c LAMB 

Attorney s-at-Law 

1226 Engineers Bank Building 

CLEVELAND, OHIO 

Personal Injury Attorneys for Seamen on 
the Great Lakes 



Frank Orwitz 

ATTORNEY-AT-LAW 

Room No. 630, Hearst Building 
Market Street and Third 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 

Telephone GArfield 6353 



SEATTLE, WASH. 
K. K. Tvete & Sons 

Established 1890 

MEN'S CLOTHING, SHOES, HATS. 
AND FURNISHING GOODS 

1300-1302 First Ave., cor. University 
SEATTLE, WASH. 



Westerman's 

UNION LABEL. 

Clothier, Furnisher & Hatter 

Alaska Outfitter 

TWO BIG STORES 

Store No. 1 — Cor. Main and First 

Store No. 2 — Westlake and Pine 

SEATTLE 



JENSEN 8c NELSEN 

Gents' Furnishing Goods 

Saver's Oil Skin Clothing 
Uniforms, Caps, Hats, Shoes 



110 EAST STREET 
GArfield 9633 



NEAR MISSION 
San Francisco 



ALVIN GERLACK 

ATTORNEY AT LAW 

SUITE 845, MILLS BUILDING 

Bush and Montgomery Streets 

San Francisco, Calif. 

Telephone DOuglas 1123 



SILAS B. AXTELL AND LUCIEN V. AXTELL TAKE 
PLEASURE IN ANNOUNCING TO THE MEMBERS OF 
THE BAR THAT FREDERICK H. CUNNINGHAM, 
FORMER DEPUTY ATTORNEY GENERAL OF THE 
STATE OF NEW YORK AND ASSOCIATE TRIAL COUN- 
SEL FOR THE UNITED STATES SHIPPING BOARD, 
1923-1932, HAS BECOME ASSOCIATED WITH THEM IN 
THE PRACTICE OF MARITIME LAW AT 

80 BROAD STREET, NEW YORK CITY. 
New York, November 1, 1933 Tel. BOwling Gree\ 9-8286 



THE BREAK OF DAY 

1. 

Waited we have for the break of day, 
You and I. 
The ship surging through the foam spun spray 
The night was dismal, murky and gray, 
As the ship went on its way. 



But all night through, we worked with a will, 

You and I. 
We gave to the ship our courage and skill, 
That's why we are on Her and sailing Her still, 
Will do so until we die. 

3. 

But now we behold the breaking of day, 

You and I. 
The Sun will be shining, the N R A 
Will brighten our path and clear the way 
And above us a cloudless sky. 

4. 

It was faith and work that brought us through, 
You and I. 
You trusted me and I trusted you, 
That's why we now see the rosy hue 
Of another break of day. 

— By I. A. Haarklau. 



15 



192 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



December 1, 1933 



Taylor's Nautical Academy 

FOR NAVIGATORS AND MARINE ENGINEERS 
Established 1888 

Consular Bldg., Corner Washington 
and Battery Sts., opp. New Custom 

House, San Francisco, Calif. 
THIS OLD AND NOTEWORTHY 
SCHOOL is under the direct and per- 
sonal supervision of CAPT. HENRY 
TAYLOR, and equipped with all mod- 
ern appliances to illustrate and teach 
any branch of Navigation. 

The class of teachers of Navigation 
in the past have been those having 
simply a knowledge of Navigation and 
Navigation only. Conditions have 
changed, and the American seamen 
demand a man as a teacher with 
higher attainments than one who has 
only the limited ability of a seaman. 
The Principal of this School, keeping 
this always in view, studied several 
years the Maritime Law, and is now, 
in addition to being a thorough teacher of Navigation and its kindred 
subjects, a regularly admitted Member of the Bar. 

There is no standard of education required of a pupil entering the 
School, for no matter how ignorant the seaman may be, even in the 
rudiments of common education, Captain Henry Taylor will teach and 
raise him from the depths of ignorance to the height of the average 
well informed man, and in a comparatively short interval of time. 




Phone GARFIELD 2076 

DR. EDMOND J. BARRETT 

DENTIST 

Rooms 2429-30, 450 Sutter Building 

Hours: 9 A. M. to 5 P. M. and 

by Appointment 



Seamen's Furnishing Goods 

OTTO PAHL 

Shoes, Oilskins, Seaboots and Underwear 
Suits cleaned and pressed while you wait 

140 BMBARCADERO 
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 



Union-made Work Clothes and Shoes 

Uniform Caps, Oilskins and 

Seaboots, Belfast Cord 

and Buckles 



SAM'S 



Shore and Offshore Outfitting Store 
Formerly with Geo. A. Price 

4 Clay Street, San Francisco 

Phone GArftcld 6784 



INFORMATION WANTED 

If Mr. II. T. Randall is endeavor- 
ing to collect his compensation, he 
should get in touch with me. If pos- 
sible, he should come in and sign the 
releases. Settlement has been made 
by the Shipping Board. Silas B. 
Axtell, 80 Broad Street, New York 
City. 



Many men owe their succes- in 
life to their wives, but most of them 
owe their wives to their success. 



Eggs will not crack if they are 
dampened with cold water, before 
being dropped into boiling water. 



Now in Our New Location 

"624 MARKET* 

Opposite Palace Hotel 




-BOSS- 

YOUR UNION TAILOR 



MONEY! 



Here are nine things that money 
is or will do, and a tenth that it 
will not do: 

1. A bait for the matrimonial 
hook. 

2. The most effective substitute 
for brains. 

3. The most difficult thing to 
cultivate. 

4. That which women look for 
while men sleep — yes, often in their 
pockets. 

5. Money is the loudest sound in 
the human voice. 

6. That which the rich don't need 
and the poor don't get. 

7. The root of evil to some and 
sorrow and worry to those who do 
not have it. 

8. The one thing that makes 
crooked things look straight and 
straight things look crooked. 

9. That which speaks the lan- 
guage we all understand. 

10. A provider for everything hut 
happiness; a passport to "all p 

but heaven. 



16 



A Great Store 

Built Upon 

Successful 

Service to 

Millions 



n 



HALE BROS. 

INC 

Market at Fifth 

SAN FRANCISCO 
SUTTER 8000 



THE 

James H. Barry Go. 

The Star Press 

Printing 



1122-1124 MISSION STREET 
SAN FRANCISCO 

We print "The Seamen's Journal" 



In San Francisco 

KODAKS 

Exchanged f Bought 
Sold 

at 

SAN FRANCISCO 
CAMERA EXCHANGE 

88 Third St. near Mission St. 

CAMERA SHOP 
145 Kearny St. near Sutter St. 




A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, FOR SEAMEN 



Our Aim: The Brotherhood of the Sea 



Our Motto : Justice by Organization 



Vol. XLVIII, No. 1 



SAN FRANCISCO, JANUARY 1, 1934 



Whole No. 2040 



WORKING HOURS AT SEA 




ECENT discussions about reducing work- 
ing hours at sea and ashore have brought 
forth some interesting differences of opin- 
ion. For instance, American shipowners 
who operate passenger vessels maintain 
that it is practically impossible to limit working 
in the stewards' department. It is contended that 
if such limitations are enforced by law the crew 
will have to be materially increased, the maximum 
number of passengers carried will have to he 
drastically reduced. All of which will spell ruin, 
it is said, because it means increased cost of op- 
eration with decreased receipts and total surren- 
der of our foreign passenger carrying trade. 

The pleas now advanced by the shipowners 
against shortening the working hours at sea are 
as old as our industrial civilization. Working 
hours at sea on America's proud old clipper ships 
were at least twelve in each forty-eight hours. 
Today .American shipowners concede the justice 
of an eight-hour work day at sea for men em- 
ployed on deck and in the engineers' depart- 
ment. 

It may be a difficult task, but reasonable regu- 
lation of hours in the stewards' department can 
not be waived aside. A little more than forty 
years ago Samuel Gompers was accused of seek- 
ing to tear down the constitution because he ad- 
vocated an eight-hour day. Not much more than 
a decade ago leaders of the steel industry were 



"proving'' that it would destroy their business to 
cut the basic working day from twelve to eight 
hours. But it was done and steel makers enjoyed 
some of the most prosperous years of their 
history. 

A few months ago a woman of ( ^0 in a Massa- 
chusetts textile town was telling of her early daws 
in the mill. She rose at 4, was at her loom at 5, 
took a half hour off for breakfast at 7, came back 
to her loom and stayed there, with time out for 
two other meals, until daylight failed in the eve- 
ning. In the winter lamps were used morning and 
evening. Iler working day averaged about thir- 
teen hours, her wage about $3 a week. She lived 
to tell of it seventy years after. Many of her 
fellow workers did not survive the age of 30. 
Tuberculosis about that time was sometimes called 
''mill fever." 

Today the President's blanket code calls for a 
thirty-five to forty-hour week. Some of the indi- 
vidual codes raise the limit to forty-five or forty- 
eight. The eight-hour day is a rarity under the 
Blue Eagle. The average of the codes will prob- 
ably lie between six and seven. 

The American Federation of Labor now calls 
for a six-hour day, five days a week, as the essen- 
tial objective if NRA is to conquer unemploy- 
ment. Tn her address to the labor convention the 
other day, Secretary Perkins of the Department 
of Labor indorses the demand for a still shorter 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January 1, 1934 



week, though she does not commit herself to a 
definite figure. She insists, however, that : 

"We cannot stop with the present minimum 
wages and maximum hours of labor. . . . Cer- 
tainly we cannot have the purchasing power nec- 
essary to balance our production capacity unless 
we develop wider opportunities for work and 
wages." 

The nation, as a whole, recognizes that progress 
in industrial relations is clearly away from the 
old conditions which frequently made labor a 
grievously exploited commodity. That system was 
bad and no one wants to return to it. 

There is happily also an increasing acceptance 
of the fact that mass production, which is the life 
stream of American business, cannot thrive with- 
out a constantly widening mass of buying power, 
the greater part of which must come from the 
workers. 

THE NEW GERMAN UNITY 

German concentration camps released 5,000 
prisoners for Christmas. 1 lerr Goering, with sar- 
donic humor, stated he was impelled t<> this step 
by the fact that in the recent Reichstag election 
the prison camps voted more solidly for Hitler 
than the nation as a whole. This indicates that 
the moral rehabilitation of the anti-Nazis is pretty 
well completed. 

Sixty thousand refugees abroad and something 
like 30,000 inmates of the concentration camp- 
go with the claim that Hitler has united the Ger- 
mans as never before. ( >n the other hand, the 
preceding democratic-Marxist regime, which is 
supposed to have torn the German people asunder, 
managed to rule for a dozen years without con- 
centration camps or exiles. 

Virtually the only emigre was William II. The 
ex-princes continued to live unmolested in Ger- 
many and received compensation for their se- 
questered estates. But the Hitler regime confis- 
cates the property of fugitive writers, professors 
and editors. 

A better principle than this, that "the majority 
shall rule," is this other, that justice shall rule. 
"Justice," says the code of Justinian, "is the con- 
stant and perpetual desire to render every man 
his due." — Bovee. 



ROBINSON CRUSOE'S" APPEAL 



The choice of "Robinson Crusoe" as the first 
of the "fairy-tale" books which are to be restored 
to Russian children after a long period of exclu- 
sion seems highly complimentary to English lit- 
erature, and it is even possible that, when the 
modern Russian critics are free to discuss the 
book again, we may get some new light on its 
place in the affection of children. It must always 
be a little discouraging to those who -it down de- 
liberately to write books for children to reflect 
that neither "'Crusoe" nor "Gulliver" (which is 
to be second choice for tin- Russian youth) was 
intended for children at all. Defoe intended Cru- 
soe for a novel — perhaps it was by an after- 
thought that he described it as an allegory or 
"veiled history" of his own life. 

A modern critic has said of it that its success 
"seems to depend on a narrower set of faculties 
than has gone to the making of any other master- 
piece of fiction." Dickens expressed surprise that 
in all its pair's there was nothing to make a man 
laugh or cry. 

And yet. in decreeing a holiday from Commu- 
nist propaganda for Russian children in favor ot 
Crusoe, the Soviet leaders may have argued 
soundly. Crusoe, it has been said, succeeds be- 
cause it satisfies "the craving to be done with 
psychology and the overlays of a refined civiliza- 
tion and pictures the natural man who builds, 
bakes, contrives, loves and prays." Presumably 
tin- youthful Russian mind is in danger of indi- 
gestion and is to be given simpler fare for a time. 



NEWFANGLED WAYS 



The part which water transport plays in France 
is far more important than in England. The net- 
work of canals, if not more complete, is more 
efficient; the quantity of goods which barges 
carry very much greater. Rut the old- fashioned 
barges have been suffering much of late from 
the competition of motor-barges on waterways 
and lorry traffic on the roads. Hence much un- 
employment and a big decline in earnings. The 
bargemen have gone on strike to show their dis- 
content. Most of them are independent artisans 
or very small employers with a handful »f em- 
ployees. The Communists took charge for a while 
and managed to import the method of the barri- 
cades into the struggle. The biggest of these was 



January 1, 1934 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



thrown across the Seine at Conflans. It was 
made up of barges linked together and stood 
against the assault of Government tugs from 
Monday evening until Tuesday morning. 

The Seine and Northern French bargemen 
have plied their leisurely trade for generations 
without much change. They are now being 
crushed by the rise of new and faster methods of 
transport. They are suffering, as all handicrafts- 
men suffer, from the introduction of mechanical 
improvements. Their strike is not a strike against 
employers ; it is a demonstration against new- 
fangled ways. It is not easy to perceive how it 
can help them because labor-saving devices will 
never be eliminated by such crude protests as 
strikes. 

Labor-saving devices should be and can be con- 
trolled for the benefit of the workers displaced. 
Hut that is not an easy matter. It requires care- 
ful planning and the most intelligent cooperation 
by all the workers concerned. Only the constant 
educational drive of the world's labor movement 
will ultimately produce results in that direction. 



THE CALIFORNIA LYNCHING 



Even if the two men who were lynched on a 
night in December by a mob in San Jose, Califor- 
nia, were guilty of all the charges on which they 
were arrested — which included kidnaping, mur- 
der, and an attempt to extort $40,000 ransom for 
a man already dead — the manner of their death 
was still an outrage against civilized government. 
But even the violence of the mob seems less out- 
rageous than the applause which it has won from 
James Rolph, Governor of California, who has 
called their brutal acts "the best lesson California 
has ever given this country." There have been 
lynchings before quite as revolting as this ; and 
there have been Governors who have been bitterly 
criticized by decent Americans for their impo- 
tence or unwillingness to restrain the mob. But 
not even in the most backward of the Southern 
states does one remember a Governor who openly 
praised the men who had wrested his own respon- 
sibility from his hands. A tacit alliance between 
legal authority and illegal violence is a canker 
which has attacked American politics before, but 
silently and secretly. Governor Rolph's attitude 
is the more odious when one recalls his refusal to 
free from prison Tom Mooney, the former trade 



union organizer, who was convicted seventeen 
years ago of complicity in a bombing outrage in 
San Francisco. It has been proved abundantly 
during Governor Rolph's term of office that the 
conviction of Mooney was a miscarriage of jus- 
tice. And still the Governor has refused either 
to pardon Mooney or to support the plea for a 
retrial. He keeps in gaol a man who is certainly 
innocent ; he praises men who are guilty of mur- 
der and announces that he will pardon anyone 
arrested in connection with the lynching. The 
subsequent disgraceful riots in Maryland — in 
which a mob resisted the attempt of state troops 
to arrest nine lynchers — show that the United 
States is soil only too fertile for the reckless ex- 
hortations of Governor Rolph* — Manchester 
Guardian. 

NINE CORAL ISLANDS 



The Japanese have a controversy with the 
French over the ownership of nine uninhabited 
coral islands in the South China Sea. If Japanese- 
statements are to be believed, these were discov- 
ered and named by a Japanese concern in 1918. 
They were exploited for their phosphates and 
guano until 1929, when working ceased to be 
profitable, but the exploiting company left its 
name behind to show that it intended to return. 
In April, 1933, however, French ships came and 
set up navigation marks, and in July the French 
government proclaimed French sovereignty over 
the islands. Japan made representations in Paris. 
but she has yet to receive an answer from the 
French. It is said that France has the better case 
in international law. since Japan had consistently 
refrained from proclaiming her sovereignty. But 
Japan's rulers would not usually give away a 
claim in the South Seas so easily, even when it 
is concerned with nothing more than a commer- 
cially valueless group of uninhabited rocks. These 
islands are no farther from the Japanese mainland 
than most of the mandated islands which the 
Japanese navy is accustomed to describe as "the 
life-line of Japanese defense in the Pacific"; they 
are much nearer to Formosa. I lowever valueless 
commercially, they might have an unknown stra- 
tegic value as a submarine base. Why have the 
Japanese submitted with such mildness to an occu- 
pation which they would have bitterly resented 
if the occupying ships had come from the Philip- 
pines instead of from Indo-China? 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January 1. 1<>34 



NEWS AND COMMENT 

Concerning Seamen the World Over 



The Canton, China, special correspondent of 

the New York Times supplies the following in- 
teresting information: "The Canton Chinese 
Seamen's Union has taken the law into its own 
hands and is now actually collecting, for the bene- 
fit of the treasury of the union, an import tax on 
all foreign goods brought to the city of Canton 
on Chinese-owned steamers. The rate of taxa- 
tion has been arbitrarily fixed at '2 cents for every 
sack of rice and K) cents each for all other parcels 
of sundry goods.' It is estimated that the average 
yield is about $100 for the union treasury from 
every ship that unloads cargo at Canton. When 
the Seamen's Union first proposed this tax the 
Canton Chinese Chamber of Commerce made a 
vehement protest, and it was not until the Sea- 
men's Union threatened to call a general strike 
of all union workers in the city that the Chamber 
of Commerce withdrew its objections. When 
ships tie up at Canton the Seamen's Union waits 
until the Maritime Customs force has finished its 
inspection, and then sends its own inspectors 
abroad. The union has announced that any ship 
which objects to this second inspection will be 
subjected to a union boycott, and that the union 
will not permit, in such cases, either the unloading 
or the loading of cargo. 

Admiral Nelson's own log-book, which was 
presented to the British people by Lord Wake- 
held recently, is now on view at the British Mu- 
seum. It was bought by Lord Wakefield from a 
descendant of Nelson's favorite sister for £3.000. 
It is reported to be a most uninspiring looking 
relic, for it is simply a thin green exercise book. 
tied with faded green ribbon. The headings, 
which are all written in a fine scholarly hand 
obviously not Nelson's, make a contrast to Nel- 
son's entries, made beneath in a large black- 
scrawl splashed with blots. He apparently found 
it difficult writing with his left hand, and some 
of his remarks are almost unreadable. The log- 
is first dated May. 1785. and then, after a gap, 
goes on to October 20. 1805. the day before the 
Battle of Trafalgar. In his last entry he com- 
ments on the bright, fresh weather. 



The American Radio Telegraphers' Association. 
comprising a large percentage of radio operators 
on American ships, has voted a strike against the 
American Merchant Line, a subsidiary of the In- 
ternational Mercantile Marine. The vote was 
unanimous and followed efforts by the wireless 
men to obtain restoration of a 25 per cent wage 
cut on ships of this line. The radio men had pre- 
viously sent representatives, bearing final pro- 
tests, to Kermit Roosevelt, president of the line. 
They also met with William II. Davis, deputy 
administrator of the marine industry code under 
the NRA, who declared himself powerless to act. 
According to association officials, the line refused 
to consider rescinding of the wage cut and issued 
a challenge to the wireless men in the form of a 
statement by A. J. McCarthy, general manager of 
the line: "Do as you please about this." 

Members of Uncle Sam's Navy are safer at sea 
than they are when they venture ashore, and the 
most dangerous place of all for a sailor is in 
some landlubber's automobile. At least that's the 
inference to be drawn from the annual report of 
Rear Admiral Percival S. Rossiter, surgeon gen- 
eral of the Navy. During the twelve-mouth 
period, the report stated, seventy members of the 
Navy died of injuries received in automobile 
accidents — more than twice as many as were 
drowned. Deaths from drowning totaled thirty- 
two, according to the hitherto voluminous report, 
which the need for economy has compressed into 
three mimeograph pages. ( >n the whole, the re- 
port said, the general health of the Navy has 
shown improvement, with decreases shown in 
gastro-intestinal disorders and various communi- 
cable diseases. There was an increase, however, 
in catarrhal fever, caused, it was explained, by 
an outbreak in the Battle Force. Intluen/a, den- 
gue and cellulitis were among the ailments that 
showed decreases. The statistical portion of Ad- 
miral Rossiter's information, it was announced, 
will be published as a pamphlet, carrying com- 
plete data in diseases and injuries in tin- calendar 
year 1932. 

The North German Lloyd's cabin steamer 
Stuttgart, which had been laid up at I 'remerhaven 
since < October, has been converted by the com- 
pany in cooperation with the National Socialists, 
into a schoolship for the company's unemployed 



January 1, 1934 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



seamen. The passengers' saloons will be used for 
giving instruction. The object is to improve the 
seamen's chances of employment by further train- 
ing in their lines. Political training also is given 
on National Socialist lines. The city of Bremer- 
haven has placed a swimming pool and gym- 
nasium at the disposal of the men. Nine courses 
of instruction have been arranged, in which 330 
seamen out of the company's total of 1,400 unem- 
ployed in Bremerhaven and Bremen participate. 
They receive on board the Stuttgart their noon 
meal free six times a week. The funds for in- 
struction, textbooks, heat, light and food are ob- 
tained by holding a one-dish meal each week in 
all the North ( iernian Lloyd's messes at sea and 
ashore, which brings in 7,000 marks ( $2,643 ) a 
week. 

Word has been received of the strike of the 
wireless officers in the American Merchant Line. 
These operators were being paid $100 for chief 
operators and $7? for second and were served 
notice of a reduction of 25 per cent. We cannot 
understand what a company could be thinking of 
to reduce by 25 per cent the pay of such important 
positions in the operation of a ship as the wire- 
less operators, in view of the fact of the abnor- 
mally low wages they were receiving. 

We understand that all officers and seamen's 
organizations are giving their moral support to 
this movement of the radio telegraphers, and we 
sincerely trust that they will be successful in their 
resistance to the cut. The officers and crews are 
watching this, the first attempt at resistance to 
the awful wage reductions they have all had to 
accept in the past few years, and we feel that 
every ship officer is entirely in sympathy with the 
radio telegraphers in their battle. 

The following letter was sent to the United 
States Steamboat Inspection Service by B. L. 
Todd, general secretary of the United Licensed 
Officers : 

U. S. Local Inspectors, August 30, 1933. 

Steamboat Inspection Service, 
Custom House, New York City. 

Dear Sirs: — The practice of having engineers 
work in machine shops or on the winches and on 
repair work in different parts of the ship during 
their eight hours of watch duty and of deck offi- 
cers leaving the bridge and doing work about the 



ship is becoming ejuite customary aboard Ameri- 
can ships. 

We are writing to ask if an engineer's or deck 
officer's certificate is in jeopardy should an acci- 
dent occur when the engineer is not in the engine 
room where he can control the engine at a mo- 
ment's notice and avoid damage to life and prop- 
erty, or when the deck officer on watch is not on 
the bridge in direct control of the operation of the 
ship. Very truly yours, 

United Licensed Officers, 

B. L. Todd, 
( leneral Secretary. 

This is the reply Mr. Todd received from the 
Government Department : 

United Licensed ( )fficers, September 1. 1933. 
15 Whitehall Street. 
New York, X. Y. 
Attention : Mr. B. L. Todd, General Secretary. 

Gentlemen: — We acknowledge receipt of your 
letter of the 30th ultimo relative to licensed offi- 
cers and their duties while on watch and in reply 
would say that all licensed officers are responsible 
for their watch, unless properly relieved by an- 
other licensed officer. Respectfully, 

A. W. Haynes, 
James Smith, 
U. S. Local Inspectors. 

Licensed officers can draw their own conclu- 
sions. It might be well to request the captain or 
the chief engineer to give in writing any orders 
that might interfere with keeping a good and a 
safe watch. 

NAZI TERROR 



The World Committee for the Relief of Refu- 
gees from Germany has been receiving disquieting 
news about the continued ill-treatment of Social- 
ists, Pacifists, Liberals, and other independent 
thinkers in Germany, and it feels that an authori- 
tative commission of inquiry into Xazi atrocities 
should be held as soon as the work of the Reichs- 
tag Trial Commission is finished. 

A conference was, therefore, held in Paris 
on December 8 which was attended by repre- 
sentatives from Norway, Czecho-Slovakia, the 
United States. England, and other countries. 
New facts were put before the conference and 
it will decide whether a commission should be 
set up and who its members should be. 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January 1, 1934 



Seamen's Journal 

Established in 1887 
Published on the first day of each month at 525 
Market Street, San Francisco, by and under the di- 
rection of the International Seamen's Union of 
America. 

PAUL SCHARRENBERG, Editor 







Entered at the San Francisco Postofflce as second- 
class matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate 
of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of Oc- 
tober 3, 1917, authorized September 7, 1918. 

Subscription price $1.00 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 



NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will be 
published, provided they are of general interest, 
brief, legible, written on one side only of the paper, 
and accompanied by the writer's own name and ad- 
dress. The JOURNAL is not responsible for the ex- 
pressions of correspondents, nor for the return of 
manuscripts. 



fanuary 1. 1934 



SHIPPING CODE DKLW 



This issue of the Journal was late in going to 
press because it had been hoped that the final 
draft of the pending Shipping Code would be 
available for publication before January 1. How- 
ever, when these lines are written the principal 
factors of the industry — shipowners, seamen and 
longshoremen— are still far apart. To be sure, 
the approval of a Code is not at all dependent 
upon agreement between labor and capital. The 
drafts of all Codes are written and submitted by 
the organized employers. The workers, organized 
or unorganized, may submit amendments and 
criticisms, which may or may not be serioush 
considered by the Deputy Administrator in charge. 

The National Maritime Board plan, submitted 
by the International Seamen's Union of America. 
lias met a hostile reception by the present pre- 
dominant reactionary majority among the organ- 
ized American shipowners. As usual, the so- 
called "red" marine workers, a noisy and impotent 
and insignificant group claiming to represent both 
seamen and longshoremen, have joined hands 
with the more reactionary shipowners and vocifer- 
ously opposed the establishment of a National 
Maritime Board. Of course, this is merely a case 
of history repeating itself. The self-styled radi- 
cals have scuttled the ship on previous occasions 
and they are now at the same old game. 

The Shipping Code now under consideration 



will, when approved, be in the nature of a "mas- 
ter" or "blanket" code and will be followed by 
numerous Division and Subdivision Codes specifi- 
cally applicable to such particular class of ships as 
operate in foreign, coastwise trade, Great Lakes, 
hays and sounds, etc. 

Public hearings on pending Division Codes have 
already been held, even though the Master Code 
has not been approved. A hearing on the Great 
Lakes Code was held on November 28 with Vice- 
President Ivan Hunter, Claude M. Goshorn and 
J. M. Secord speaking for the Great Lakes Dis- 
trict of the International Seamen's Union of 
America. A hearing on the towing industry of the 
Eastern and Southern Division of the United 
States was held on December 13 and other hear- 
ings are scheduled for the immediate future. 

Deputy Administrator William H. Davis, in 
charge of the Shipping Code. has. unfortunately, 
been loaded down with other responsible admin- 
istrative work under the National Recovery Ad- 
ministration and this has undoubtedly slowed up 
the necessary final touches on the pending Ship- 
ping Code. All in all, there is reasonable certainty 
that the master or blanket Shipping Code will be 
approved long before the end of January. 

In the meantime, while fully recognizing that 
the National Recovery Act gives us real oppor- 
tunity to make progress, we must not forget the 
all important need for organization. For the first 
time in history our Government has virtually 
taken the position that it expects labor to organize 
so as to take full advantage of the new deal im- 
plied by the National Recovery Act. But the 
Government does not compel the workers to or- 
ganize! So the Industrial Recovery Act and the 
Codes approved under the terms of the law may 
hold all the ingredients for success, but they will 
never materialize into substantial benefits for 
seamen, or any other workers, unless the kettle 
is watched and the brew is cared for by legitimate, 
bona fide Unions. Only by unity of action can 
we succeed. Self help is still the greatest help 
of all ! 

If there is any principle of the Constitution 
that more imperatively calls for attachment than 
any other, it is the principle of free thought — 
not free thought for those who agree with us, 
but freedom for the thought we hate. — Justice 
Oliver Wendell Holmes. 



January 1, 1934 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 

NRA AXD PROFITS THE LIGHTHOUSE SERVICE 



Among the outstanding - critics of the Presi- 
dent's Recovery program are B. C. Forbes, editor 
of Forbes, a semi-monthly magazine for big busi- 
ness, and Thomas F. Woodlock, editorial writer 
on the Wall Street Journal. Their main tale of 
woe is that the XRA program emphasizes jobs 
and wages for the millions of unemployed as the 
first need of the country and relegates to a sec- 
ondary position the need of profits for those who 
own and control industry. 

Evidently these two gentlemen and their scat- 
tered associates who are attempting to scuttle 
Roosevelt's program do not read the current finan- 
cial news with which every financial editor is 
familiar. 

As evidence of the positive influence of the 
NRA on business prosperity, the following state- 
ment by Leslie Gould, financial editor of the 
New York Evening Journal, is instructive: 

While the ratio of corporations to show improved 
earnings in the third quarter of this year, as compared 
with the corresponding period in 1932, is hetter than 
three and one-half to one, six major lines of industry 
have so far turned in a perfect score. All of the com- 
panies so far to report had greater profits than a 
year ago. These industries are: Automobiles, motor 
car accessories, chemicals, electrical equipment, 
leather, and food. They are the banner lines, but run- 
ning them a close second are building materials and 
supplies, metals, including mining, motion pictures, 
oils, railroad equipment, coal and steel. 

In addition to Mr. Gould's optimistic report on 

corporation earnings the following paragraph 

from an International News Service dispatch to 

the Washington Times of December 9 regarding 

the conversion of earnings into dividends should 

pull the blinkers from the eyes of croakers like 

Forbes and Woodlock : 

Stockholders of sixty-nine American corporations 
will receive an increase of $55,691,540 in the income 
from their investments through larger dividend dec- 
larations by these concerns since November 1, a 
survey revealed today. Forty-two companies have 
resumed or initiated dividends representing disburse- 
ments of $28,040,498 to stockholders. A group of 
twenty companies has declared extra dividends total- 
ing $24,183,639. In addition, nine other companies 
have increased regular rates net by $3,467,403 for the 
current payment. 

With this record of constantly larger profits and 

bigger dividends, the journalistic representatives 

of big business should put the brakes on their 

attacks on the President's Recovery program. 



Included in the annual report of the Secretary 
of Commerce is an account of progress in the 
Lighthouse Service. The ninth law enacted by 
the first Congress, on August 9, 1789, provided 
for an organization to maintain lighthouses. The 
Colonies had built a considerable number of these 
aids to navigation. The Boston Light had been 
in operation since 1716. Lighthouse keepers had 
to be men of character, willing to endure a soli- 
tary life and ready to put up with hardships. 
Ebenezer Skiff, who tended Gay Head Light on 
Marthas Vineyard in 1805, enjoyed a salary of 
$50 a year, and found it not enough. He com- 
plained that cleaning the lighthouse glass when 
storms covered it with "clay and oker" was bur- 
densome, especially in winter, and carting his 
drinking water with a horse and wagon from a 
spring a mile away took up too much of his time. 
He asked for a "raise," and President Jefferson, 
who read his humble application, cheered him up 
by advancing his pay to $250. 

They were queer chaps, these lighthouse keep- 
ers. One at Buzzards Bay required an inspector 
to wear felt slippers over his shoes "to keep the 
stairs clean." At Isle Royal Lighthouse, on a rock 
of Lake Superior, a keeper had obtained his post 
by agreeing to marry, with the result that his wife 
brought twelve children into the world. Appoint- 
ments used to go by political favor, until, in 1896, 
Grover Cleveland put the lighthouse people into 
the civil service. A lightkeeper on the Colum- 
bia River had only two days off in twenty- 
three years, and on one of those days he got mar- 
ried. A hard life, but it developed a sturdy race. 

This latest report is devoid of such simple 
tales. It deals mainly with improvements, in- 
creased use of radio, electric lighting, radio bea- 
cons, automatic gas signals and economy of op- 
eration. One is fascinated by the names of light- 
house tenders — Sumac, Myrtle, Hickory, Pansy 
Tulip, Cypress, Tamarack and Hollyhock. Most 
of them have radio compasses. Radio telephones 
have been installed. Many tales of life-saving are 
reported. Cost of maintenance was $11,159,928. 



Our doubts are traitors, and make us lose the 
good we oft might win by fearing to attempt. — 
Shakespeare. 



An automobile is the only thing that can run 
around with the muffler wide open. 



Prosperity makes friends and adversity tries 
them. — Pacuvius. 



8 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL January 1, 1934 

KNOCKING THE NEW DEAL LESSONS FROM ANIMALS 



Part of the plot to discredit the New Deal is 
the senseless claim and assertion that business is 
"being put in a strait jacket" and handcuffed by 
the creation and operation of NRA. This sounds 
like a joke to the 15.000,000 jobless who have 
been in a straitjacket for the last four or five 
wars, all of whom were, and some are still. 
crowding the breadlines on the verage of starva- 
tion and destitution. They wore "straitjackets" 
to keep them from falling apart, and to keep out 
the cold in winter months. 

If big business was unshackled, and it was, 
then it was responsible for the greatest de- 
pression the world has ever known. 

The workers, especially the unorganized, have 
been in straitjackets commencing with serfdom 
and ever since, and we are just sick and tired of 
them. If "big business" wants to put them on 
they can wear them. Labor doesn't like that kind 
of jackets and declines tu wear them any longer. 

The codes of fair practice in commodities, pro- 
vided by NRA, are not straitjackets. They arc 
simply in the line of an effort to prevent unfair, 
ruinous, cut-throat manufacturers from doing 
crooked business that ruins honest business men. 
and that helped to produce the depression. 

The NRA is here and here to stay unless it is 
found impossible to achieve success by a regu- 
lar, fair tryout. Mocking ridicule and senseless 
denunciation will not do the trick. 

It's a long way back from the Xew Deal to the 
( )ld Deal and there are many dangerous hurdles 
on the way. Better watch your step. * rive XRA 
a chance. 



The Editor wishes the JOURNAL'S readers a 
Happy and Prosperous Xew Year and extends 
thanks to all its advertisers who have helped to 
carry on the publication during the past year. As 
the new year opens up there are marked signs of 
improvement on every hand, and the Journal 
sincerely wishes that the seamen of America may 
share in this coming prosperity and again find 
steady employment under better and better con- 
ditions, in the line of their railing. Happy Xew 
Year! 



A four-horse team hitched to a heavy load 
cannot start or go anywhere unless the horses co- 
operate by all pulling together. A school of fish 
would soon be inextricably wedged into a solid 
mass unless they cooperated and all headed in on< 
direction. Fish must swim like a row of soldiers 
in one direction, otherwise they would become 
hopelessly powerless and unable to move and 
would soon perish for lack of collaboration. This 
is true of practically all animal life. 

Men. or some of them, in their conceit, think 
they can make the grade by going it alone. This 
is impossible for working men in industrial occu- 
pations. They are. in production, incapable ol 
getting or maintaining fair wages if acting in their 
individual capacity. Such people are far behind, 
and have not s ( , far learned to adapt and follow 
the animals' methods of cooperation, for self- 
preservation and fair wages and less hours. Even 
employers who have formed associations have not 
been able to prevent competition, bankruptcy, fail- 
ures and periodic wasteful depressions. 

It has been so and always will be unless the 
wage-earners organize. Nothing of a permanent, 
worthwhile character will How from Federal and 
State plans unless the workers organize and force 
reluctant employers to pay fair wages. 

Low wages caused this depression with its 
world of misery and will cause other depressions 
unless labor organizations through collective bar- 
gaining raise wages to a point where consumption 
can balance production. 

Organization of the workers is the one sure 
means of preventing cut-throat competition, 
which must be stopped before- fair employers 
willing to do the right thing will be Kite from 
unfair low-wage paying employers. The only way 
to accomplish something helpful and lasting to all 
concerned, including the general public, is for the 
workers to organize. 



A great number of union mechanic- employed 
by Federal authorities in the construct! 
C. C. C. camps are highly commending the build- 
ing program. 

Union wage scales prevailed on practically all 
o!" the work and the army officers in charge made 
selections of mechanics from among the skilled 
men who were organized. 



January 1, 1934 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



THE SCOTTSBORO CASE 



For the third time Hey wood Patterson, one of 
the seven negro youths charged with assaulting 
two white girls (Victoria Price and Ruby Bates) 
in a train at Scottsboro on March 31, 1931. has 
been found guilty and sentenced to death. 

The defense announced that they would ask 
for a new trial as soon as the court had formally 
sentenced Patterson, and that they would carry 
the battle to the United States Supreme Court 
it necessary. — Renter. 

An Exchange telegram dated December 5 says 
that the retrial has been indefinitely postponed. 

The assault with which the negro youths were 
charged was alleged to have been upon two white 
girls on a freight train in which a mixed crowd 
of boys and girls were traveling. A quarrel broke 
out, in which the white youths were said to have 
been thrown off the train. 

The case has been the subject of nation-wide 
agitation in the United States. The youths have 
been lying in the death cells of Alabama state 
prison since April, 1931, and gifts towards their 
defense have been sent from all parts of the 
world. Eight were originally sentenced, but on 
appeal to the Alabama Supreme Court one sen- 
tence was reversed on the ground of juvenility. 

The execution of the seven youths was origi- 
nally fixed for May 13, 1931, but the time was 
extended by the Alabama Supreme Court to 
afford time for an appeal. The negroes were con- 
victed only after a protracted trial in an atmos- 
phere seething with color hatred. The affair 
called forth thousands of protests from all parts 
of the United States and of the world. H. G. 
Wells was among those who signed protests ad- 
dressed to President Hoover and the Governor 
of Alabama. 

As the result of an appeal the Supreme Court 
in Washington set aside the death sentences and 
returned the case to the Alabama court. At the 
retrial Miss Ruby Bates, one of the white girls 
who was said to have been assaulted, completely 
repudiated the evidence she had previously given. 

In spite of this evidence, Hey wood Patterson. 
who was the first of the negroes to be retried, 
was again found guilty and sentenced to death. 
The judge, however, came to the conclusion that 
a fair trial could not be obtained in the court at 



Decatur, and the trial was "indefinitely post- 
poned." 

In June this year the death sentence on Patter- 
son was again set aside and a new trial was 
granted, which opened on November 27. 



MAR1XE STATISTICS 



"Merchant Marine Statistics," for the fiscal 
year ended June 30. 1933, just released by the 
Commerce Department's Bureau of Navigation 
and Steamboat Inspection, among other things 
contains statistics on the growth and decline in 
the types of vessels and the changes in track- 
routes from 1789 to 1933, according to A. J. 
Tyrer, assistant director. 

In Washington's day there were less than 
500,000 tons of merchant sailing shipping under 
the American flag. In 1807. when Robert Fulton's 
Clermont made its memorable appearance on the 
Hudson River, these figures had increased to 
1.250,000 tons, and at the breaking out of the 
war with Mexico in 1846-1847 they were six 
times larger than the steam tonnage, or almost 
2.500.000 tons. 

In the middle of the '50's the clipper ship was 
at its best and the American Mag was in every 
important port in the world. In this year there 
were almost 4.500,000 tons sailing and more than 
750.000 tons steam afloat. By the close of the 
Civil War the sailing tonnage started to decline 
and the steam tonnage was slowly increasing. 

In 1893 the first commercial motor-propelled 
vessels made their appearance, the Aztec and the 
Richard K. Fox. Motor vessels rapidly increased 
in number, there being over 12.000 at present, 
but as they are small craft they do not materially 
increase the total tonnage. 

At the beginning of the World War the sailing 
tonnage was less than 1.250.000 tons, about what 
it was in 1807, but the steam tonnage had in- 
creased to more than 7,000,000 tons. The new 
steamships authorized by Congress in the war 
period more than doubled this tonnage, while the 
motor and sailing tonnage remained good. 

Other facts in the 1933 edition of "Merchant 
Marine Statistics" give data on American seamen 
shipped and reshipped. foreign water-borne com- 
merce, tonnage tax statistics, ship-building con- 
struction in the United States, undocumented 
American tonnage and world tonnage statistics. 



10 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January 1, 1934 



FUNCTION OF LABOR BOARD 



President Roosevelt, in an executive order, ex- 
tended the power of the National Labor Board 
to include "all conflicts threatening the industrial 
peace of the country.*' As originally set up. the 
board was limited to controversies arising from 
the President's re-employment agreement. 

The new order was issued as the National 
Labor Board faced two major contests based on 
disputes involving the election of representatives 
by workers to confer on collective bargaining. It 
is alleged that the Weirton Steel Company, with 
plants at Weirton and Clarksburg. \Y. Va., and 
Steubenville, Ohio, and the Budd Manufacturing 
Company of Philadelphia have defied the au- 
thority of the Labor Board. 

After citing the National Industrial Recovery 
.\ct as authority for his action, the President's 
order read : 

"1. The National Labor Board created on Au- 
gust 5. 1933, to 'p ass promptly on any case of 
hardship or dispute that may arise from interpre- 
tation or application of the President's re-employ- 
ment agreement,' shall continue to adjust all in- 
dustrial disputes whether arising out of the inter- 
pretation and operation of the President's re- 
employment agreement or any duly approved 
industrial code of fair competition, and to com- 
pose all conflicts threatening the industrial peace 
of the country. All action heretofore taken by 
this board in the discharge of its functions is 
hereby approved and ratified. 

"2. The powers and functions of said board 
shall be as follows : 

"./. To settle by mediation, conciliation or ar- 
bitration all controversies between employers and 
employees which tend to impede the purposes of 
the National Industrial Recovery Act, provided, 
however, the board may decline to take cognizance 
of controversies between employers and em- 
ployees in any field of trade or industry where a 
means of settlement provided for by agreement, 
industrial code, or Federal law, have not been 
invoked. 

''B. To establish local or regional boards upon 
which employers and employees shall be equally 
represented, and to delegate thereto such powers 
and territorial jurisdiction as the National Labor 
Board may determine. 



"(". To review the determination of the local 
or regional boards where the public interest so 
requires. 

"jD. To make rules and regulations governing 

its procedure and the discharge of its functions." 



A DEPLORABLE TRANSACTION 



The well worn slogan "Patronize American 
ships" does not seem to lie popular with Ameri- 
can naval authorities. 

At any rate, another load of American fuel oil 
for American naval use has been dispatched to 
the Cavite ( Philippine Island) base in a British 
ship. The l.ritish tanker Tamaha sailed from 
San Pedro. California, on December 11, with 
50.000 barrels of fuel oil for discharge at Cavite. 
according to United States Navy records. 

The cargo was loaded by ( ieneral Petroleum 
Corporation, on account of Socony- Vacuum, 
holders of the contract with the Navy. Dispatch 
of the oil in a British tanker was despite Govern- 
mental exportations to American business men 
that American bottoms be employed whenever 
possible. 

With the 50,000 barrels en route to the Ameri- 
can Navy base the total contract of 300,000 bar- 
rels has been reduced to a remainder of about 
55,000 barrels. The American tanker Mojave left 
San Pedro late in October with one consignment, 
while two other deliveries were made by British 
ships. 

It is to be hoped that the next oil contract 
signed by United States Navy authorities will con- 
tain that much needed clause stipulating deliveries 
by American ships only. Surely our admirals, 
above all others, should understand that they must 
practice what our Government preaches! 



DISCARDED GODS" 



"The American industrial revolution came so 
quickly that few of us who were in it know fully 
what has happened. The gods of 1929, whom 
you have seen marching in disarray before the 
Senate Banking Committee, have been stripped 
so bare that they no longer are reckoned with at 
all. They furnished us with just one consolation. 
That is, while we have known only a little about 
finance, we know that the great leaders of finance 
know nothing at all about it."- — United State- 
Senator Hiram W. Johnson. 



10 



January 1, 1934 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



11 



SHIPPING NEWS 



The Port of London's shipping at 29,055,695 
tons net for the six months ended September 30 
represents an increase of 8 per cent over the cor- 
responding period last year. During the same 
period the increase in the shipping using all 
United Kingdom ports was 2.9 per cent. 

The Red Star liner Lapland, recently reported 
sold for scrapping, is to be taken to Japan for 
breaking up. it is learned. The price paid for 
the liner as she lies at Antwerp is said to have 
been about £30,000. It is expected she will be 
ballasted with scrap metal for the final voyage 
to Japan. 

For the first time for 265 years the Hudson's 
Bay Company are not sending their own ship to 
Canada this winter to take out stores and bring 
back furs. It has been decided that in future both 
stores and furs will be sent by the regular liners 
plying between the St. Lawrence and the United 
Kingdom. It was in 1668 that the company sent 
the fifty-ton ketch XonsucJi from London on the 
first trip. 

According to reports from New York, marine 
underwriters in New York offices are closely 
studying the terms of settlement arising out of 
the loss of the liner Vestris off the Virginia Capes 
five years ago. Claims aggregating over $5,000,- 
000 were filed and of this huge total about $475,- 
000 was paid. Lamport & Holt, owners of the 
vessel, were able to offer only this sum in settle- 
ment, loss investigators disclosed. 

It is announced that the Chinese State Shipping 
Company is to acuire twenty modern ocean and 
river steamers. These are to be used in the coastal 
and Yangste services, viz., four for the South 
Sea, two between Canton and Hongkong and be- 
tween Swatow and Amoy, four for the North 
China service and four passenger and four cargo 
ships for the Yangtse River. The purchase will 
be made in Great Britain, Germany and Denmark. 

Joseph Scott, former general manager of the 
Submarine Boat Corporation, operating the 
Transmarine Lines, has resigned as Assistant 
Deputy Recovery Administrator for shipping be- 
cause of his dissatisfaction with delay in a ship- 
ping code. He blamed both the industry and the 



government. He made clear that he was not step- 
ping out as a disgruntled official, but because he 
believes he could do more outside than inside the 
Recovery Administration, lie advocates "sound, 
scientific" development of the merchant marine 
instead of ocean mail subsidies. 

A barter contract has been arranged between 
certain British firms and the Flens Ved och 
Yirkes, A/B, a Swedish fuel and timber com- 
pany, for the exchange of British coal and 
Swedish timber. The value of the coal to be ex- 
ported is about 800.C00 kronen, while the other 
side of the bargain comprises about 30,000 tons 
of timber and pit-props, the latter of a thick un- 
barked type, up to ten inches, not previously ex- 
ported from Sweden. Last year the same Swedish 
concern concluded a similar agreement with 
British firms, the value of the coal shipments be- 
ing 700.000 kronen. 

The Hawaiian Dredging Company of Honolulu 
has been awarded the contract for improvement 
of Honolulu harbor. The firm's bid was $696,875. 
Specifications provide for cutting off part of Sand 
Island, opposite the harbor, to widen the harbor 
entrance between 400 and 500 feet. The channel 
is to be deepened from thirty-five to forty feet. 
The same corporation was also low bidder, with 
a bid of $2,966,700, on the tremendous repair 
basin at Pearl Harbor Navy Yard, work to begin 
in the very near future. This basin is the largest 
single construction project to be undertaken in 
Hawaii since the original Pearl Harbor. 

The new French turbo-electric superliner Nor- 
mandie, which is scheduled to enter the New 
York-Havre service in May, 1935, may prove to 
be a white elephant, according to the statement 
made at the annual meeting of the Compagnie 
Generale Transatlantique in Paris by Henri Can- 
gardel, the administrative director general. The 
total cost of the ship, he said, was expected to be 
700,000,000 francs, and the directors considered 
that in operation she would "almost show a profit." 
In a good year it was estimated that the gross 
profits might reach 30,000,000 francs, but as de- 
preciation charges and interest would be greater 
than that amount, it would be necessary to con- 
clude an agreement with the state to cover the 
deficit, he said. 

That the International Merchant Marine Com- 
pany are actively pursuing their recently an- 
nounced intention of disposing of their interests 



12 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January 1, 1934 



in companies whose vessels operate under the 
British flag was shown by the sale of seven Ley- 
land liners to Messrs. T. and J. Harrison, Lim- 
ited. As announced in our "Ship Sales" column. 
the vessels concerned are the Attention, 6,549 tons 
gross, 9.740 tons d\v.. built in 1928: Dakarian, 
6,426 tons gross, ^,^ ) ? tons dw.. built in 1921 : 
Darian, 6,4,34 tons gross, (, ,420 tons dw., built in 
1922; Davisian, 6,433 tons gross. 9.420 tons dw., 
built in 1923; Daytonian, 6,434 tons gross. 9,420 
tons dw., built in 1922; Delilian, 6,423 tons gross, 
9,420 tons dw.. built in 1923; and Dorelian, 6,431 
tons gross, 9,420 tons dw., built in 1923. 

According to the official returns, only nine ves- 
sels aggregating 31,000 tons gross were under 
construction in German shipyards on October 1 
last, compared with eleven ships of 49,000 tons 
gross on July 1. Of this total only about 10,000 
tons was for German account. The shipyards 
are hoping to secure orders, either for new con- 
struction or repairs, under the labor schemes of 
the Nazi administration, while the scrapping ar- 
rangements continue to provide a certain amount 
of employment. Otherwise the German ship- 
building industry is without any cheering prospeel 
for the winter. We understand that the Govern- 
ment are to lie asked to relieve shipbuilders of the 
burden of taxation; in view of the general short- 
age of funds, however, there is not considered 
very much prospect of this request being ac- 
ceded to. 

Widespread interest has been aroused by the 
construction of six fast fruit-carrying motorships 
in Swedish yards, three of them for Norwegian 
owners and three for Italian account. The fir-t 
trio are the Washington Express, the Oregon 
Express, and the California Express. Built to the 
order of Messrs. Bjornstad, Herlufson and (/un- 
dersell (Fruit Express Line). Oslo, they are de- 
signed for service in the fruit-carrying trade be- 
tween California and Europe. The Washington 
Express, built by A/B Gotaverken, Gothenburg, 
was delivered some weeks ago, and trials have 
now been run by the Oregon Express. This unit. 
which has been constructed at the ( )dense Staal 
Skibsvaerft, is 300 feet in length b. p.. forty-seven 
feet moulded breadth and thirty feet six inches 
moulded depth, the loaded draught being twenty- 
one feet. There are ten insulated compartments 
for the carriage of fruit, with a total capacitv of 
175.000 cubic feet. 



LABOR NEWS 



Austria is floating a new fifty-year 4 per cent 
internal lottery loan for 330.000,000 schillings 
(about $55,000,000). which is to be used in part 
for public works to give jobs to the unemployed. 
The lottery plan, combined with the loan, will pro- 
vide prizes aim mnting to 3,000,000 schillings a 
year for the first ten years. These will be distrib- 
uted twice annually, in March and September. 
The principal annual prize i- 1.O0O.000 schillings 
and there are 2.200 smaller prizes. 

Recent Scottish municipal elections showed a 
remarkable landslide in favor of the Labor Part). 
'Idle broad result of Glasgow's elections i- to 
transfer control of the city administration to the 
Labor Party, provided they are support 
they have been in the past, by the Scottish 
Protestant League, who had also a number of 
successes. The defeat of the Moderate Patty has 
been sweeping. They have lost twelve seats to 
Labor, including three to the Independent Labor 
Party, and four to the Protestant Labor Party. 

Sen Katayama. the initiator of the proletarian 
movement in Japan, has just died in Moscow, 
aged 74. after a severe illness. Mr. Katayama 
was the co-founder in 1901 of the Social Demo- 
cratic Party in Japan. The party was at once sup- 
pressed, but reappeared two years later in the 
form of a society for study and propaganda, the 
Plebs League. In 1904 Katayama was sent to the 
International Socialist Congress at Amsterdam 
as the Japanese delegate. There was a memorable 
moment at the congress— Japan and Russia were 
at war — when Katayama shook hand- with the 
Russian delegate. Subsequently he became a 
prominent figure in international Socialism. 

The high proportion of settlements, especially 
those by agreement, was emphasized by Senator 
Wagner, chairman of the National Labor Board, 
in making public a report on the board's strike 
activities. The board has handled 137 cases. Ap- 
proximately 300,000 workers have been involved 
in cases already dealt with. Regional board settle- 
ments would add greatly to this number. \\ 
said. "We are averting strikes, and that to us i- 
the most important phase, though it does not make 
headlines as do actual strikes." Senator \\ 
commented. '"The fact that men are willing to 



12 



January 1,1934 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



13 



refrain from striking at our request is additional 
evidence of a spreading faith in this new system 
of adjusting industrial relations." 

According to the quarterly figures published by 
the International Labor Office, the proportion of 
the population unemployed increased in the past 
year in only three countries — Austria, Czechoslo- 
vakia and Norway. In the other nine countries 
for which the office is able to get figures as to the 
proportion of the population unemployed there 
have been decreases in unemployment between 
September, 1932, and September, 1933, ranging 
from less than 1 per cent in Poland to more than 
7 per cent in Denmark. The decrease in that 
period in the United States was 2 per cent. The 
figures are not strictly comparable as some are 
based on the number drawing unemployment in- 
surance, others on trade union figures and still 
others on other estimates. 

World peace will be nothing but a dream until 
the workers exercise their latent strength and 
dominate the production and distribution of 
wealth, declared M. A. Bevan, Labor member of 
the British Parliament, in a speech on the menace 
of war. "If you want world peace you must re- 
organize the economic life of the world," he said. 
"The ordinary working men and women must as- 
sume control over economic activities and increase 
th'< workers' consuming power so that their em- 
ployers will be able to invest their money here 
and not have to look to other countries in which 
to invest it." There was only one guarantee for 
peace, he added, and that was to organize a labor 
movement so strong that their rulers would know 
that the nation was not behind them if they de- 
clared war. 

In the face of a sharp decline in business, the 
steel industry, under an NRA code, has increased 
its payroll more than $9,000,000 and added more 
than 92,000 employees in ninety days, the Steel 
Code Authority reports. Summarizing operation 
of the code's labor provisions, the report says: 
"Effects of labor provisions of code . . . have 
decreased the average number of hours worked 
per week for each employee. They have increased 
the total number of employees and they have in- 
creased the average weekly wage of the persons 
employed, as shown by a comparison between the 
months of June and October, based on reports 
from 146 identical companies, representing about 
90 per cent of the employees in the industry. 



Between these months the increase in total num- 
ber of employees was approximately 21 per cent. 
The decrease in average hours per week per em- 
ployee was nearly 20 per cent. The increase in 
total wages paid more than 22 per cent. 

Lender the pressure of public opinion, mobilized 
largely by the American Federation of Labor, the 
American Federation of Government Employees, 
and other progressive organizations, the United 
States Civil Service Commission made another re- 
treat in its recently expressed policy to ban from 
government employment men and women over 
40 years old. Following its action revoking its 
order prohibiting persons over 40 from taking- 
examinations for stenographer-typist and raising 
the limit in this instance to S3, the commission 
raised the age limit for certain teachers in the 
Indian service. For junior teachers of home eco- 
nomics the commission lifted the maximum age 
for applicants from 40 to 53 years and for other 
junior teachers of home economics from 35 to 
40 years. The original order barring persons over 
40 from examinations for stenographer and typist 
in the government service brought practically uni- 
versal condemnation from the organized labor 
movement and all other persons having industrial 
justice and the welfare of labor at heart. 

According to a bulletin just issued by the Do- 
minion Bureau of Statistics, 3. 924, ?33> persons 
in Canada, ten years old or over, were "gainfully 
employed" at the time of the taking of the census 
of 1931. This number includes 3,358,614 males 
and 665,910 females, but this disparity is largely 
accounted for by the fact that women doing 
housework in their own homes without wages, and 
having no other employment, were not included 
in the figure. The definition of the term "gain- 
fully employed" for the guidance of the census 
enumerators was : "An occupation by which the 
person who pursues it earns money or money 
equivalent, or in which he assists in the produc- 
tion of marketable goods. As would be expected 
in a country with such large agricultural areas as 
Canada, the largest group of "gainfully employed" 
comes under the classification of agriculture, 
which accounts for 1,127,767. Manufacturing 
employed 631,000; trade, 386,000; transporta- 
tion, not including the postal service, 306,000; 
construction, 256,000; forestry, fishing, and trap- 
ping, 97,000; mining, quarrying, oil and salt wells, 
72,000. 



13 



14 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January 1, 1934 



International Seamens' Union of America 

Affiliated with the American Federation of Labor 
and the International Seafarers' Federation 

EXECUTIVE BOARD 

President: ANDREW FURUSETH, 59 Clay St., 
San Francisco, Calif. Vice-Presidents: P. I'.. GILL. 
84 Seneca Street, Seattle Wash.; PERCY J. 
PRTOR, 1% Lewis Street, Boston, Mass.; OSCAR 
CARI^SON, 70 South St., New York, N. Y.; PAT- 
RICK O'BRIEN, 71 Main St., Buffalo, N. Y. ; PETER 
E. OLSEN, 49 Clay St., San Francisco, Calif; IVAN 
HUNTER. 1038 Third St., Detroit, Mich. Editor: 
PAUL SCHARRENBERG, 525 Market St., San 
Francisco, Calif. Secretary-Treasurer: VICTOR A. 
OLANDER, 666 Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, 111. 



DISTRICT UNIONS AND BRANCHES 
ATLANTIC DISTRICT 

EASTERN AND GULF SAILORS' ASSOCIATION 
Headquarters 

BOSTON, Mass PERCY J. PRYOR, Secretary 

1% Lewis Street. Phone Capitol T.lT.s 
Branches 

NEW YORK, N. Y ADOLF KILE, Agent 

70 South Street. Phone John 4-1637 

BALTIMORE, Md lOIIN BUSY, Agent 

723 S. Broadway. Phone Wolfe 5630 

NORFOIJC, Va FRED SORENSEN, Agent 

54 Commercial Place. Phone 23868 Norfolk 

MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, AND WATERTEN DERS' 

UNION OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters 

NEW YORK, N. Y OSCAR CARLSON, Secretary 

70 South Street, Telephone John 0975 
Branches 

BOSTON, Mass JOHN FITZGERALD, Agent 

6 Long Wharf 

BALTIMORE, Md JOHN BLEY, Agent 

723 S. Broadway. Phone Wolfe 5630 

NORFOLK, Va FRED SORENSEN, Acting Agent 

54 Commercial Place. 23868 Norfolk. 

MARINE COOKS AND STEWARDS' UNION OF THE 

ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters 

NEW YORK, N. Y D. E. ORANGE, Se< 

61 Whitehall Street. Phone Bowling Green 1297 

Branches 

NEW YORK (West Side Branch)— JAMES ALLEN, Agent 

61 Whitehall St. Phone Bowling Green 1297 

BOSTON, Mass JOHN MARTIN, Agent 

288 State Street 

BALTIMORE, Md JOHN BLEY, Agent 

723 S. Broadway. Phone Wolfe 5630 

NOVA SCOTIA SEAMEN'S UNION 

HALIFAX, N. S SAMUEL C. CONNELL, Sec'y-Treas. 

285% Gottingen Street 

FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE ATLANTIC 

BOSTON, Mass PERCY J. PRYOR, Secret) y 

J. M. NICKERSON, Agent 
\V 2 Lewis Street. Phone Richmond 0827 

HARBOR BOATMEN'S UNION OF CAMDEN, 
PHILADELPHIA AND VICINITY 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa J. T. MORRIS, Secretary 

303A Marine Bldg., Delaware Ave. and South St. 
FRANKLIN COUNTY BOATMEN'S UNION 

APALAClliroi.A. Fla If. M. MARSHALL, Secretary 

P. O. Box 213 

GREAT LAKES DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 
Headquarters 

CHICAGO, 111 VICTOR A. OLANDER, S- • 

CLAUDE M. GOSHORN, Treasurer 

810^ North Clark St. Phone Superior 517.". 

Branches 

BUFFALO, N. Y JOHN W. ELLISON. Ag< nt 

71 Main Street 

CLEVELAND. Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

1426 West Third Street. Phone Main 1842 

MILWAUKEE, Wis CHAS. BRADHERING, Agent 

234 South Second Street. Phone Dally 0489 

DETROIT, Mich IVAN HUNTER, A| ' 

1038 Third Street 

MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, WATERTENDERS AND 

COAL PASSERS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters 

DETROIT, Mich IVAN HUNTER, Secretary 

.IAS. HAYMAN, Treasurer 
1038 Third Street. Phone Cadillac 8170 



Branches 

BUFFALO, N. Y JOHN W. ELLISON. Agent 

71 Main Street. Phone Cleveland 7391 

CLEVELAND, Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

Rm. 211, Blackstone Bldg., 1426 W. 3rd St. Ph. Main 1842 

MILWAUKEE, Wis ERNEST ELLIS, Agent 

234 South Second Street. Phone Daily 0489 

CHICAGO, 111 IOHN McGINN, Agent 

156 W. Grand Ave. Phone Superior 2152 

MARINE COOKS AND STEWARDS' UNION 
Headquarters 

BUFFALO, N. Y J. M. SECORD, Secretary 

71 Main Street 
Branches 

CHICAGO. Ill O. EDWARDS, Agent 

64 West Illinois Street. Phone Delaware 1031 

CLEVELAND, Ohio B. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

Room 211, Blackstone Bldg., 1426 W. 3rd St. Ph. Main 1842 

MILWAUKEE, Wis OTTO EDWARDS. Agent 

234 South Second Street. Phone Broadway 489 

DETROIT, Mich 410 Shelby Street 

Phone Randolph 0044 

PACIFIC DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters 

SAX FRANCISCO. Cal GEORGE LARSON, Ac 

59 Clay Street. Telephone Kearny 2228 
Branches 

SEATTLE, Wash P. B. GILL, Agent 

86 Seneca St., P. O. Box 65. Phone Elliot 6752 

PORTLAND, Ore JOHN A. FEIDJE. Agent 

242 Flanders Street. Telephone Beacon 4336 

SAN PEDRO, Cal I. A. HAARKLAU. Agent 

(30 South Patoa Verdes Street Phone 2491.1 

PACIFIC COAST MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS. 

WATERTENDERS AND WIPERS' ASSOCIATION 

Headquarters 

sax FRANCISCO, Cal. .. . .1. MORRIS, Secretary 

58 Commercial Street. Telephone Kearny 3699 



MARINE COOKS AND STEWARDS' ASSOCIATION 

OF THE PACIFIC COAST 

Headquarters 

SAX FRAXCISCO, Cal EUGENE BURKE, Secretary 

86 Commercial Street. Phone Kearny 5955 
Branch 

SEATTLE, Wash J. L. NORKGAUER 

Room 203, Grand Trunk Dock Phone Main 2233 



ALASKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 
Headquarters 

s\x FRAXCISCO, Cal 49 Clav Street 

PETER E. OLSEN, Secretary. Phone Sutter 6452 
Branches 

SEATTLE, Wash CHARLES F. HAMMARIX. Agent 

St; Seneca St., P. o. Box 41'. Phone Billot 3425 

PORTLAND, Ore PAUL GERHARD T, 

242 Flanders Street 



EUREKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 

EUREKA, Calif G. A. SVENSON, Secretary 

P. O. Box 541. Phone 8-R-5 



COLUMBIA RIVER FISHERMEN'S PROTECTIVE 

UNION 

ASTORIA, Ore ARVID MATTSON, Sec'y, P. Box K 



COQUILLE RIVER FISHERMEN'S UNION 
BANDON, Ore F. REIMANN, Secretary 



TILLAMOOK COUNTY FISHERMEN'S UNION 
BAY CITY, Ore EARL BLANCHARD, Secretary 



ROGUE RIVER FISHERMEN'S UNION 
GOLD BEACH, Ore WARREN H. HOSKIXS, Sec'y-Tr. 

DEEP SEA FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters 

SEATTLE, Wash I' I: GILL, Seoretarv 

86 Seneca St., P. O. Box 65. Phone Elliot 6752 

Branch 

KETCHIKAN, Alaska....GUST OLSEN, Agt., P. O. Box A17 



FISHERMEN'S UNION OF PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND 

AND VICINITY 
CORDOVA, Alaska....N. SWANSON, Sec'y, P. O. Box 597 



FERRYBOATMENS UNION 

SAX FRANCISCO, Cal C. W. DEAL. Secretary 

Room "B," Ferry Building; Phone Douglas 8664 



FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION OF PUGET SOUND 

SEATTLE, Wash JOHN M. FOX, Secretary 

220 Maritime Bldg. 



14 



January 1, 1934 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



15 



Professional Cards 



Attorney for the Sailors' Union of the 
Pacific since its organization 

H. W. Hutton 

431 Pacific Bldg., Fourth and Market Sts. 

SAN FRANCISCO 

PHONE DOUGLAS 0315 



Albert Michelson 

ATTORNEY-AT-LAW 

Attorney for 

Marine Firemen and Watertenders" 

Union of Pacific 

Pacific Coast Marine Firemen, Oilers, 

Watertenders and Wipers' Association 

611 Russ Bldg. Tel. SUtter 3866 

San Francisco, California 



JENSEN 8c NELSEN 

Gents' Furnishing Goods 

Saver's Oil Skin Clothing 
Uniforms, Caps, Hats, Shoes 



110 EAST STREET 
GArficld 9633 



NEAR MISSION 
San Francisco 



ALVIN GERLACK 

ATTORNEY AT LAW 

SUITE 845, MILLS BUILDING 

Bush and Montgomery Streets 

San Francisco, Calif. 

Telephone DOuglas 1123 



ANDERSON dc LAMB 

Attorney s-at-Law 

1226 Engineers Bank Building 

CLEVELAND, OHIO 

Personal Injury Attorneys for S 
the Great Lakes 



SEATTLE, WASH. 
K. K. Tvete & Sons 

Established 1890 

MEN'S CLOTHING, SHOES, HATS, 
AND FURNISHING GOODS 

1300-1302 First Ave., cor. University 
SEATTLE, WASH. 

Westerman's 

UNION LABEL. 

Clothier, Furnisher 8C Hatter 

Alaska Outfitter 

TWO BIG STORES 

Store No. 1 — Cor. Main and First 

Store No. 2 — Westlake and Pine 

SEATTLE 



Tt has been estimated that Eng- 
land spends $200,000,000 a year on 
sweets. About 350,000 tons of candy 
are consumed annually. 



the Fanama Canal Zone. A special 
brand from Sweden is used there. 



RIDE IN PLANE CURES COLD 



An airplane ride was foreseen as a possible cure for the so-called 
"common cold" by Dr. Haldor Carlson of Chicago. "Pilots and 
stewardesses and other persons who have much to do with air- 
planes," Doctor Carlson explained, "have always believed that a high 
flight would cure a cold and numerous airplane officials have asked 
me about this belief. We made some further observations among 
passengers and we have revealed some fifty of them who have left 
Chicago with colds in various stages, from the 'sniffles' on, have 
arrived at Newark, New Jersey, airport with their colds entirely 
gone. This corroboration of what was believed to lie one of the 
folk-tales of the airplane business has made it worth while studying, 
and that is what we are doing now." 

It may be established. Doctor Carlson said, that the germ or 
combination of germs, as yet incompletely identified, which cause 
colds, cannot live in high altitudes. 



MOSCOW'S AMERICAN EMBASSY 



The first American Ambassador to the Soviet Union, William 
C. Bullitt, arrived at Moscow during the past month. It is under- 
stood that Mr. Bullitt's present stay at Moscow will be brief, as 
he intends to make a preliminary survey of the situation and, more 
specifically, consider the site of the new American Embassy which 
will be built there, and then return to Washington to report to 
President Roosevelt, returning for permanent residence later. 

Among Mr. Bullitt's companions was a building expert from the 
American State Department, who will consider plans for an Em- 
bassy building. The need for such a building is great because there 
is a shortage of suitable buildings, and Moscow has been over- 
crowded for years. 



OVER THE MOUNTAINS HIGH 



Vain would I know what the world may be 

Over the mountains high. 
Mine eyes can nought but the white snow see, 
And up the steep sides the dark fir tree, 

That climbs as if yearning to know. 

Ah ! what if one ventured to go ! 



Up, heart, up! and away! 

Over the mountains high. 
For my courage is young and my soul will 

be gay, 
If no longer bound straitly and fettered I stay, 

But seeking yon summit to gain. 

No more beat my wings here in vain. 



16 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January 1. 1934 



Taylor's Nautical Academy 

FOR NAVIGATORS AND MARINE ENGINEERS 
Established 1888 

Consular Bldg., Corner Washington 
and Battery Sts., opp. New Custom 

House, San Francisco, Calif. 
THIS OLD AND NOTEWORTHY 
SCHOOL is under the direct and per- 
sonal supervision of CAPT. HENRY 
TAYLOR, and equipped with all mod- 
ern appliances to illustrate and teach 
any branch of Navigation. 

The class of teachers of Navigation 
in the past have been those having 
simply a knowledge of Navigation and 
Navigation only. Conditions have 
changed, and the American seamen 
demand a man as a teacher with 
higher attainments than one who has 
only the limited al-ility of a seaman. 
The Principal of this School, keeping 
this always in view, studied several 
years the Maritime Law. and is now, 
in addition to being a thorough teacher of Navigation and its kindred 
subjects, a regularly admitted Member of the Bar. 

There is no standard of education required of a pupil entering the 
School, for no matter how ignorant the seaman may be, even in the 
rudiments of common education, Captain Henry Taylor will teach and 
raise him from the depths of ignorance to the height of the average 
well informed man, and in a comparatively short interval of time. 




Phone GARFIELD 2076 

DR. EDMOND J. BARRETT 

DENTIST 

Rooms 2429-30, 450 Sutter Building 
Hours: 9 A. M. to 5 P. M. and 

by Appointment 



Seamen's Furnishing Goods 

OTTO PAHL 

Shoes, Oilskins, Seaboots and Underwear 
Suits cleaned and pressed while you wait 

140 EMBARCADERO 
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 



Union-made Work Clothes and Shoes 

Uniform Caps, Oilskins and 

Seaboots, Belfast Cord 

and Buckles 



SAM'S 



Shore and Offshore Outfitting Store 
Formerly with Geo. A. Price 

4 Clay Street, San Francisco 

Near Sailors' Union Hall 
Phone GArf.cld 6784 



Czar Alexander I I freed 23,000 
serfs in the Russian Empire at the 
same time 4,000,000 slaves were set 
free in the United States. 



Large parts of the human brain 
ran he removed by surgery without 
handicapping the individual, accord- 
ing to the Yale School of Medicine. 



Usher at a wedding (to a cold 
dignified lady) — Are you a friend 
of the groom? 

Lady — No, indeed! I'm the bride's 
mother. 



Now in Our New Location 

«624 MARKET*- 

Opposite Palace Hotel 




-BOSS- 

YOUR UNION TAILOR 



Wham 
A little man was ushered into the 
witness box. After the usual pre- 
liminaries, the magistrate told him 

to tell the court what happened. 

The man began in rambling nar- 
rative and finally ended up with: 

"And then nn wife hit me on the 
head with an oak leaf." 

"Well, that couldn't have hurt 
you. surely," said the magistrate. 

"Oh, couldn't it?" replied the little 
man, with feeling. "It was the oak 
leaf from the center of the dining 
room table." — London Answers. 



Might Fade Out With Josephine 
During the filming of "Napoleon," 
someone remarked to Ricardo Cor- 
tez that the movie ought to have a 
happy ending. 

"They're giving it one." Ric re- 
torted. "They're letting Napoleon 
win the battle of Waterloo." — 
Boston Transcript. 



Back to Normal. 
Nurse — "I think he's regaining 
consciousness, doctor: he tried to 
blow the foam off his medicine." — 
Tit-Bits. 



A Great Store 

Built Upon 

Successful 

Service to 

Millions 



H 



HALE BROS. 

INC. 

Market at Fifth 

SAN FRANCISCO 
SUTTER 8000 



THE 

James H. Barry Co. 

The Star Press 

Printing 



1122-1124 MISSION STREET 
SAN FRANCISCO 

We print "The Seamen's Journal" 



In San Francisco 

KODAKS 

Exchanged f Bought 
Sold 

at 

SAN FRANCISCO 
CAMERA EXCHANGE 

88 Third St. near Mission St. 

CAMERA SHOP 
145 Kearny St. near Sutter St. 



16 




Our Aim : The Brotherhood of the Sea 



Our Motto : Justice by Organization 



Vol. XLVIII, No. 2 



SAN FRANCISCO, FEBRUARY 1, 1934 



Whole No. 2041 



THE N R A - WHAT IS IT? 




O ONE has analyzed the National Re- 
covery Act with a more thorough under- 
standing of ultimate results than Donald 
R. Richberg, General Counsel of the 
'J NRA. Mr. Richberg was formerly Chief 
Counsel for Railway Unions and General Counsel 
for Railway Labor Executives since 1926. Here 
is his own definition of the great NRA adventure : 

What is the National Recovery Administration 
trying to do for American business? What does self- 
government of industry mean? Are we moving toward 
government control of industry or industrial control 
of government? 

These are questions of the hour which extremists 
and partisans answer with vehement assertions. Old 
Guard conservatives denounce the efforts of the Re- 
covery Administration to help trades and industries 
to organize themselves, as "political dictatorship" and 
"regimentation." Old Guard radicals denounce these 
same efforts as a surrender to "big business" and as 
the first steps toward an "industrial dictatorship" and 
fascism. It should be quite evident that when the 
most reactionary leaders of industry and the most 
radical leaders of labor join in equally passionate hos- 
tility to the recovery program, it cannot be accurately 
appraised or described by either, but is a menace to 
the aims of both. 

It is a fact, loudly conceded by the Communists, 
that, if the NRA succeeds, any further advance of 
communism — not only in the United States but also 
in the rest of the world — will be postponed at least 
for one and probably for many generations. It is a 
fact, equally recognized by those who still cling to 
laissez-faire economics, that, if the NRA succeeds, 
any return to an unrestrained, competitive individual- 
ism will be postponed for at least many generations. 

Not long ago I said that the Recovery Administra- 
tion was seeking to establish a half-way house of 
democratic cooperation for the common good, mid- 
way between the anarchy of unplanned, unregulated 
industrialism and the tyranny of state control of in- 
dustry. If this were an exact statement, one might 
wonder at the bitter attacks upon our project from the 
extreme right and the extreme left. One might ex- 
pect the reactionaries of the right to criticize us 
gently for going too far, but to recognize gladly that 
we were retarding the swift current that has carried 
one great nation after another into some form of 
state socialism in recent years. One might expect 
the radicals of the left to say that we were moving 
all too slowly, but at least in the desirable direction. 

In truth, if we were only moving into a half-way 
house, both right and left might expect to move us 



out in due course of time — the one to move us back, 
the other to move us on. Probably my figure of speech 
was inexact. A nation does not move into a house. 
A people are always on the road to somewhere. When 
we turned aside from the old road that went deeper 
and deeper into the swamps that are called "cyclical 
depressions," and when we rejected that hazardous 
ascent into the barren-looking and gloomy realm of 
state socialism, and when we chose to blaze a new trail 
through the foothills, it became plain to all opponents 
that unless this new advance were soon checked the 
American people would be unlikely ever to retrace 
their steps. 

Without straining too far a figure of speech, it may 
be readily conceded that after a nation has definitely 
chosen a middle course, after it has rejected both the 
counsels of timidity that oppose any real change of 
direction and the counsels of rashness that urge a 
revolutionary change, a few years of progress will find 
it moving far away from the promised lands that lay 
either to the right or to the left when it chose the 
middle road. 

There is no compromise in any real sense in the 
plan of the National Industrial Recovery Act. In the 
determination to preserve the individualistic, competi- 
tive incentives that have ruled the affairs of men 
through all recorded history, there is a profound trust 
in experience, a rejection of pure theory and abstract 
logic, and an acceptance of human nature as we find 
it. In the determination to create new mechanisms 
of cooperation, in order to enrich and to exact indi- 
vidual existence, there is a profound faith in the ca- 
pacity of human beings to work together and to plan 
together for common improvement. 

And in the refusal to substitute as the objective of 
the individual the abstract good of society, and the 
welfare of a theoretical entity called the state, there 
is a profound recognition of the everlasting demand 
of the individual man and woman for self-advance- 
ment and self-realization that has lifted man at his 
best to the heights of public service and has dragged 
him down at his worst to the depths of cruelty and 
greed. 

The man who faces the facts of the industrial world 
of today knows that business enterprises must be 
planned, coordinated and governed so that all that 
can be produced and used to raise the average level 
of well-being will be produced and exchanged with 
that object in view. We can no longer permit the 
daily welfare of millions of people to depend upon the 
accident of a fortunate balance of producing and con- 
suming power. We can no longer tolerate an indus- 
trial anarchy in which farmers produce great quanti- 
ties of food which city dwellers need but cannot get, 
while city dwellers produce great quantities of house- 
hold supplies which farmers need but cannot get. 

We can no longer tolerate the investment of billions 



18 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURN 



AL 



February 1. 1934 



of dollars in machines designed to produce and dis- 
tribute the comforts of daily living, which then rust 
unused while millions of willing workers suffer desti- 
tution because they are not employed to operate these 
machines. 

No intelligent direction of human affairs would tol- 
erate such conditions; and unless we achieve this in- 
telligent direction we will be destroyed by the very 
machines which we have created to enrich human 
life. 

We have no choice between standing still and mov- 
ing on. We must move on, either into greater chaos, 
into bigger and worse depressions, or into an orderly, 
planned and purposeful direction of industry. 

Our only choice is the manner of creating this es- 
sential government of industry. We have the mech- 
anisms of political government. Whether they work 
well or ill, they could be used to govern industry. 
But if we would preserve the individual and his self- 
seeking for individual achievement and happiness, we 
must not resort to an exterior, imposed, political gov- 
ernment of industry. We must find means of indus- 
trial self-government that will leave the individual 
economically free just as the institutions of self-gov- 
ernment are designed to leave the individual politically 
free. 

This is the great experiment and the great adven- 
ture of the XRA — the search for the means of pre- 
serving the freedom of the individual in industry — the 
freedom of the owner, the manager and the wage 
earner, through the participation of each in industrial 
self-government. It is no easy search. Democracy 
and liberty are only achieved by those who have cour- 
age and patience and the capacity for self-discipline. 
But in that capacity is found the reason and means 
of all human progress. If we cannot rely upon that 
power, we have little basis for any faith in the future 
of mankind. If we do rely upon that power — upon 
self-government— we should take the middle road. 



THE FLIGHT TO HAWAII 



The tactical flight of six United States Navy 
planes from San Francisco to Pearl Harbor, 
Hawaii, was a demonstration of the efficiency of 
the air service and the soundness of its equip- 
ment. It was a long turn of duty and. as Com- 
mander McGinnis says, "a tough trip" with poor 
visibility and a night of fog. "But," he adds, "it 
was no worse than night-flying we have experi- 
enced off the coast of Mexico and around San 
Diego." The distance was 2,400 miles, and the 
comparison is made that on no ocean leg did 
General Balbo's much larger squadron fly so far. 
It is not a case for comparisons. The objects in 
view were different. The Italians planned to fly 
great distances over land as well as over sea and 
to visit the World's Fair at Chicago. Their course 
took them by the northern route across the At- 
lantic, and their success was associated with the 
feasibility of commercial flying. 

The Americans made a service flight, and it was 
proved that naval aviation has made an impressive 
advance since the attempt of Commander John 
Rodgers to make a nonstop flight to Hawaii ended 



in a valiant failure not far from the islands. To- 
day the aviation branch of the United States Navy 
has no superior among the fleets of the world. 
Every other nation knows how well we are 
equipped in the air. The United States was first 
across the Atlantic in a memorable flight long ago. 
There has been no decline in the skill, ability and 
endurance of American aviators. If any weakness 
exists in units of the Navy, it cannot l>e found 
in the air arm. In an emergency it would be ad- 
visable to add to its strength. 



MR. PEABODY'S SCHEME 



Life, that sparkling monthly, has effectively 
exposed various fraudulent advertisements. We 
quote details of a recent expose hy our con- 
temporary : 

Take an ad like this: "Positions aboard ocean 
liners ; good pay, visit Hawaii, China, Japan ; 
experience unnecessary; self -addressed envelope 
brings list. Mr. W. Peabody, Mt. Vernon, X. Y." 

— and read through such choice bits of Mr. 
Peabody 's follow-up as this: 

"There are not half enough American seamen 
to man American ships. There is no age limit, 
provided one is active. Citizenship unnecessary. 
However, American citizens are given preference 
when obtainable." 

— and you'll have some idea of how Mr. Pea- 
body has employed the wanderlust-employment 
appeal to induce people to pay $2 for a list of 
steamship companies and a pamphlet of advice. 
And so many people! 

Then. Tilt back in your swivel chair and pon- 
der a bit of government information such as this: 

. . . the United States Shipping Board had infor- 
mation to the effect that in every port in the United 
States there was a breadline for seamen. At the port 
of New York alone unemployed seamen numhered 
22,000, of which 70 per cent were Americans. . . . Men 
holding captains' licenses are accepting positions as 
stewards on board ships. 

— and you'll be better able to understand the 

state of mind of Inspector Crowley of the United 

States Post Office Department when he expressed 

himself, bluntly, like this: 

The evidence shows, and I so find, that this is a 
scheme for obtaining money through the mails by 
means of false and fraudulent pretenses, representa- 
tions, and promises. 

All of which may or may not point a moral, but 

anyway Inspector Crowley was pretty mad. 



February 1, 1934 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



19 



"REDS" AS ALLIES OF SHIPOWNERS 



^J^ASH tub t L 






This photograph shows that the Marine "Wreckers" Industrial Union has become a partner of 

reactionary shipowners and has formed an alliance with them to defeat the National Maritime Board 

Plan which provides for union recognition and collective bargaining! The tell-tale banner is stretched 

across the building on the New York waterfront where the "reds" make their headquarters. 



SHIP SUBSIDIES AND LABOR 



The International Seamen's Union of America 
is urging shipowners to include in the pending 
shipping code provision for a National Maritime 
Board to adjust labor disputes and evolve an 
orderly give-and-take relationship between owners 
and the men that go down to the sea in ships. 

It is significant of the labor hostility of certain 
big eastern shipowners that this proposal is being 
opposed in Washington. Such maritime boards 
have been operating successfully on the ships of 
America's two chief competitors on the seas. 
England has had such a board for twenty years, 
Japan for ten years. The history of our own 
shipping in those years has been one of constant 
bickering, constant warfare in Congress over 
legislation. 

No single industry has been showered with so 
many golden favors from its government as has 
American shipping. Senator Hugo Black's com- 
mittee now investigating ocean mail subsidies 
hears that shipowners are getting an average of 
$36,000,000 a year from the taxpayers in mail 
subsidies, that they have collected $140,000,000 
since 1928. Loans at 3 T / 2 per cent and under for 
building and reconditioning vessels have totaled 



$144,000,000 in the past decade. Since 1924 the 
Government has sold to private shipowners 438 
vessels which cost $560,000,000 to build. They 
were sold for $40,000,000. 

Congress, by the Recovery Act, hoped to create 
an orderly system of industrial management with 
Government, capital and labor cooperating. Most 
industries are acting in good faith. 

In view of the startling disclosures of the Black 
committee, shipowners would seem to be in a poor 
position to adopt an arrogant attitude toward the 
Government or labor. 

An argosy so laden with special favors as this 
should bring back something of industrial states- 
manship, if nothing more. — Editorial in Scripps- 
Howard Newspapers. 



We have restricted credit, we have restricted 
opportunity, we have controlled development, and 
we have come to be one of the worst ruled, one 
of the most completely controlled and dominated 
governments in the civilized world — no longer a 
government by free opinion, no longer a govern- 
ment by conviction and the vote of the majority, 
but a government by the duress of small groups 
of dominant men. — President Wilson. 



Empire is an immense egotism. — Emerson. 



20 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February 1, L934 



NEWS AND COMMENT 

Concerning Seamen the World Over 



According to reports received by the Inter- 
national Transport Workers' Federation, the or- 
ganization of the German seamen within Mr. 
Hitler's "corporative" framework has not had all 
plain sailing. Recalcitrants are openly threatened 
with destruction, but silent opposition to the new 
scheme has not been crushed. 

* * * 

The big French shipping firm, La Compagnie 
des Chargeurs reunis, has decided to apply a cut 
of 10 per cent to the wages of its crews. Origi- 
nally the reduction was to have taken effect on 
November 10, but following intervention by the 
Minister of Mercantile Marine it was provision- 
ally postponed until January. The French Sea- 
men's Federation and the Mercantile Marine 
Officers' Association are agreed to a vigorous 
resistance against this attack on wages. 

* * * 

A recent ballot by members of the Swedish 
Seamen's Union resulted in favor of prolongation 
of the shipping agreement. Of 5,182 votes, a 
record poll in a ballot on an agreement. S3 per 
cent were in favor of prolongation, the remainder 
of termination of the agreement. It is interesting 
to note that precisely in places where the Red 
Industrial Opposition was particularly busy in 
urging the men to vote for termination the ma- 
jority in favor of prolongation was above the 
average. As a result of the ballot the agreement 
will continue in force for one year. 

* * * 

Before the Fascists' coming into power the 
Italian seamen had a cooperative shipping society, 
"Garibaldi," which was in a prosperous condition 
and possessed a capital of several millions. After 
their victory the Fascists, who laid hands on the 
possessions of all the trade-unions, did not give 
the 65,000 members of the cooperative an oppor- 
tunity for winding it up, but placed it under the 
direction of a commissioner. Ever since the co- 
operative, once so flourishing, has gone from bad 
to worse. The official Italian journal // Lavoro 
Fascista, recently published the balance-sheet. 
The expenditure includes 500,904.41 liras "gen- 
eral administration." and 458.882.89 liras "mis- 



cellaneous losses." Thus the seamen's money was 

>pent by Fascist manipulators. 

* * * 

A meeting of fishermen took place at Reyk- 
javik, Iceland, recently and a resolution was 
unanimously adopted asking the municipal au- 
thorities of Reykjavik to use their influence with 
the shipowners, who are laying up most of the 
trawlers and do not intend to resume fishing oper- 
ations. At the same time the meeting demanded 
an increase of the unemployment benefit to a level 
sufficient for the maintenance of the unemployed 
and their families. Finally, it also formulated the 
demand that, in view of the failure of private 
enterprise, the authorities should extend the scope 

of municipal fishing. 

* * * 

The shipowners at Gdynia, Poland, have given 
notice terminating their agreements with thi 
men. They propose discontinuance of the exist- 
ing agreement, a reduction in wages and overtime 
payment, cancellation of equivalent days off for 
Sundays spent on board, reduction of the paid 
annual holiday from eighteen to fifteen days t<> 
four to eight days. The proposals of the employ- 
ers, who are in various ways trying to undermine 
the organization of the seamen, have caused deep 
resentment. The seamen are firmly resolved to 
light for their rights to the utmost, and a fierce 

struggle must be reckoned with. 

* * * 

The Swedish Minister of Commerce recently 
requested a member of the Social Board and a 
member of the Board of Trade to revise, on lines 
laid down by the Minister, a Bill regulating hours 
of work on board ship which has been drafted 
by the Board of Trade and the Social Board. The 
Minister stated that the bill in it> present form 
did not appear to go far enough in the limitation 
of hours of work on board ship, especially as re- 
gards the maximum hours of the deck crew. For 
the purposes of the revision, the Minister indi- 
cated that the bill should conform more closely 
to the principles generally observed in regard to 
hours ashore, which are to some extent embodied 
in the Draft Convention prepared by the Inter- 
national Labor ( >flice. 

* * * 

A remarkable story of the trouble experienced 
by a vessel leaving Fremantle in ferreting out 
stowaways was told at Jarrow Police Court re- 
cently when two men were charged on remand 
with stowing away in the steamer Isieworth on 



February 1, 1934 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



21 



her recent passage from Australia. When the 
Isleworth was at Fremantle, several men who at- 
tempted to get on board were turned away half 
an hour before the vessel sailed. Later a search 
was made and a stowaway found. While the 
vessel was lying in the roads two more stowaways 
were found, and after the vessel put to sea three 
more gave themselves up. Captain Evans put 
back to land them, and delayed the vessel thirty- 
six hours. Thereafter the two prisoners, who 
were natives of Sunderland and Newcastle, came 
out of the bunkers and gave themselves up to the 
chief engineer. The accused were sentenced to 
seven days' imprisonment. 



* * * 



' Last year the Chinese Seamen's Union decided 
on a boycott of the China Navigation Company, 
the biggest and most influential shipping firm of 
the country. This decision was taken in connec- 
tion with a movement which had taken place on 
the steamship Woossung and had been crushed 
by violence, one member of the crew being killed 
and several seriously wounded. After lasting 164 
days the conflict ended in an agreement between 
the Canton Section of the Chinese Seamen's 
Union and representatives of the company. It 
provides for the payment by the company of 
$160,000 (Mex.) to compensate the seamen for 
losses of wages, etc", incurred during the boycott, 
and the reengagement of all the men who were 
sacked during the conflict. According to the 
Chinese Union, the company has kept its bargain. 
May this fine success encourage the Chinese sea- 
men to organize in ever greater numbers. — From 
the Current Press Report of the International 

Transport Workers' Federation. 
* * * 

Replacement of de luxe trans-Atlantic giants by 
modestly comfortable small ships of very high 
speed is predicted by a British shipping authority. 
He thinks the floating super-Babylons of the years 
since the war belonged to an age of extravagance 
which will not return. This is a forecast to which 
one big objection presents itself. It is too sensible 
to come true. The extravagance and ostentation 
of the late golden era may not soon come back 
on the Atlantic, but harder to eradicate is the 
passion for the latest thing out. That is why the 
nations have been competing so ardently for the 
blue ribbon of the Atlantic. The newest and fast- 
est liner will draw the crowd, not really because 
it is fastest but because it is newest. The extra 
bit of speed is only the excuse for building an- 



other huge unnecessary novelty. Small ships are 
not likely to supplant the titans of today, because 
a small ship by definition is not big enough to 
accommodate everybody at the same time. 

* * * 

A comparison between the Panama and the 
Suez canals is presented in a recently published 
book : The Suez Canal, by Sir Arnold T. Wilson. 
It seems that the dues at Suez are much higher 
than the dues at Panama, nor is there any good 
reason for these higher charges. The Suez Canal 
may be double the length of the Panama Canal, 
but the cost of construction has been less than 
half and, lying continuously at sea level, it costs 
less to run. The governor of the Panama Canal 
Zone receives a salary equivalent to £.2,500 and in 
the Suez Company there are thirty-two directors, 
all of whom receive a salary in excess of that. 
The shipowners complain that Suez Canal profits 
have been excessive. In 1875 the British paid 
£4,000,000 for their shares. At 5 per cent the 
interest received to date would have been about 
£11,500,000. In fact, these profits have been 
£38,000,000. The directors of the company agree 
that, since 1883, increased dividends have yielded 
£59,000,000 to the whole body of shareholders. 
But they reply that decreased dues have yielded 

£60,000,000 to the shipowners. 

* * * 

German police authorities have recently paid 
special attention to ships visiting the ports of 
their country. Searches are made on board for 
"Communist" literature, whether the ship is Ger- 
man or foreign. Recently two Danish seamen fell 
victim to these searchings. • When the Kong 
Haakon called at Stettin, Communist literature 
in the German language was found among the 
cargo. All the members of the crew denied any 
knowledge of the documents, but upon a search 
being made of the crew's quarters two seamen 
were found in possession of a forbidden German 
journal. This was sufficient for them to be placed 
under arrest and subjected to a close cross-exami- 
nation at the police station. When the ship sailed 
the police refused to release the two men, who 
are to be submitted for trial on a charge of "high 
treason." A well-known Danish jurist, an expert 
in international law, has declared that the German 
procedure is a breach of the international regu- 
lations in force. The Danish Seamen's Union has 
entered a protest with the Ministry for Foreign 
Affairs. 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



Februarv 1. 1^34 



Seamen's Journal 

Established in 1887 
Published on the first day of each month at 525 
Markel Street, San Francisco, by and under the di- 
rection of the International Seamen's Union of 
America. 

1'AIL SCIIAKIIKXBERG, Editor 



Entered at the San Francisco Postoffic-e aa Becond- 
i lass matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate 
of postage provided for In Section 1103, Act of Oc- 
tober 3, 1917, authorized September 7. 1918. 

Subscription price $1.00 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 



NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will be 
published, provided they are Of general interest. 
brief, legible, written on one side only of the paper. 
and accompanied by the writer's own name and ad- 
dress. The Journal is not responsible for the ex- 
pressions of correspondents, nor for the return of 
manuscripts. 



February 1, 1934 



FIXAL SHIPPING CODE 1 1 FAR IXC, 



The final public hearing on the pending Ship- 
ping Code has been scheduled for January 31, 
and there is every prospect that approval of the 
"'master" code will follow shortly. To understand 
the difficulty of code making it should be borne 
in mind that drafts of codes and revision of drafts 
are presented by employers only. In the case of 
the Shipping Code the original draft and at least 
thirty revised drafts were all submitted by the 
American Steamship Owners' Association. In 
seeking changes in the pending code, the Seamen's 
representatives must convince a majority of the 
shipowners as well as the Deputy Administrator 
in charge of the Shipping Code. 

As soon as the "blanket" or "master" Shipping 
Code has been approved, numerous division and 
subdivision codes will have to take their turn for 
action. Only when all the division codes have 
been approved, will the shipping industry be en- 
tirely under the National Recovery Act. 

One of the principal points of difference in the 
pending "master" Shipping Code is the question 
of labor representation on the Code Authority. 

NRA codes consist of two major parts. ( >ne 
part prohibits various forms of unfair practice 
which business concerns have resorted to in order 
to take trade from each other. These practices 
run all the way from price cutting to commercial 
bribery. This part of the codes attempts to civil- 
ize, or humanize, commercial transactions, and 



largely concerns the owners and managers of 
industry. 

The other major part of the codes are the labor 
sections guaranteeing the right of the workers to 
organize into bona fide trade-unions without inter- 
ference from employers. Rules in the labor sec- 
tion also prohibit employers from paying less than 
the minimum wage rates or working employees 
longer hours than the code establishes, and from 
making company union membership compulsory 
as the price of a job. 

In the hearings before the NRA on practically 
every code the organized employers, speaking 
through their trade associations, persistently and 
militantly fight adequate wage rates, decent hours, 
the right of the workers to organize in effec- 
tive trade-unions for their protection, and are 
especially vindicative against the company union 
prohibition. In short, while the employers are 
friendly to the unfair practice section of the codes 
they are hostile to the labor section, the proper 
administration of which is of vital interest to the 
employees. 

In view of the well-known opposition ol most 
of the employers' associations to the labor section 
of the codes, it seems reasonable and appropri- 
ate that to secure impartial administration there 
should be adequate labor representation on the 
code authorities. For the reasons stated, the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America will insist 
upon such representation and carry on that tight 
to the finish. 



THE CRUX OF THE MATTER 



Codes are held up by only one cause— dis- 
agreement on labor policy. 

1. When employers get together with unions 
before the code is drawn the code hearing is short. 

2. When the employers are forced to get to- 
gether with unions by the deputy administrator 
the hearing is short. 

3. But when employers ignore, or refuse to 
recognize, unions and try to evade the clear pro- 
visions of the law in reference to collective bar- 
gaining, codes are delayed, and hearings are long. 



Ideals are like the stars: you will not succeed 
in touching them with your hands, but, like the 
seafaring man on the desert of waters, if you 
choose them as your guides and follow them, you 
reach your destiny. — Carl Schurz. 



February 1,1934 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



23 



NATIONAL MARITIME BOARD 



While it appears that the National Maritime 
Board plan will not be written into the Shipping 
Code, it is fairly certain that a substitute plan 
providing for Divisional and National Shipping- 
Labor Boards will be adopted as an important 
part of the general or master code for the ship- 
ping industry. 

In the meantime, Senator Hiram W. Johnson, 
at the request of the International Seamen's 
Union of America, has introduced a resolution in 
the United States Senate, designed to call for 
action by three members of the President's Cabi- 
net with respect to the Maritime Board plan. The 
resolution, adopted by unanimous vote of the 
Senate on January 10, reads as follows : 

Senate Resolution 122 

Whereas the development and successful operation 
of an American merchant marine is, to a very large 
degree, based upon intelligent cooperation and good 
will between managers of operation and the personnel 
aboard the ships; and 

Whereas the value of such cooperation and the de- 
sirability of establishing and maintaining such har- 
monious relations has been fully recognized by two 
of the world's great maritime nations — Great Britain 
and Japan — in each of which national maritime boards 
have been organized jointly by shipowners and seamen 
for the express purpose of securing cooperation and 
fostering the sea power and the maritime supremacy 
of the respective nations; and 

Whereas cooperation and the promotion of har- 
monious relations between American shipowners and 
American seamen could be obtained by means of an 
American National Maritime Board with the follow- 
ing objects and purposes: 

(a) The development of seamanship, skill, and effi- 
ciency. 

(b) The prevention and adjustment of differences 
between shipowners and seamen of all ratings. 

(c) The establishment, revision, and maintenance of 
standard rates of wages and approved conditions of 
employment in the merchant marine. 

(d) The selection and, when possible, the operation 
of employment offices for seamen in cooperation with 
the United States Departments of Commerce and 
Labor: Therefore be it 

Resolved, That the Secretary of the Department of 
Commerce, the Secretary of the Department of Labor, 
and the Postmaster General be, and they are hereby, 
requested to confer upon the advisability of initiating 
an American National Maritime Board, as herein out- 
lined, and for that purpose to call into conference 
such representatives of shipowners and seamen as 
may, in their judgment, be helpful in the formation of 
such an organization, and to report their proceedings 
and their conclusions to the Senate. 

The resolution is now in the hands of the Secre- 
tary of Commerce, Secretary of Labor and the 
Postmaster General, and the subject-matter con- 
tained in the National Maritime Board plan will 
have the attention of department heads already 
in close touch with merchant marine problems. 
All of which proves that the executive officers of 



the International Seamen's Union of America 
are right on the job and prepared to approach 
problems from more than one angle. 



A SCHEME THAT FAILED 



To those who so carefully laid the plans for 

the organization of a company union for seamen 

on the Great Lakes, we respectfully dedicate the 

following quotation from Burns: 

The best-laid schemes o' mice an' men, 
Gang aft a-gley, 

And leave us nought but grief and pain, 
For promised joy. 

Here is the story : The Lake Carriers' Associ- 
ation held the so-called "conventions" of its com- 
pany unions at Cleveland early in January. Vice- 
Presidents Ivan Hunter and Patrick O'Brien of 
the International Seamen's Union of America, 
Acting Secretary Claude M. Goshorn of the 
Sailors' Union, and Secretary J. M. Secord of 
the Marine Cooks and Stewards' Union, were in 
Cleveland at the time, prepared to show that the 
International Seamen's Union had been author- 
ized to represent a majority of the men. They 
attempted to enter the "convention" as delegates, 
but were stopped by the chief shipping master of 
the Lake Carriers' Association, who was on guard 
at the door. Later a committee from the ''con- 
vention" called upon the before-mentioned Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America officers with 
an invitation for Secretary Victor A. Olander to 
address the gathering. Secretary Olander was in 
Washington attending to code matters and our 
officials declined to send a substitute. The "dele- 
gates" adopted a wage scale in excess of the Union 
demands, and also a resolution containing what 
was reported in the newspapers as an "ultimatum" 
that if the Lake Carriers' Association failed to 
accept these terms, the committee having charge 
would turn its authority over to officials of the 
International Seamen's Union of America. Thus 
ended the first chapter in the history of the Lake 
Carriers' Association's personally conducted com- 
pany union. 

From the employers' point of view, the affair 
was a complete fiasco to the point of being utterly 
ridiculous. 



The man who expects immediate results from 
joining a union is like the fellow who planted fruit 
trees one day and chopped them down the next 
because no fruit grew on them the first night. — 
Typographical Journal. 



24 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February 1. 1934 



CHRISTMAS GIFTS 



Ewing Y. Mitchell, assistant Secretary of Com- 
merce, received a $50 box of cigars from a steam- 
ship company as a Christmas present. He sent 
it back and ordered the employees of the six de- 
partment divisions under him to refuse all such 
gifts. And he said : 

I regard the matter as extremely important, though 
the present instance may not seem of large pro- 
portions. 

Mitchell was right; the matter is extremely 
important. Steamship companies and other con- 
cerns having business with the Government do 
not pass out $50 boxes of cigars to federal em- 
ployees unless they expect to get something sub- 
stantial in return. And for this reason no .govern- 
ment employee can afford to accept such gifts. 

We all know of the little black bag which 
Doheny sent Secretary Fall, and what followed. 
That affair was of large proportion. But the 
principle remains the same even if the offering 
is only a $2.50 box of cigars or a necktie. In this 
respect no public servant can be too careful. Many 
a corrupt deal has begun with a box of gift cigars. 



OUR NATIONAL DEBT 

President Roosevelt's budget message to Con- 
gress showed a vast increase in the public debt 
of the United States, owing to the expenditures 
of large sums of money on the various items of 
the recovery program. 

The President estimates that with the addi- 
tional expenditures needed during the next year. 
the national debt will reach the monumental total 
of $31,834,000,000 on June 30, 1935, the end of 
the first biennium of his administration. 

But by that time he is confident that condition- 
will have so righted themselves it will be possible 
once more to make income match receipts and 
in the years following to resume the normal 
process of debt retirement. 

To some Americans the debt figures are bound 
to raise questions as to the soundness of the 
future credit of the United State-. 

But this fact should be kept in mind : From 
the time we entered the war until the final loan 
was made to European countries, which since 
have welched on their obligations, our national 
debt jumped in less than four years from 
$1,225,000,000 to $25,482,000,000, or over $24,- 



000,000,000. And if the United States of America 
could spend over $24,000,000,000 to win a Euro- 
pean war, from which she derived no benefits, 
whose results have not made the world safe for 
democracy nor more peaceful nor even more de- 
cent, shall the nation be niggardly in supporting 
measures to win a war on a depression which so 
vitally affects the life, liberty and happim 
her own people ? 



1. \V. W. GRAFTERS 



The Xew York Times of January 4 prints a 
new- item showing how easy it is for any enter- 
prising grafter to use the I. W. W. as a means 
of collecting funds. 

To quote from the Times: 

Arthur Fried, 22 years old. got his "Cafeteria Local 
Union 460 of the I. \V. W." out of a book in the public 
library, according to detectives who took him to the 
police line-up on a charge of attempted extortion. 

Fried, who lives at 1173 Walton Avenue, the Bronx, 
studied up on I. \V. W. unions, then formed hi- one- 
man union, printed letterheads and opened offices at 
Kio West Seventy-second Street. 

Then he called on cafeteria owners, commanded 
them to pay their help "union" rates and when they 
refused, hired sandwich men at SI a day to picket 
their places. 

In several instances, according to Detectives Leddy 
and Eason of the Alien Squad, the restaurant owners 
paid Fried to call in his pickets, hut Nathan Brand- 
wine oi 154 West Twenty-eighth Street halked and 
caused Fried's arrest. He said Fried tried to extort 
$25 from him. 

So it would appear that the "red" saviors, in 
addition to dividing the working people, furnish 
an easy opportunity for smart young men to tap 
the employers. Yes. that is one good reason why 
tin- American workers have not made greater 
progress. The I. \V. \Y. fakers are always ready 
to sell out ! 



WITHIN OLD JAPAN 



'Idle growing alarm of Japan's militaristic and 
moneyed classes over unrest among the peasant 
and agrarian groups is evidenced by the recent 
announcement that the great House of Mitsui, 
leading capitalistic group, has established a perma- 
nent foundation of 30.000,000 yen ($9,500,000) 
for peasant relief. 

Japan's ruling groups have known that they 
were sitting on a powder keg for a long time. 
While response to the gift has been generally 
friendly, ultra-radicals are proclaiming it as an 
attempt to placate the tax-ridden and resentful 



February 1, 1934 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



25 



farmer. For instance, the House of Mitsui con- 
trols a fortune exceeding $350,000,000, and that 
fortune was built up mainly by exploiting factory, 
industrial and farm workers. 

And yet, quite recently the powerful minister 
of war, Lieutenant General Araki, and the minis- 
ter of the navy, Admiral Osumi, succeeded in 
overcoming the opposition of civilian elements 
of the cabinet to a budget of $281,000,000 for 
national defense, the biggest in Japan's fiscal his- 
tory. Their arguments were that Japan is with- 
out a friend in the world and that it was neces- 
sary to match the $238,000,000 naval construction 
program of the American Government. 

The working people feel most of this money 
will come out of their pockets. Before the Man- 
churian campaign the peasant group mainly was 
inarticulate. But Japan lost heavily in men and 
money in that campaign. Recently the resurgent 
group has been augmented by the soldiery, 80 per 
cent of which comes from the peasant class. The 
"blood brotherhood" which started open war on 
capitalists was the result of that development. 

It now seems a peculiar combination of com- 
munism and nationalism that threatens the Japa- 
nese overlords. Whether they will be able to 
placate it remains to be seen. 



THE MODERN BOURBONS 



It was said of the Bourbons of France that 
they never learned anything and never forgot 
anything. The diagnosis seems, in the light of 
history, to have been a sound one. And so it is 
that when today we wish to say a man is a com- 
plete, dyed-in-the-wool, hidebound and black con- 
servative we sometimes say he is a Bourbon. And 
it would be a good idea if some of our contempo- 
rary Bourbons would read and digest the history 
of the original clan. 

None of that clan ever was able to forget he 
was a Bourbon, and hence royal by divine right. 
And none ever could learn that times change, and 
with them men's notions of what constitutes a 
square deal. 

Consequently Louis XVI lost his crown and 
his head more or less simultaneously, and after 
various interludes the Third Republic, which still 
seems to be going strong despite the fact that 
Bourbons yet live in France, became an operative 
concern. Nevertheless the Bourbons, having failed 



to learn anything in more than a century and a 
quarter, still profess to regard themselves as 
royalty. 

The Bourbons of American business and finance 
act as if they meant to force history to repeat 
itself. For the moment they are being discreetly 
quiet. But nothing can be more certain than that 
they expect to open for business as usual as soon 
as the prosperity they wrecked has been restored 
by the Roosevelt Administration. 

They do not believe there is any such thing 
as a New Deal. And so the sniping goes on con- 
tinually through various committees, associations 
and whatnot, mostly with high-sounding but 
irrelevant names. 

The people, however, believe in the New Deal. 
The battle is not over by a long shot, but it is 
safe to bet the people will win. In the long run 
they generally do. 

But that is something else the Bourbons never 
have learned. 



FINNS PAY THEIR DEBTS 



It is extremely interesting to note that of the 
eleven nations of Europe owing war debts to the 
United States, little Finland was the only one to 
discharge its complete obligation. Comparing the 
natural economic advantages of the eleven, it is 
probable that Finland is least able of all the debtor 
nations to pay and probably would have more 
excuse for defaulting than any of the others. 

The Finns as a race ofTer a splendid example 
of what may be done under adverse circumstances. 
In Finland the seasons are short. At least two- 
thirds of the country's surface is unfit for cultiva- 
tion. The soil of such parts as may be cultivated 
is thin and requires constant attention. The coun- 
try has been beset by Sweden on one side and the 
Russians on the other for centuries. 

But the Finns are a hard-working and home- 
loving race. They have set about making the best 
of their unfavorable conditions and they have suc- 
ceeded admirably by pluck and thrift. 

Spartan living has inspired a fine code of ethics 
in the Finns, a chief characteristic of which is 
their honesty. 

Unlike more favored neighbors the Finn be- 
lieves that when a debt is contracted it should 
be paid. 

Intolerance is the only sure sign of ignorance. 



26 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL February 1. 1<>34 

ABSENTEE EDITORSHIP SAFETY OF LIFE AT SEA 



Due to the fact that it was necessary to edit 
the January issue of the Journal at a distance 
of several thousand miles, a few regrettable errors 
occurred. On page 1. under the caption "Working 
Hours at Sea," the rather ridiculous assertion 
appears in print that working hours on America's 
proud old clipper ships were at least twelve in each 
forty-eight hours. Of course, this should read, "at 
least twelve in each twenty- four hours." 

On page 5, under "News and Comment," refer- 
ence is made to certain correspondence between 
the Steamboat Inspection Service and the secre- 
tary of a dual Licensed Officers Association rela- 
tive to the responsibility of licensed officers while 
on watch. According to Secretary O'Grady of 
Local No. 9 of the National Organization of 
Masters, Mates and Pilots of America, the publi- 
cation of this correspondence has given expression 
in some quarters to the belief that in some manner 
the dual association is affiliated with, or has some 
sort of recognition by the regularly organized 
unions of the American Federation of Labor. 
This is an unfounded assumption and a willful 
misconstruction of the well known fact that the 
National Organization of Masters. Mates and 
Pilots is the only union of licensed deck officers 
in the American Merchant Marine recognized and 
in good standing with the American Federation of 
Labor and its various affiliated unions. 



Senator Robert F. Wagner, chairman of the 
NRA National Labor Board, stated a profound 
truth when he said that voluntary agreements be- 
tween employers and workers are always prefer- 
able to "agreements" forced by an outside agency, 
such as the labor board. There is food for thought 
in his statement for those who have vociferously 
shouted for more forcible action by the board. 
By waiting until sober second thought has had a 
chance to function, the board has obtained more 
lasting agreements in many cases than it would 
have by compulsion. 



Weave carefully the threads of habit, lest they 
become a cable too strong to break. 



Man was given a tongue that he might say 
something pleasant to his fellow men. 



Editor, SEAMEN'S JOURNAL: 

Seamen are vitally interested in the better pro- 
tection of life on passenger vessels at sea, and 
they are still more interested in safety on cargo 
vessels. The greater number of cargo vessels at 
sea, as compared with the number of passenger 
vessels, results in their crews, together with such 
passengers as they carry, greatly outnumbering 
the total of all persons, passengers and crew on 
passenger vessels. Experience shows that the re- 
curring loss of life on and from cargo vessels 
much exceeds the loss from passenger vessels. 
A major disaster such as the loss of the Titanic 
or the loss of the Vestris, with the sacrifice of 
hundreds of lives, raises a great outcry; but it 
does not cause a measure of human suffering 
equal to that caused by the cumulative loss of life 
from cargo ships. 

Seamen may well ask what consideration has 
been given to saving lives endangered on cargo 
ships. Are these to have the advantage of modern 
methods tending to reduce the hazard at sea? 
Very fortunately the answer is yes. The cargo 
ship was considered in the 1929 international con- 
ference, and again in the 1930 conference. The 
resultant conventions do require better provision 
for safety, both for passenger vessels and for 
cargo ships. 

Radio telegraph communication, and the aids 
to navigation that it makes possible, are the latest 
major additions to our means for increasing 
safety and for reducing loss of life at sea. The 
1929 Safety Convention increases the radio re- 
quirements for cargo ships. There is a greater 
increase in the number of ship installations, and 
the number of hours of radio watch, required for 
cargo ships than there is for passenger vessels. 

Previous to the Safety Convention the greater 
number of cargo ships were not required to have 
radio telegraph installations. They are not "ves- 
sels carrying fifty or more persons, including 
passengers and crew." The Safety Convention 
requires radio installations on all cargo vessels 
of "1,600 tons gross and over." That makes a 
large addition to the cargo ships that have radio 
installations. Such ships can call for help if in 
distress. They can receive weather information. 
storm warnings, time signals, warnings of danger- 
concluded on Page 30) 



10 



February 1, 1934 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



27 



SHIPPING NEWS 



The steamer Emanuel, 180 tons, which arrived 
at Southampton recently with grain, is the first 
vessel to fly the Palestine flag for more than two 
thousand years, says the London Daily Telegraph. 

Henry H. Heimann, executive manager of the 
National Association of Credit Men, New York, 
has been named by Secretary Roper to be director 
of the Shipping Board Bureau of the Department 
of Commerce. 

Japan went from third to second place and 
gained 25 per cent over the previous quarter in 
world shipbuilding, according to statistics for the 
last quarter of 1933, compiled by Lloyd's Regis- 
ter. The United States advanced from tenth to 
ninth place, replacing Italy. 

It is understood the merger between the White 
Star and Cunard lines has actually been in effect 
since January 1, according to information brought 
to New York by the White Star liner Olympic, 
indicating White Star will be the dominating 
factor in the merger transfer of the White Star 
New York terminal to the Cunard Line's piers is 
expected toward the end of March, it was said. 

Work on the new giant Cunard liner Princess 
Elizabeth, officially listed while under construction 
as the "534," and which is to be the largest vessel 
in the world, was halted on November 10, 1931, 
because of the drop in sterling when Great Britain 
went off gold. But recent reports have indicated 
that the work would be resumed to regain for 
Britain the blue ribbon of the Atlantic. The Brit- 
ish ship will be slightly larger than the new 
French superliner Normandie. 

The Swedish Shipping Loan Fund is in the 
unusual position of having too much money. No 
less than 5,494,000 kroners is available for dis- 
tribution to shipowners, but except for applica- 
tions from small owners for loans amounting in 
all to 120,000 kroners, there are no borrowers. 
Until quite recently the fund has been fully util- 
ized, but owing to the increasing difference in the 
rate of interest on the fund and that obtainable 
on the open market, borrowers have been hasten- 
ing to repay their loans. 

At the present time there are thirteen vessels 
under construction at Swedish shipyards, aggre- 
gating 63,000 tons gross. Orders on hand total 



four cargo ships of 19,100 tons. Of the ships 
under construction or on order, five of 11,400 tons 
are for Swedish owners, nine of 58,000 tons for 
Norwegian account, two of 10,400 tons for 
French, and one of 2,300 tons for Italian account. 
All the tankers — seven in number, with an aggre- 
gate of 49,400 tons — have been ordered by Nor- 
wegian owners. In the present year thirteen ships 
of 56,160 tons have been launched from Swedish 
yards. With the exception of one small vessel, 
all of them have been launched from shipbuilding 
yards at Gothenburg. 

A special automobile elevator, the largest and 
most unusual ever projected for ship use, is being- 
built in Paris for the new French liner Norman- 
die, the 72,000-ton ship that will go into service 
in 1935, it is announced by the international di- 
vision of the Otis Elevator Company. With a lift- 
ing capacity of 11,000 pounds, the elevator will 
be by far the heaviest duty elevator ever to be 
installed in a commercial ship. In addition, it will 
have a radically new feature in a turntable that 
will permit the easy storing of automobiles in the 
hold. This turntable will be manually controlled 
and will operate on the 22-foot-long elevator plat- 
form. The automobile elevator will have a speed 
of 100 feet a minute and will have the same 
features as modern building elevators, micro self- 
leveling and automatic push-button control. 

In his annual report Secretary Swanson dis- 
cussed briefly "the activities of the Navy Depart- 
ment," and said that "details are contained in 
separate reports." The report of the Bureau of 
Navigation, prepared by Rear Admiral Upham 
and by Rear Admiral Leahy, deals at consider- 
able length with the decline of personnel in the 
service. It points out that in line and engineering- 
officers above the rank of Lieutenant Commander 
the United States has fallen behind both Great 
Britain and Japan. The Bureau of Navigation 
maintains that "it takes more time to train officers 
and men to operate ships than it does to build 
them." Our experience in the World War cer- 
tainly demonstrated that only trained and experi- 
enced men can assemble and deliver sources of 
supply, including material and equipment. 

The Swedish America Mexico Line and the 
Mexican Government have entered into a new 
contract covering the service between Vera Cruz 
and Swedish ports. It will be operative for an 
indefinite period and provides for the granting 



28 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February 1, 1034 



of a subsidy to the shipping company at the rate 
of 1,000 pesos for each round voyage, with a 
maximum of 12,000 pesos per annum. The con- 
tract follows closely upon the lines of the pre- 
vious arrangement, with the exception that calls 
at Gothenburg are no longer obligatory, and any 
Swedish port may form the terminal point. In 
addition, the voyages may now be undertaken by 
ships of 2,500 tons. The round voyage for which 
the subsidy is paid is considered as the departure 
of one ship from Vera Cruz and of another from 
a Swedish port within the same period of sixty 
days. 

David E. Skinner, whose shipyards set speed 
records for turning out ships during the Worlf 
War, died at Seattle, Washington, at the age of 
sixty-six. Living in Seattle since 1911, he held 
the presidencies of the Skinner & Eddy Shipbuild- 
ing Company, the Skinner & Eddy Corporation, 
the Metropolitan Building Company, and the 
Metropolitan Company. Born in Hillsdale, Michi- 
gan, Mr. Skinner attended the College of Abbe- 
ville in North Carolina, and later entered the 
employ of a salt merchant in Bay City, Michigan. 
In 1897 he went into business with John W. Eddy. 
Their association lasted more than a third of a 
century. They had offices at Saginaw, Michigan. 
Detroit and San Francisco. The war-time record 
of Mr. Skinner's company in launching an 8,800- 
ton ship fifty-five days after its keel was laid 
remains unbroken. 

It is understood that arrangements have been 
made for the merging of the operations of the 
International Mercantile Marine Company and 
the Munson Steamship Line. The development is 
of particular interest in that the first-named com- 
pany have recently set about disposing of their 
interests in foreign companies, the sale of seven- 
teen vessels of the Leyland fleet being a case in 
point. Another point of interest is that the 
I. M. M. act as the American agents for the 
White Star Line, and it is thought that when the 
negotiations now proceeding between the latter 
and the Cunard Line come to fruition the United 
States concern will relinquish this office and turn 
their attention in directions such as are repre- 
sented by the new merger. The aim of the com- 
bined interests will be to develop trade between 
the United States and South America and the 
\\"e>t Indies, and to offer through service facilities 
between Europe and these points. 



LABOR NEWS 



President Roosevelt a] (pointed John L. Lewis, 
president of the United Mine Workers of America, 
and F. E. Berquist of the National Recovery Ad- 
ministration, as member- of the National Bitumi- 
nous Coal Industrial Board set up to administer 
the bituminous coal code. 

Over eighty thousand (80,311) Australian 
mothers were paid 320.986 pounds (about $1,299,- 
993 at the current rate of exchange ) maternity 
benefits during the year ending June 30, 1933, 
according to the annual report of J. 1 [eathershaw, 
Commissioner of Maternity Allowance-. This is 
a vivid contrast to the backwardness of legisla- 
tion providing maternity allowance- in the United 
States. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Stephen L'Hommedieu Slo- 
cum, U. S. A., who died at Washington. D. C, 
recently, left an estate approximating $2,819,488, 
according to petition for probate of his will bled 
in the District Supreme Court. The District of 
Columbia has no inheritance tax. a measure advo- 
cated by the American Federation of Labor a- a 
method of redistributing large fortune-. Con- 
sequently the heirs of Lieutenant Slocum will 
receive the entire amount. 

Malcolm Muir. Division Administrator of the 
National Recovery Act. expressed the opinion that 
tw<> large classes of persons will be disappointed 
in 1934. The first of these is composed of those 
who expect a miraculous return to prosperity, the 
second, of those who prophesy disaster to the 
recovery program. Common sense says that Mr. 
Muir is right. A depression which has lasted as 
long as the one which began in 1929 cannot be 
overcome in a few months. It will be a long, hard 
fight, but the upward march has begun and with 
the help of every American, recovery will be 
achieved and further disaster avoided. 

Berlin has 328,330 more women than men, ac- 
cording to the census that has just been taken. 
The total population of the capital in Germany 
is now 4,202,050. This compares with 3,931,071 
eight years ago, when the last national count took 
place. In the last two and one-half months, it is 
estimated, Berlin has lost in all 21,607 inhabi- 
tants. Most of these left because business has 
been bad, in consequence of the general economic 



12 



February 1, 1934 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



29 



conditions. Others may have gone because of 
political changes. Many are expected to return as 
soon as business conditions improve. The exodus 
so far has been chiefly to country districts, where 
living is cheaper than in the towns. 

Success, long withheld, came to the advocates 
of old-age pensions in Ohio recently, when the 
citizens of the state gave to the bill submitted to 
the electorate by referendum petition the greatest 
majority of any proposition voted upon, and it 
became a law by their direct votes. Eighty-four 
counties gave the proposition majorities, and four 
counties gave majorities against it. These coun- 
ties and the majorities against the proposed law 
in each were: Ashland, 148; Fulton, 516; Mor- 
gan, 82, and Morrow 281. A change of 515 votes 
in all these counties would have made it possible 
for the Old-Age Pension Bill to have carried 
every county in the state. 

Everything possible is being done for the men 
dismissed from the immigration and naturaliza- 
tion services as a result of their merger. Daniel 
W. MacCormack, Commissioner General, pointed 
out that he had arranged for publication in a 
banking magazine with nation-wide circulation of 
an advertisement citing the qualifications of the 
dismissed men for service as bank guards and 
messengers, and his representative said this had 
been accomplished through the influence of Secre- 
tary Morgenthau. His representative said also 
that about fifty had received jobs from an insur- 
ance company. He said a total of about four hun- 
dred had been dismissed from the services. 

How far the present Reichstag comes from 
representing the great mass of the German people 
is shown by an analysis made in Germany for the 
Transatlantic News Service, an anti-Nazi news 
agency. Only seventeen of the 661 members of 
the Reichstag, chosen by the Nazi-dominated 
"election" of November 12 and adjourned sine die 
on December 12, after a session of seven and a 
half minutes, are workers or former workers, 
.according to the analysis. On the other hand, 
there are more than one hundred members of the 
landed aristocracy in the all-Hitler Parliament, 
sixty noblemen, twenty-five big industrialists, and 
about thirty former high officers in the Kaiser's 
army. Most of the rest represent the middle class. 
There are no women or Jews in the Nazi Reich- 
stag. These figures tell the story of the elements 
behind the Nazi dictatorship. 



With the Eighteenth Amendment out of the 
Constitution, the revenue from liquor of various 
kinds may amount to about $600,000,000 or 
$700,000,000, and if there is a revival of business, 
returns from other taxes will soar. Already there 
is a demand that the tax on incomes be reduced. 
Of course the "big fellows" are doing most of 
the complaining. Their attention should be called 
to the following figures taken from the bulletin 
issued by the Chase National Bank in New York : 
An individual with an income of $50,000 pays a 
tax of $8,568 in this country. If he lived in Brit- 
ain he would pay $22,392, and if he were a resi- 
dent of France the government would take $18,- 
578. The individual fortunate enough to have an 
income of $100,000 pays $30,068 in this country, 
$52,492 in England, and $40,240 in France. In 
addition, England and France do not tolerate the 
flagrant evasions to which Mr. Morgan and other 
financiers recently confessed. 

The highest high flying is not done by pilots in 
airplanes, but by promoters of aviation companies 
who have an inside track to the United States 
Treasury. Senator Hugo L. Black (Democrat, 
Alabama) made that clear at the senatorial in- 
vestigation of air mail contracts. The profits of 
these promoters run into astronomical figures. 
They make Aladdin's lamp seem commonplace. 
Charles W. Deeds, only thirty-one years old now, 
told how he "invested" $40 in airplane stock in 
1926, and how it was worth more than $5,000,000 
a few years later. Fred B. Rentschler, brother 
of Gordon Rentschler of New York's National 
City Bank, put $253 into the same stock, and his 
paper profit in 1929 was $35,575,848